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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
AUTOart Bac Mono Mono Mono 2011 Green 1 18 18114 9ef6ec
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Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals BBR METAL KIT 1995 Jordan Peugeot J195 F1 No. MET46,.1 50 DRAKE MAXITRANS SKEL LIGHT blueE B DOUBLE COMBINATION NEW IN BOX ZT09155,.Range Rover series A 1970 ivory ,.Wartburg 353, light brown, 1 18, MCG,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1965 Morris Minor 1000 Saloon black 1 12 Sun Star 4786,.ACME 1965 Chevrolet Mailbu SS - Ermine White LE 500 pcs 1 18New Item ,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.J&M Classics 1 43 Scale JM01 - Jowett Bradford Van - bluee,.Sunstar 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3202 Jaguar XK140 Drophead Coupe Maroon,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM84A - 1937 MG VA Saloon - Wine Red,.LookSmart LS464B 1 43 Lamborghini Huracan LP580-2 Spyder,.Corgi Toys No. 222, Renault Floride , - Superb, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

KK 1 18 Scale KKDC180172 - 1983 Alfa Romeo EVO1 Spider Soft Top - Met Turquoise,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM7 - 1954 Ford Zephyr Zodiac,.Minichamps 107123501 1 18 MASERATI BITURBO COUPE 1982 RED,.1961 Opel Rekord P2 Light Green color by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 Scale New ,.

Sunstar 1 18 Scale Diecast - 4653 1956 Lincoln Premiere Hard Top Fairmount bluee,.Minichamps 1 18 CADILLAC LeMans DREAM CAR - 1953,.Mini Champs 1 43 Super Aguri Honda SA 08 Japan GP 2008 Takuma Sato,.BBR - 1 43 - FERRARI 488 GTB - 2015 - BBRC165,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK5A 004 - 1930 Ford Model A Coupe Fire Prevention Car Red,.

MINICHAMPS 1982 MASERATI BITURBO RED 1 18New Item ,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.F43M014 FERRARI 500 TR 1956 - 12 H. REIMS 56 PICARD 1° CL. 2000 François Pica,.AUTOART LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO LP570-4 SUPERLEGGERA ARANCIO BOREALIS orange 1 18,.ACME 1 18 1968 FIREBIRD CAMEO WHITE HARDTOP - 72 PIECES MADE - SERIAL,Rare Model Die Mold Resin Peugeot 405 mi 16 1 43 Heco Models Mq,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO45370 SETRA KAESSBOHRER S 215 HD WHITE GREEN 1 43,.

Scale model 1 18 Mercedes GLE Coupe, metallic-brown,.DINKY TOYS No 38f JAGUAR SPORTS CAR (V.RARE,LIGHT blueE,blueE HUBS) (V.NEAR MINT),.Mini Champs 1 18 Bikes Bmw R32 1923,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Kings Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 500 F2 Italian GP Kurt Adolff,.

McLaren MP4-12C-2011 red metallic 1 18 Minichamps neu & OVP,. We agree in part.

Tekno 68926 MAN TGX XXL with goldhofer XLE Low Loader Colonia 1 50 Scale,.Vw Arteon CC 2019 1 18,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Tekno LKW Scania R Highl Kühl--KHZ Peter Wouters,.KYOSHO NISSAN GT R Pemium Edition 1 18 Ivory Pearl,.1979 BMW 323i (E21) Baur green Metalizado 1 18 BoS-Models 073,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; OLD DINKY TOYS FRANCE TRACTEUR PANHARD MOVIC 1951 SEMI CITERNE TITAN CODER ESSO,.Ferrari Laferrari Aperta Spider 2016 red Corsa 322 Red BBR 1 43 BBRC187C1 Mini,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK5A 004 - 1930 Ford Model A Coupe Fire Prevention Car Red,; RARE PORCHE TARGA RADIO SONAUTO PUBLICITAIRE NEUF CARTON D’ORIGINE,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 70013 Range Rover 4.6 HSE RH Drive Red,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 127 - Saab 9000 CD - Green,BMW 3.0 CSL HOMMAGE R PEBBLE BEACH 2015 NOREV 80432454782 1 18 WEISS WHITE,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Lamborghini Gallardo Spider 1 18 Sizes,.

