Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals New 1 43 Ignition Model Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-EL (C211) White 0326,.NOREV 2015 MERCEDES BENZ S CLASS COUPE GREEN 1 18 Dealer Edition Last Pcs Left ,.Brand Gt-R 1 43 Scale Car,.1 18 Hot Wheels Subaru World Rally Team Solberg RARITÄT §,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.1 43 True Scale Models TSM Chaparral 2D & 2E Signature Series Jim Hall TSM11SS2,.PTH Western Models 16P 1996 Dodge Viper GTS Indianapolis Pace Car White Metal,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Maserati Sebring II Metallic Dark Red 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 Lame Sp No.11 Cgoldna Ht 2000gt 1982 Model Year,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Norev 1 18 Scale 183467 - 1986 Mercedes Benz 300 SL - Metallic Red,.Tamiya Masterwork Collection No. 157 1 24 NSX Red Completed 21157 Finished Model,.Dinky Toy No 182 is the model of the Porsche 356A coupe Cream spun hubs VNMB, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Dodge Polara Sedan, California Highway Patrol, 1 43, Neo,.Technofix Rennbahn Nr. 269 mit 2 Autos Uhrwerk 50er Jahre sehr selten Top,.Minichamps Brabus 850 S63 Brown Mini Champs,.1958 Ford Fairlane 500 congreenible RED 1 18 SunStar 5262,.
2017 Audi A4L TFSI Sline Dark Brown 1 18 Dealer Edition FAW1005BR,.1 18 Autoart - 81541 Mclaren P1 GTR (Gloss White Red Stripes) 2015,.Porsche 968 Turbo S, yellow, 1 43, Neo,.1 18 Highway 61 Plymouth Cuda 340 Green -,.Bmw M3 E46 Cabriolet - Kyosho - 1 18 blue - Très Rare ,.
Jaguar F-Type 2015 R Polaris White 1 18 AUTOart,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Porsche 911 991 GT2 RS 2017 - Spark 1 43 in Box 35919,.MINICHAMPS Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2.7 1972 (white w bluee) 107065020,.PORSCHE 911 RUF CTR 2 SPORT 1995 - 1997 yellow 1 18 GT SPIRIT GT141 NEU,Schuco 1 18 Volkswagen Beetle Motorhome Yellow 450011300,.LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR LP 750-4 SUPERVELOCE NUOVO yellow ORION Looksmart LS447B,.
Tekno Denmark No 726 Mercedes Benz 220 SE In Its Original Box - Rare Model,.Porsche 804 F1 Joakim Bonnier Formula 1 GP Nürburgring 1962 AutoArt 86274,.Matchbox Regular Wheel Nr. 5B London Bus rare BP visco-static Beschriftung,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
AUT0181 by AUTOCULT MINI VISITANTE DE DISCOTECAS INMUEBLES HL 1 18,.
Bmw 1800 Ti 1965 Red Minichamps 1 18 107024001 Model,. We agree in part.
Mercedes Maybach G Class G650 Landaulet 1 18 GT Spirit Kyosho GTS022KJ,.Hobby Japan Hj1808My Mini Car 1 18 Infinite S660 Carnival Yellow Ii Finished New,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Used Dinkum Classics 1 43 Larry Perkins 1992 ATCC Holden VL Walkinshaw Castrol,.Norev Porsche 911 RSR 2.1 Turbo T Practice 1000km Spa LE 1000pcs 1 18New ,.2015 Ferrari F70 LaFerrari black 1 18 Hot Wheels Elite BCT80,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale Model Car GC43C - 1935 Jaguar SS Airline - Cream,.Bentley Continental Gt 2008 Minichamps 1 18 100139620 Model Diecast,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, WSI04-2052 - Camion 8x4 MERCEDES Arocs et plateau 6 essieux goldhofer aux couleu,; Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 836691 - Porsche 956K 200 Von Nurnberg 1983,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
MATCHBOX CADILLAC SIXTY SEDAN - NO RED IN TAIL LIGHTS NIB - VERY RARE CAR ,.1 43 DIP Models Century Dragon russian soviet government limo ZIS 110 CCCP USSR,OttO mobile OT 578 Renault Saviem Sb2 Assitance Alpine 1 18 OVP,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Bentley Gt3-r White 1 18 Model ALMOST REAL,.
