1963 Ferrari 250 GT Drogo h h h LeMans Test in 1 18 scale by CMR 82af99

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1963 Ferrari 250 GT Drogo h h h LeMans Test in 1 18 scale by  CMR 82af99
1 18 GT Spirit Mercedes Benz AMG SL 63 Facelift R 231 White Dealer,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals DINKY TOYS France No. 528 Peugeot 404 Cabriolet Pininfarina + orginal Box ,.MINICHAMPS Cadillac Cyclone XP 74 MC-107148221,.1986 Chevrolet Corvette RED 1 18 AUTOart 71241,.USK Scale Models USK31006 MIETITREBBIA DEUTZ 9206 HARVESTER 1 32 Modellino,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Chrysler 300H Hardtop Red 1962 BOS MODEL 1 18 BOS311,.Alfa Romeo 4C Spider 2015 Competition Red Met AUTOART 1 18 AA70142 Model,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Volkswagen VW T1b Trasportatore Messerschmitt green 1 18 Schuco,.AUTOART 2006 Porsche 911 (997) GT3 CUP Porsche Engineering VIP 1 18New ,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.WSI DAF XF DRAW BAR SCALE 150,.MATCHBOX 900 TP-21 DATSUN 260Z REMORQUE MOTO MOTORCYCLE TRAILER MIB NEUF,.Ixo model GT196 BRABUS 850 SOLAR BEAM 1 18 Modellino, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Matchbox Lesney Moko Rare Apple Green Hillman Minx Diecast Car,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - CMC96 Batman Returns Batmobile,.Autoart 1 18 1986 Chevrolet Corvette Scale Car,.M0855 Polistil F1 1 55 - Tyrrell RACING color Arancio - in blister- RARA,.

Porsche 911 RSR 24h Le Mans 2016 Al Qubaisi Long Hansson - 1 43 Spark 5142,.Jaguar D Type LeMans - Solido 100 France 1 43 in Box 36194,.Autoart Porsche 911 (997) GT2 RS - Red 1 18 77964,.Nico Rosberg World Champion 2016 Mercedes F1 W Figurine by Minichamps in 1 18,.Ignition Model 1 43 Porsche 962C Omuron Jspc 1989 55 V. Schppan Ig0512 Japan New,.

ARE318-24 LANCIA STRATOS TURBO TDF 73 HOCICO CORTO KIT DE MONTAJE - 1 24,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Brand Esso Chaser Ignition Model,.Corgi 238 Jaguar Mark X In Excellent Near Mint Condition,.AM43F58 FERRARI 250 MM RENO ROAD HERRINGBONE 1953,Pedal car Made by Dexton,.Danhausen AMR 1 43 Ferrari 250 GT Coupe Pininfarina 58 red Handmade OVP,.

Kings Models 1 43 1957 Ferrari 375 Dunedin Road Race Ron Roycroft,.(gol) 1 18 GT Spirit BMW M3 NIP,.WSI 01-1574 Verbeek Scania R6 Topline Box Flower Combi,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Durham 1 43 Scale DUR 9 - 1934 Chrysler Airflow California Highway Patrol Car,.

1 18 ERTL & SUPERCAR COLLECTIBLES '69 YENKO CAMARO AS SEEN IN FAST & FURIOUS,. We agree in part.

77416 AUTOart 1 18 Nissan Skyline GT-R R32 V-Spec II Tune Version White,.RARE Lancia Stratos HF Red D56 Diecast Car 1 64 Zee Toys Zylmex 1970s Dynawheels,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.GT Spirit 1 12 Scale Resin - GT078 Porsche 918 Spyder Weissach White,.Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale 5918 - Austin 7 Van - Green,.Dinky 135 Triumph 2000 In Its Original Box - Very Near Mint Original Model,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 18 Minichamps 100798600 Ford Capri Turbo Size 5 Red Limited Edition 504 Pcs,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.25b COVERED WAGON ( GREY VERSION ),. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Porsche 918 Spyder Limited Edition Model Maßstab 1 43, Briefbeschwerer ALU,; 81341 AUTOart 1 18 Mclaren MP4-12C GT3 White,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC18 - 1950 Ford Zephyr Congreenible - Green,.VINTAGE - MERCURY Nr. 216 Lambretta MOTOCARRO - 50er Jahre RAR,AUTOart Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS 2016 White 1 18 78166,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK26 001B - 1955 Chevrolet Nomad CTCS Special 1 Of 375,.