H0 Trix 22320 BR 201 001 Reeks SNCB Digital mit Sound 1 87 in OVP & Fährt ,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Autoart Mercedes Benz Amg Gt3 18 Scale Car,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK207 - 1960 Cadillac Series Sixty-Two Coupe pink Met,.Corgi 348 Flower Power Ford Mustang 2+2 POP ART Boxed original,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, KK SCALE MODELS 1970 AUDI 100 Coupe Dark Red KK_002 LE 400 1 18Nice Car,; 1941 Willeys Stone Woods & Cook 1 18 1800906,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS - Lava orange - Autoart - 1 18,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Kings Models 1 43 1955 Ferrari 500 Settlers Trophy Hesketh Circuit Tony Gaze,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

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This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Gallardo LP 560-4 Spider 2009 red Leto Leather,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Corgi Toys 475 Citoen Safari Olympic Winter Sports 99.9% mint in box superb,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.LINCOLN Continental Cabriolet 1941 1 24 Franklin neuwertig Auto Miniatur,.Tekno Scania R-serie Highline + haakarm afzet-container 1 50 Hoeben Metalen (RG),. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Acme 1 18 Scale A1805901 1963 Super Duty Pontiac Tempest Daytona 250,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Porsche 911 RSR 3.0 18 Spark 18S057,.

BBR FERRARI 612 SCAGLIETTI GP 2006 1 43 LIMITED EDITION 50 pcs,.Signature Die Cast, Lot of 24 Model Cars,.Vintage - PEUGEOT 204 - 1 43 Dinky toys 510 Mint box,.1 18 Autoart Nissan Gt-R Nismo Lm 2015 Test Car (Composite Model 2 Openings,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Lancia Delta S4 Grey 1 18 AUTOart,.

BMW M1 Procar DRM NORISRING 1979 C.Regazzoni 1 18 Minichamps 180792991 NEW,.23 Johnny Lightning Lot Collection DieCast Ornaments Holiday 2004 2005 Coca Cola,.CORGI 256 VOLKSWAGEN 1200 RALLY,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Toyota Lexus NX 200T NX200T Diecast Model Car Suv Toys for kids Gifts bluee,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS (miami bluee) 1 18 AUTOart 78167,.AUTOART 81643 McLAREN 650S GT3 BATHURST 12 HOUR WINNER 2016 A 1 18TH SCALE,.1 18 Honda NSX NC1 AUTOart 73233,.Sunstar 1 18 Scale - 4195 Audi Quattro Rally Winner Acropolis 1982 Mounton Pons,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM63B - 1938 AC 16 80 Sports Roadster Open - Green,.

Mitsubishi Lancer EVO X, black, Modellauto N 18, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Four Wheel Models 1 43 Scale FWLG34 - 1954 Lagonda 3Ltr 4Dr Saloon - Larch Green,.ACME 1806103 1806108 PLYMOUTH Trans Am BARRACUDA 1970 diecast models Savage 1 18,. The PartridgeDV8112 MINICHAMPS 1 43 HENSCHEL HS140 JARGERMEISTER 499171940 Ed Lim,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM48A - 1956 Hillman Minx Series I - Grey Yellow,.UT MODELS 1 18 - 180 964388 OPEL CALIBRA V6 4X4 DTM 1996 TEAM JOEST - GAVIN,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 2017 Ford Mustang GT Red-Grey 1 18 y 1 64 Auto World AW245, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Schuco 1 18 VW T1b PERSIL 450036600 0,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 72 F1 Renault Racing Car's By Midland Racing Models, With Driver Signatures.,.Fiat 850 - Mercury 30 1 43 in Box 28904,PartridgeAncienne CIJ ASTRA 1 43 boite origine,.SUNSTAR SS4232 CADILLAC DEVILLE LIMOUSINE 2002 WHITE 1 18,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Hot Wheels Redline Classic 1931 Ford gold color, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, TAMEO KIT 1 43 F1 MCLAREN MP4 6B A. SENNA SEASON 1992 WITH HELMET,; Autoart 1 18 Scale diecast 86971 Porsche 908 02 Watkins Glen 1969 Redman Siffert,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 18 Gmp G1805013 Release Ford Brizio Munz Roadster - Rarity §, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, FrontiArt AS018-06 Aston Martin Vanquish S Bj. 2014 red-carbon 1 18 TOP, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMIN510951826 by MINICHAMPS BENETTON B195 GP Europa 1995 18,.