DINKY TOYS 667 MISSILE SERVICING PLATFORM VEHICLE, NEAR MINT IN GOOD BOX,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Techno Volkswagen 819 White Minicar,.SUPER ELITE FERRARI FF 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY HOTWHEELS X5490,.MODELLINO BMW 1ER M COUPE’ 2011 blueE METALLIC IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 18 Minichamps Porsche 906E 1967 Monza Siffert Spoerry Steinemann Vogele,; Rai S Nissan Cedric 1999 Kanagawa Prefecture Police Highway Interchange 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Vintage - PEUGEOT 204 - 1 43 Dinky toys 510 Mint box,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Mercedes Benz Gts Amg (C190) 2015 Brilliant bluee Met Norev 1 18 B66962169 Model,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
1957 Ford Taunus 17M P2 Red White by BoS Models LE of 504 1 18 New Release ,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
1 18 AUTOart - PORSCHE 993 RWB (blueE GUNGREY WHEELS),
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Busch BOS124 MERCEDES 300B PININFARINA 1955 BEIGE DARK BROWN 1 18 Modellino,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 100666149 - Porsche 906K - Sebring '66 Vogel Siffert,.Fiat X1 9 Yellow 1974 1 18,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1 18 Holden Coupe Concept Car (Metallic gold) Auto Art 73432,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 125 Belgian GP Peter Whitehead,.
DANBURY MINT 1957 CHEVY BEL AIR NOMAD..1 24..NOS..UNDISPLAYED..DOCS..PRISTINE,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - X5486 Ferrari 458 Challenge,.UT MODELS 20473 BMW M3 CABRIOLET E36 - YELLOW 1 18 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.Action Performance Opel V8 Coupè T. Schneider DTM (2000) 18 OVP ,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.BMW E30 M3 OTTO 1.18TH,.
BBR Premium Series 1 43 Ferrari Portofino red Portofino Modellino,.Acme 1 18 Scale Diecast - A1801210 1972 Pontiac Le Mans GTO Red,.Dublo Dinky Toys; 064; Austin Lorry; Original Box,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Porsche 356a Cabriolet 1955 Red 1 18 Model 0313 SCHUCO,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.MIN510981893A by MINICHAMPS ferrari F310B 1998 launch Version Marlbgold 1 18,.AC Cobra 427 s c 1;18 model, by Kyosho. Limited Edition No.7006.,.Tekno 54999 DAF 105xf Ssc 6x2 Szm with 1 50,.Revell 10545 Nascar Tony Stewart (orange) 1 18 OVP ,.Road King Scania LBT 141 1976 ASG Green White Re 1 18 180012,.
BBR Ferrari 488 GT3 1 43 BBRC180RS - limited 24 pcs , the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Mad Max Last of the V8 Interceptors 1 24 Scale Diecast Model Rare DDA Limted...,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 8043144059 BMW Z4 Roadster Metallic grey Dealer box,. The PartridgeWill Davison 1 18 VE Holden Commodore 2009 HRT Signed 18381 Classic Carlectable,.Hobby Japan Mark43 1 43 Daihatsu Copen Robe Pearl White Iii Resin Model Pm4355w,.Racing 43 1 43 Scale Resin - EL069 Ferrari 550 Maranello Red Bull bluee,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM35 - 1956 Singer Hunter 1 Of 500 White, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.KK Conrad 2093 Demag AC 40 AUTOKRAN Megalift 1 50 NEU mit OVP KK,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Original Owner Vintage Batmobile BatBoat and Trailer Corgi Toys Batman Bat Boat,.Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 Standard Version (1973) Diecast Model Car 78057,PartridgeFRANKLIN MINT 1953 WHITE CADILLAC ELDORADO CONgreenIBLE New IN THE BOX,.UT MODELS 24302 BMW 318 is 318is E36 - RED 1 18 VERY RARE - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, New 1 43 Ignition Model Honda Civic N1 0453, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Oldsmobile 442 W30 1970 Matador Red Model Car 1 18 Acme,; BOXED 1 43 SCALE ELIGOR COCA COLA COKE SCANIA & TRAILER SUPER RARE,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, JAMES BOND ULTIMATE CAR COLLECTION FROM DR NO TO DIE ANOTHER DAY, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Ferrari Gtc4 Lusso T 2017 grey Canna Di Fucile Grey Met BBR 1 43 BBRC191A, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCorgi 1 50 Scale CC12007 - Man King Trailer & Reel Load - Morris Leslie,.