AUTOart 81360 Lamborghini Gallardo GT3 FL2,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Ferrari Sa Aperta 2010 Spider Yellow Tristrato Met BBR 1 43 BBRC49C,.1995 Batmobile Batman Forever black Mate 1 18 Hot Wheels Elite BCJ98,.SCHUCO 1 10 BMW R1200GS MOTORCYCLE DIE CAST MODEL,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Dinky Toys F n° 32AB Panhard semi-remorque SNCF en boîte,; 1 18 AUTOart Benz CL63 AMG Die Cast Model RARE,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 18 AUTOART BMW E30 M3 DTM 1991 Tic Tac Berg,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Ferrari F60 America Spider 2014 60Th Anniversary Usa bluee Nart BBR 1 43 BBRC182,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

RAE Models 1 43 Scale Model Car KE003C - 1930 MG M Type - Red,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

DV8029 ELIGOR 1 43 SEMI RENAULT PREMIUM 420 DCI FRIGO TRANSPORTS FRIGETRANS RARE,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

AUTOART 1 18 NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R (R32) V-SPEC II TUNED VERSION (blueE) 77415,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.BMW 5er M5 E28 Limousine black 1981-1987 Nr 184 1 18 Otto Modell Auto mit od..,.McLaren 570s Avus White With Red Stripe And Red Insert 2015 1 43 Model,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Mercedes 190e 2.0 Arctic White 1 43 Diecast Model Car Autoart Japan new,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Exoto 1 18 Scale Lotus Ford 49 Jo Siffert 1968 Spanish F1 Grand Prix 97004,.

CORGI BATTERY OPERATED MODEL No.1001 HCB ANGUS FIRESTREAK VN MIB,.1 18 GT Spirit GT077 Bentley Continental GT V8 S (Limited Edition 1500 pcs),.ACME Models 1 18 Scale A1801819 - Sam Posey Boss Trans Am Mustang,.Kool Toyz Target Hot Wheels Power Launcher 67 Camaro Purple Rare,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Norev 1 18 Diecast 183496 - 2015 Mercedes Benz AMG GT - Red,.

1 18 Guiloy Hispano Suiza HS21 GTS,.DINKY SUPERTOY Meccano England original GUY VAN EVER READY BATTERIES' 1955,.Norev 1 18 Scale 183457 - 1976 Mercedes Benz 450 SEL 6.9 - Met Grey bluee,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Western Models Plumbies, Mercedes-Benz Type 500 K 1934 1 43 mint in box,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 18 Scale CMF Ferrari 857 S Andy Warhol 1955 Limited Edition 100 Pcs.,.Autoart Nissan Skyline GT R R32 Wangan Midnight Reina 1 18 77411 Grey Metallic,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 119A - Saab 92 Rally,.Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast CC99147 - DAF H.E. Payne Transport Ltd Set,.BBR Alfa Romeo 6c 2500 GT Touring BBR-BLM1807B,.

DINKY 500 011500 CITROEN 2CV AZA 1966 MIB 9 EN BOITE L@@K, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.DINKY 425 BEDFORD TK COAL LORRY,.Imperial Crown 4-Door Southampton 1962 BoS Models 1 18 BOS290,. The Partridge1957 Land Rover Series I 88 - Soft-Top in 1 43 Scale by TSM,.Scania LBT 141 1976 blue white Modellauto 1 18 Road Kings,.(V) MAKS Hong Kong Plastic friction drive MORRIS 1100,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, MATCHBOX MB38 - FORD MODEL A VAN - 1990 MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL COMPLETE SET OF 26, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Unbranded 1 43 Scale Built Model Car Kit 16718H - MG Sports Car - Green,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.DINKY 358 U.S.S ENTERPRISE STAR TREK,.Hot wheels vintage redlines With Carry Case,PartridgeBburago Fiat Ritmo Abarth 1979 Modellino Auto Die Cast 1 43 Made in 4168,.Pathfinder Vanguard 1 43 Scale VAN5 - Morris J Type Van 1 Of 100 Red Hull Mail,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Greenlight 1 18 Scale Model Car 19028 - 1970 Dodge Charger 500 - orange, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 18 PORSCHE 934 LEMANS BURTON Top Speed SEE INFO IN BOX,; 1 18 Apex - 2014 HSV VF Maloo R8 - Sting Red l.e. 528 made,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Busch BL843 BENTLEY MULSANNE 2010 BRODAGAR GREY MINICHAMPS 1 18 Modellino, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, AUTOART 75403 HENNESSEY VENOM GT SPYDER, RED 1 18TH SCALE, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeNISSAN SKYLINE GT-R (KPGC10) 1971 TAKAHASHI 6 JAPAN GP WINNER 1 18 AUTOART 87176,.