Autoart 1 18 Porsche 356 Speedster F (White)New,.KK Models 1 18 Scale - 180162 - Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 Metallic bluee, Clarke's negligent act.1 43rd Scale Thornycroft BRS SWB Van Code 3,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WRK28X - 1955 JAGUAR D TYPE -,.Lamborghini Huracan Gt3 2015 Green Metallic Model Car 1 18 Autoart,.


The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 2016 Bentley Continental GT Coupe Verdant 1 18 Paragon Models 98222,2004 Cadillac Deville Limousine black 1 18 Sun Star 4231,. In Noska,Ferrari Laferrari Metallic Copper BBR 1 43 BBRC137MMC,.Dinky Vanwall - Green Yellow Driver - B D,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes L6600 Aerial Ladder DL30 1950 1 43 Schuco-Minichamps,.Paudi 5511R 1 18 NISSAN JUKE NISMO RS 2014 RED, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Siku Plastik V13 VW Kaefer Volkswagen Käfer Pastellblue V Serie Siku ,.( GOK ) 1 18 AUTOart Ford Saleen Mustang s 281 NEU OVP,.Gmts - golden Oldies Linie 50 6662 Krupp Sf 960 with Refrigerated Trailer 1 50,.One Model 1 43 Nissan GT-R R35 2017 Wine Red from Japan,. Id., p 923.

No Brand 2004 Chevrolet Corvette 1 18 Scale Car,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Porsche 935, No.8, Porsche Kremer, 24h Daytona, 1 43, Minichamps,KYOSHO 1 18 AUTO DIE CAST FERRARI 575 GTC TEAM JMB ESTORIL 2003 art. 08393B,.Ignition model 1 43 DENSO Toyota 90C-V 1990 JSPC SUZUKA 1000km IG0299,.Kyosho Original 1 18 Lamborghini Diablo GT orange Pearl KSR18507OR W T Japan NEW,.Almost Real LAND ROVER RANGE ROVER 1970 Tuscan weiss 1 18,.ABC BRIANZA 257 PORSCHE ALCADOR SBARRO S20 - ANTHRACITE 1 43 - VERY GOOD,.DINKY SUPERTOYS GB 948 TRACTOR TRAILER MCLEAN W ORIGINAL BOX,.New Larry Perkins Mezera VN SS Group A Holden 1991 Tooheys Bathurst 1000 1 18,. The parties Bentley Flying Spur W12, metallic-black, 1 18, Kyosho,.