1 43 BBR C208G Ferrari J50 2016 red Angelo only 60 pcs,.ORIGINAL Hot Wheels Redline - orange Vega Bomb Funny Car - Metal Base Hong Kong, Clarke's negligent act.Dinky Maserati Sport 2000 (No 22A),.Tekno 68078 - SCANIA R Topline 6x2 Prime Mover Bohlins Transport AB - Scale 1 50,.Tekno Denmark 415 Ford Taunus Transit V&D very scarce Dutch model rare,.
AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Gallardo LP 550-2 Valentino Balbooni Yellow New,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 Honda Civic Type R año 2015 Kyosho KSR18022W White,1 18 Road Kings Scania LBT 141 ASG 1976 bluee yellow,. In Noska,Dinky Toys England - 162 - Ford Zephyr Saloon - 1 43e,.Gmts - golden Oldies Linie 50 4724 Scania 140mit Hist. Refrigerated Semitrailers,.1 50 Terex AT-20 Franna Crane - Andrews Crane Hire,.Matchbox series A Lesney Product N° 1 - Road Roller with original rare box, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.VINTAGE CORGI NODDY AND FRIENDS 804 1st,VERSION OF THE RED AND YELLOW CAR BOXED,.DV6934 ELIGOR 1 43 MERCEDES ACTROS MP2 CONTAINER BREGER 113036 HORS COMMERCE,.Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM5 - Austin Hereford Congreenible Open - Light bluee,.Schuco 450004500 Mercedes-Benz 170V Werbewagen Schuco Studio 1 18 NEU OVP,. Id., p 923.
TOGI 9 68 ALFA ROMEO SPIDER DUETTO 1600 - RED 1 23 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 GT Spirit BMW M1 Coupe in Frozen Grey red Leather Base GT709,Opel Rekord C Saloon 1966 Light bluee Minichamps 1 18 107047002,.BUGATTI TYPE 55 OUgreenE 1932 PANTHEON 1 18 exclusivité BOBOLIDE.COM PANTHEON001B,.Mercedes L3500 Dl17 1950 Pompieri Feuerwehr Bensheim MINICHAMPS 1 43 439350080 M,.Wiking 1 40 Volkswagen VW Käfer 1200 Typ 3 azurblue,.1941 Cadillac Fleetwood 75 Touring Sedan Resin 1 18 Sale by BoS Models,.1 18 BBR Maserati MC12 Zhuhai GT FIA 2004 Limited,.REI SCHUCO BRAZIL blueE VW PASSAT LS B926,. The parties New 1 18 Dealer Edition McLaren P1 (orange) Fully Open Car Model Fast Shipping ,.
Ferrari 599 Gto 2010 Red Yellow BBR 1 43 BBRC35B1 Model,.NICE LARGE VINTAGE KINGSBURY MECHANICAL HAND WIND SAND and GRAVEL LOADER,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 R 24h Nürburgring 2018 Winner Manthey Grello Spark 1 18,; 1967 Fiat Dino Coupe 2000 Red by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 Scale Rare, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155 828601 Ford Capri 3.0S Gilden Kolsch 1982,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1939 Mercedes-Benz T80 Recordwagen silver 1 18 BoS-Models 202,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 18 Carousel1 Aar Eagle 1974 Indianopolis 500 Pancho Carter Rarity,.Norev 1 18 Scale Diecast - 183224 BMW M1 1980 bluee,.Bentley Bentayga 2017 orange Diecast Dealer 1 18 Kyosho,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,CMR 1 18 Scale - CMR044 Porsche 917 LH Le Mans 1971 Siffert Bell,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Lamborghini Huracan Super Trofeo 2015 White, Model Car 1 18 Autoart,.Dinky 176 Austin A105 Saloon In Its Original Box - Near Mint Vintage Original,.1 18 Kyosho Nissan Fairlady Z (300ZX) Z32 Version R 2by2 (Yellow) Limited 700pcs,.Shelby GT500 1969, bluee gold, ERTL American Muscle 33962, 1 18, Rare Model,.1 18 GT Spirit Lamborghini Countach Koenig in Yellow on Leather Base KJ010,. The ScottsdaleAutoart Honda NSX Japanese Police Car,Bburago Special Edition Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Touring 1 18 bluee Star (JS),.Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse E60 AMG W124 Limousine Arktik Weiss 1984-1997 1 18 Otto..,. Id.,Aston Martin Db11 Sunburst 1 yellow 18 Scala Reale,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Gmts - golden Oldies Linie 50 4960 Magirus Jupiter, Camion 7 T Gl 6x6 1 ,; Conrad 78179 MB Arocs Langholzlader Doll Langholzzug 1 50 NEU in OVP,2006 Corvette Indy Pace Car Diecast Model,.Chrysler Imperial Le Baron 1975 BoS Models 1 18 BOS141 Miniature,. The ScottsdaleBrooklin Models CSV.16 1960 Miller-Meteor Cadillac Guardian Ambulance 1 43,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, WSI 02-1815 Gordon Gilder Scania R6 Topline + 4 Axle Broshuis Semi Low Loader,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; WESTERN MODELS CA 5A - CONVAIR 440 METROPOLITAN SWISSAIR - HB-IMF,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Lexus Lc500 2016 Yellow Met AUTOART 1 18 AA78847 Model,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Otto 1 18 Scale resin - OT155 Volkswagen Beetle 1200 Oettinger Grey Model Car,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, CAT CATERPILLAR 24 MOTOR GRADER W OPERATOR 1 50 MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 85552,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Minichamps 1 18 scale 150 111504 Citroen 2CV 1976 orange, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Corgi Citroen DS Tour de France, Superb in Mint Original Window Display Box, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Looksmart 1 18 Scuderia Ferrari SF70H - 2017 Australian F1 GP Winner - Vettel,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeOTTO Mobile Mercedes Benz E60 AMG (W124) Arctic White 1 18 B6604,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Drake ZT09149 Maxitrans Freighter Trailer & Dolly Road Train Burgundy 1 50,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDV8352 ELIGOR 1 43 RENAULT PREMIUM SEMI CITERNE CHROMEE GEODIS BM Ref 112937,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Lamborghini Huracan GT3 2015 green metallic Modellauto 1 18 Autoart,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1 43 Mercedes Benz O302 Autobus 1965 Cream bluee 439035181 Minichamps,CORGI & BOND 40th ANNIVERSARY DB5 & VANQUISH SET,.Samurai 1 18 Nissan Fairlady Z 2by 2 Twin Turbo Z 32 Yellow Finished Item F S,.Schuco Volkswagen VW Kafer Jolly Green 1 18 450008000,. The HuygheHot wheels Legends scale model car of The 1969 Twin Mill hot rod, boxed,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheACTION 1 18 - AC8 008906 FORD FOCUS WRC MONTE CARLO RALLYE 2000 - SAINZ MOYA,.
Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast - W1118 Ferrari FF Metallic bluee,.Vintage Matchbox Lesney Grey Wheels Jaguar 3.4 Litre in BOX,.
Original Mercedes-Maybach S650 Cabriolet Designo Zirkonred 1 18 Norev,.Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse C124 300CE AMG Coupe Weiss 1984-1997 1 18 Otto Modell A..,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Frontiart AvanStyle 1 18 Aston Martin Vulcan Pearl orange AS014-34,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMINICHAMPS 37070 MERCEDES AMBULANCE AACHEN - PROMO 1 43 RARE - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.963 ROAD GRADER VN MIB,.
For example, in Partridge,Masterpiece Models 1 43 Scale Model Car MP01 - Hillman Husky - Grey,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 18 AutoArt - 1991 Bathurst Winner 1000 - Nissan GTR R32 - Richard Skaife NEW,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Mercedes C-Class DTM, Imatra, 1 43, Minichamps,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,ACME 1970 Plymouth Barracuda AAR - Vitamin C orange 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast 155 742681 - BMW 3.0 CSL - 4H Monza 1974,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Matchbox Superfast No 53 Tanzara Streakers orange 5 SPOKE Front Wheels EXIB RARE,. Detroit Edison, supra.
1 18 Autoart Nissan Gt-R Nismo Gt3 (Dark Matt Grey) 2015 (Composite Model 2,.VW VOLKSWAGEN T2B CURRY WURST MIT JAHRBUCH 2016 1 43 AUTOCULT 99116E N,.PMS Edition 2015 Jägermeister komplett wie neu Wiking 202790 1 87 OVP [FO],.
Aston Martin V12 Vantage S 2015 yellow Autoart 1 18 NEU OVP,.