Schuco VW Beetle congreenible basket 1 43 450889500,.KYOSHO NISSAN Skyline GT-R NO2 1992 Red Biante Model Car 1 43 F S from Japan, Clarke's negligent act.DINKY TOYS. 164. VAUXHALL CRESTA. MINT. Model,.Corgi Toys 230 Mercedes-Benz 220 SE Coupè VP unbespielt Rarität ,.JOAL 107 Mercedes Benz 300 SL metallic bluee perfect mint in box,.

CONQUEST MODELS IMPERIAL CROWN 1957 - RED MET 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 6,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, AA88401 by AUTOART AUDI QUATTRO SAFARI RALLY 1984 H. MIKKOLA 1 18,AUTOart BMW 320Si WTCC 2006 Team Germany 18 80647,. In Noska,BOS MODEL BOS124 MERCEDES 300B PININFARINA 1955 BEIGE DARK BROWN 1 18,.1 18 Autoart Mercedes-Benz C-Class Limousine Elegance 2007 White,.BUS SAVIEM SC1 MUSEE AIR FRANCE LES INVALIDES NOREV 521007 1 43,.71147 AUTOart 1 18 Chevrolet Corvette 1958 White, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.JAGUAR E TYPE CABRIOLET DARK blueE 1 12 GT SPIRIT GT219,.1955 CHEVROLET BEL AIR gold LE 1576 9900 FRANKLIN MINT 1 24 DIECAST & BOX,.Rialto Models 1 43 Scale Resin RL7219 - 1952 MGTD Bertone - Green,.GMP 1970 Plymouth Roadrunner GTX 1 18 Scale,. Id., p 923.

HONDA NSX Type-S (RED) 1 18 Scale by Kyosho No.08081R,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 GT Spirit BMW M1 Coupe in Frozen Grey red Leather Base GT709,1 18 SPARK F1 MAX VERSTAPPEN RB13 WINNER MALAYSIAN 2017 GP RED BULL RACING,.Porsche 993 RWB black matt Autoart 1 18 NEU OVP,.Nissan Juke R 2.0 2016 Red 1 18 Model 77457 AUTOART,.Maxwell Toys (India) 1 25 Eicher Goodearth Tractor No.599 1970s BOXED ,.Mercedes-Benz Strich 8 Coupé 1973 Red 1 18,.ACME GMP 1 18 1934 Blown Altered Coupe Raw Steel LTD 18880 New,.Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM25 - 1948 Morris Eight Series E 1 Of 600 -Maroon,. The parties RARE NICE 1960s Tonka Pressed Steel orange Allied Tractor Trailer Toy ZI-1,.