OUSIA 1 18 Lamborghini Countach LP400 yellow product finished,.Minichamps 1 18 scale 150 084100 Ford Escort Mk2 1.3 (LHD) 1975 orange,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, (Go) 1 18 TSM Model 1976 Porsche 936 76 Nürnburgring 300 KMNIP,; CMR 1 18 Scale CMR070 Ferrari 340 Berlinetta Mexico Carrera Mexicana 1952, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Bentley Continental GT3 in 1 18 Scale by TSM TSM141829R,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, ZC571 Provence Moulage K1906 Vehicule 1 43 Mitsubishi Lancer WRC Monte Carlo 04,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)FERRARI LAFERRARI F70 HYBRID ELITE RED 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR HOTWHEELS BCT79,.73278 AUTOart 1 18 Honda S800 White,.Schuco VW T1b mit Slogan 1 18 - 450037700,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Chevrolet Corvette 1958 bluee 1 18 Autoart AA71146,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.JAPAN C3761 Volks Wagen Camper From T1B,.AUTOART MERCEDES BENZ AMG GT-S SOLARBEAM YELLOW orange 1 18 New Item ,.1 43 Gasoline BBR Model Ferrari F430 GT 12H Sebring 2007 Corsa gas10081,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - X5486 Ferrari 458 Challenge,.GREENLIGHT COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - CADILLAC S AND S LIMO - 1966 - GLPC18005,. The Scottsdale1998 Porsche 993 turbo S 3.6 Anniversary riveriablue 1 43 Minichamps Diecast,Corgi Toys 266 Spiderbike Rare White Wheel Variation MIB uk Motorcycle Spiderman,.Datsun 260Z 2 + 2, gold, 1 43, Neo,. Id.,BMW 3.0 Csl Tribute Light Green 1 18 Norev Dealer Collection,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Minichamps 1981 BMW M1 Red Lobster Imsa Basic Riverside Winner Limited,; Schuco 1 18 VW Fridolin VW Kundendienst 450012400 NEU OVP,CLASSIQUES BBY 1 43 SCALE WHITE METAL - RENAULT DOMAINE 1956 - GREEN,.Used Hot Wheels 1 18 Battle Damaged Batmobile Rare Limited Edition Batman F S,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps 110133024 Mc Laren MP4 12C 2011,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Lohner Porsche Semper Vivius white 1900 closed 1 43 - 43007 fahr(T)raum,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; MINICHAMPS Porsche 911 S Ecurie Jean Sage Waldegard Cheneviere 24h Le Mans 1,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Wiking H0 1 87 Nr 561 4A Magirus Sirius Sinalco Getränkewagen (SZ 7109),; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 BBR FERRARI 550 MARANELLO RED H LM 2006 TEAM RUSSIAN AGE RACING BG311,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 43 Ultra Models NATI-A 1938 Bus USSR,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1954 Mercedes-Benz 180D Universal W120 blue 1 18 BoS-Models 077, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 18 Minichamps Ford Capri Rs 3100 (1974) White Limited Edition 1000 Pc., (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Rialto Models 1 43 Scale Model Car R7219W - 1952 MG-TD Bertone - White,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSchuco 450038000 VW T3a Westfalia Joker mit Faltdach blue 1 18 limitiert 1 1000,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Autocult 80006 Skoda 935 Limousine Baujahr 1935 in dunkelbrown 1 18 NEU,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheCorgi 1 43 Scale Model Car 04203 Aston Martin DB5 goldfinger 50th Anniv Bond 007,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Bos 1 18 Scale resin - 213599 Chrysler NewPort Congreenible gold,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,1 18 GT Spirit Bentley Continental GT V8S Coupe 2015,IG1343 ignition model 1 43 Mazda RX-7 (FD3S) RE Amemiya Red,.DIECAST CAR & CASE 2017 CHEVY CORVETTE Z06 TORCH GT SPIRIT US005 1 18 RESIN CAR,.ACME Models 1 18 Scale A1801811 - Mel Burns 1965 Drag Shelby GT350,. The Huyghe1 18 Minichamps Morris Minor Cabriolet Almond Green - Rarity §,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheLamborghini Huracan LP 610-4 Look Smart 1 43 LS426G,.

Paragon 1 18 Scale PA-98232R Bentley Continental GT Congreenible 16 Sunburst gold,.PAIR OF-RARESHERIFF PATROLblueE CARD-HOT WHEELS-ORIGINAL-VHTF-COLLECTORS,.

Tekno Denmark No 726 Mercedes Benz 220 SE In Its Original Box - Rare Model,.1 18 Biante - Holden HQ Monaro GTS350 Sedan - Purr Pull LTD ED. 1150 NEW,. Nonetheless, on the facts of MAZ 205, red, Tumbotino, 1 43, Start Scale Models,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSubaru Impreza S207 NBR (2016) bluee 1 18 Kyosho KSR18021BL,.Toyota 2000 Gt 1970 Bellatrix Yellow 1 43 Model 8374 HPI RACING,.

For example, in Partridge,NZG 1 50 SCALE LIEBHERR LH 80 WHEELED MATERIAL HANDLER MODEL BN 810,. In Jorgensen, supra,Revival 1 20 Metall Kit Bugatti Targa Florio 35 1924 26 loose incomplet,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.LAMBORGHINI URRACO SIHLOUETTE 1976 WHITE LOOKSMART LIM. 1 49 LS040D 1 43,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08752W BMW X5 xDrive 4.8i White,. That is the same situation in this case.Franklin Mint- 1957 Cadillac Eldorado Brougham 1 24 - FM B11UM 66 - NEW,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.ABC Carlo Brianza No 77 Alfa Romeo 1900SS Super Stradale 1954 Limited Edition,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale diecast - P9909 Ferrari 250 GTO Vanilla Sky Dark bluee,.VW Käfer 1200 (Beetle) Cabriolet Hebmüller (red cream) 1949,.BMW E36 1 18 - M3 GT - Otto Mobile OT098 @ E30 E46 E92 - NEW,.