OM CL 51  Leoncino Carabinieri di Italia 43,.DDA 2 Car Combo - 1 18 1970 Chrysler Valiant VG - White & 1970 VG Valiant - Red,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Vintage - Aston Martin 3L Dbr I - 1 43 Solido Ref. 107 Serie 100,; SCG 003C - 24h Nürburgring 2017 - Westphal Mailleux Simonsen - 1 43 Spark SG 334, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Kings Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 500 F2 Avusrennen GP Kurt Adolff,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Carousel 1 1 18 Scale diecast - 4802 McLaren M16 Indianapolis 500 Hobbs,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Cult Models 1938 Alfa Romeo 6C 2500S BERLINETTA TOURING Dark Red 1 18 Scale New ,.1 18 Road Signature Alfa Romeo 1965 Giulia Sprint GTA red - RARITÄT §,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK26A 006 - 1955 Chevrolet Nomad WMTC Special 1 Of 300,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,AUTOart Rarität Audi quattro Safari rallye 1984 H. Mikkola 18, OVP, K018,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz. WT-372004A - Waltersons German Heavy PzKpfw Tiger (Ausf. E) - 1 24,.Toyota 86 Gt Rhd Asian Version grey Autoart 1 18 Aa78772 Modellino Diecast,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 110 067120 Porsche 911 Turbo S 2016 orange,.Samurai 1 18 Subaru BRZ yellow edition finished product JP,.1 18 AUTOart Chrysler Charger E49 red - RARITÄT§,. The ScottsdaleAUTOart™ PERFORMANCE 77841 1 18 PORSCHE 911 GT2 2002 BRANDNEW OVP ,Antigua miniatura 1 43 Scale Carr PR108 Peugeot 203 Taxi de Madrid.,.Corgi Toys 223 Chevrolet State Patrol very near mint in box,. Id.,Vw T2 Minibus Currywurst England 2016 + Book Autocult 1 43 ATC99116,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Bradford Exchange Dale Earnhardt Sr A Tribute To A Racing Legend Car H347,; Alfa Romeo Alfetta 1.8 Carabinieri 1973 1 18,Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes AMG W07 Hybrid 2016 Constructor World Champ 2 Car Set,.AUTOart 74651 - 1 18 Signature Lamborghini Countach LP500 S Walter Wolf Edition,. The ScottsdalePAUDI MODEL PD2382W JEEP RENEGADE 2016 WHITE 1 18,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, French Dinky Toys 557 Citroen Ami ‘6’ Type 1,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; WOW EXTREMELY RARE Porsche 980 Carrera GT Targa H.Top 2004 Red 1 18 Minichamps,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Pontiac Lemans Gto 1972 Red Model Car 1 18 Acme,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, LESNEY MATCHBOX 1-75 11B ESSO PETROL TANKER (GPW) - NR MINT in original C BOX,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Mercedes AMG GT S (C190) Laureus sport per Good Norev 1 18 B66960614 Miniature,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK183X - 1955 Chrysler Windsor Congreenible Coupe, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, NEW 1 43 scale TOYOTA GAZOO Racing TS050 Hybrid No. 8 car Rally Racer Japan, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Lancia Delta S4 Grey 1 18 AUTOart,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMINICHAMPS L&M Porsche 917 10 Can Am Champ 1 181 18,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, TOYOTA Celica 4WD Turbo Rallye San Remo 1994 Auriol DIRTY Top Marques 1 18,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuyghePorsche 911 Carrera RSR Daytona 1973 P. Gregg 1 18 GT Spirit gt728 NEW,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Vintage Corgi Toys James Bond Toyota 2000 GT; No 336; Original Box,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,^^^ MATCHBOX YESTERYEAR M13 9TH MICA CONVENTION 2001 MAASTRICHT MIB 67 200 RARE,Bentley Continental Gt Coupe Lhd 2016 Burgundy Met PARAGON 1 18 PAR98221L,.MODELLINO 1 18 PORSCHE CAYMAN 2012 GIALLA IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Autoart 1 18 Lamborghini Aventador S bluee Nila Pearl bluee 79134,. The HuygheChrysler Dual Ghia L 6.4 Coupe Resin Model in 1 18 Scale by BoS Models,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheKings Models 1 43 1948 Ferrari 166 SC Gabriele Besana GP San Martin,.

1 18 NOREV PORSCHE 911 997 2 TURBO DARK blueE MINT+ BOXED 1 18 LIMITED EDITION,.1 18 Nissan GT-R R35 año 2017 Kyosho KSR18020W White,.

FERRARI 612 SCAGLIETTI 60ème ANNIVERSAIRE LOOKSMART LS296 1 43,.1 18 AUTOart NISSAN GT-R NISMO LM 2015 TEST CAR (COMPOSITE MODEL 2 OPENINGS),. Nonetheless, on the facts of Dinky Guy Van (Spratts) - Red Cream - C C,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSchuco 09015 - OPEL Blitz Renntransporter PORSCHE Stuttgart 1 43 Neuheit ,.AUTOart Toyota 2000GT (1967-1970) White 1 18 78753,.

For example, in Partridge,LS Collectibles 2016 TESLA MODEL S FACELIFT bluee in 1 18 Scale New Release,. In Jorgensen, supra,Lotus 3 Eleven Road 2017 AUTOART 1 18 AA75393 Model,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Porsche 911 RSR th Le Mans 1975 1 18 Spark 18S289,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Tekno Denmark 415 Ford Taunus Transit V&D very scarce Dutch promotional,. That is the same situation in this case.Nissan Skyline R35 GTR Nismo Weiss Nr 160 1 18 GT Spirit Modell Auto mit oder ..,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Rare Die Mold Ferrari F 328 GTS 1 43 Heco Models Car F328 Very Good,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Vintage - FERRARI 512 S PininFarina - 1 43 Mebetoys Mattel Fire breathers 6621,.Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC21 - 1958 Jaguar XK150 Coupe - Red,.2010 BMW Serie 1 (F20) Crisom Red 1 18 Paragon Models 97004,.

SCHUCO VW T2 a VAN MUELLER REISEN TECHNO CLASSICA 2011 1 43 NEW IN BOX 1 OF 80,.