Schuco Schuco Schuco Unimog U401 with boar Green 1 18 450014700 69f4df

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Schuco Schuco Schuco Unimog U401 with boar Green 1 18 450014700 69f4df
SMTS 1 43 Scale Built Kit Model Car CL31 - Jaguar XJ6 Series 1 - Green,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Modellino Ferrari California Spider version Paris Auto Show 2008 BBR Models,.WSI 1 50 Scania R TL J. Weidenaar Top Rarität 05-0037,.(GOKR) 1 18 Minichamps Fiat X 1 9,.AUTOART CHEVROLET CORVETTE C7 Z06 Laguna bluee Composite Model 1 18New Item ,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Piranha Models Kit à Monter 1 43 - Ferrari 250 GTO Spyder LWB,.Top Speed 1977 Porsche 934 Kremer Class Win.Le Mans TS0057 1 18 New Item ,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.EMPTY BOX FOR CORGI TOYS 302 M.G.A SPORTS CAR SCARCE NO CAR PICTURE VARIATION,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK83A 1947 Ford V8 Station Wagon Parred Green Poly,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Ferrari Dino 246 Gts 1972 Met bluee BBR 1 43 BBRC54GPRE Model,.Matchbox SF Nr. 35A Merryweather Fire Engine Flame Proof Wool Werbemodell,.CARS 1969 CHEVROLET CAMARO 1 24 SCALE DIE CAST MODEL FROM BEWICTHED, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 18 AUTOart NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R (R32) GUNMETAL WANGAN MIDNIGHT “REINA”,.FORD FOCUS ST 2011 RED,.BMW Z4 GT3, No.24, Saudi Falcons - Team Schubert, 24h Dubai, 1 43, Minichamps,.Otto Mobile OT090 Ford Capri Mk2 3.0L V6 Ghia White 1 18 BRAND NEW FACTORY SEAL,.

Bmw M1 Procar 1979 Yellow Minichamps 1 18 180792998 Miniature,.Mercedes Benz W154 1938 CMC 1 18,.Brabus 700 Biturbo Roadster 2013 - 1 18 - Minichamps,.2016 CHEVROLET CORVETTE C7 Z06 C7R RACING YELLOW 1 18 BY AUTOART 71260,.Roadace Replica (Great Britain) Red Ferrari GTO 1962 Plaster 1 100,.

AM43341 ALFA ROMEO 6C 2300B MILLE MIGLIA 1938 N.138,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Minichamps 1 18 Tag-Heuer Red Bull RB13 - Australian F1 GP 2017 - Max Verstappen,.Louis Surber Mercedes Opel Team Joest Transporter & 2 Opel Calibra Cars all 1 43,.AUTOart 1 18 HONDA S800 (Yellow) Diecast Model 73277,Ford Mustang Gt 2019 orange 1 18 Gt Spirit GT205 New,.1966 Ford Mk II No.98 Winner Daytona 24H in 1 18 Scale by Spark 18DA66,.

FORD ESCORT II 1975 orange Minichamps 150084100,.NOREV 1963 Mercedes 230SL (W113) Cabriolet Soft-Top Green LE 1000pc New Item ,.FrontiArt AS016-118 Pagani Huayra Baujahr 2015 in Carbon gold 1 18 Lim.Ed.,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 151 121391 McLaren 12C GT3 orange 2013,.

Heco Miniature chateau plaque métal gravé numéredé Bugatti T50 Jean 1933 N°1 300,. We agree in part.

MakeUp VISION VM037A 1 43 Porsche 930 Turbo 3.0 Paris Salon 1974 Metallic Green,.MINICHAMPS SPIELWARENMESSE NURNBERG PORSCHE 962 GT STREET YELLOW POR064001,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK140A - 1954 Hudson Hornet Congreenible Cgoldnation Cream,.VAN X VW Volkswagen T4 Premium 2 x Side Window, 1 x Barndoor Curtain Van-X VAN-X,.Ferrari J50 Spider 2016 Liana White Met BBR 1 43 BBRC208A Model,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 18 GT Spirit Bentley Exp 10 Speed 6 (Metallic green) - New in box,.MakeUp VISION VM124B 1 43 Nissan Fairlady 240ZG (HS30H) 1971 White,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, PAYA 3758 SEAT 1400 C - TAXI - DARK GREY 1 32 - GOOD IN BOX ( FIAT ) FRICTION,; PORSCHE 917 20 917 20 Interserie 1973 Kelleners Weisberg Felder Minichamps 1 18,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Bos 1 18 Scale resin - 193749 Maserati Sebring Series 2 red,.NOREV 2013 MERCEDES BENZ CLA (C117) Red (DEALER) 1 18 RARE ,Rare Tekno 1 50 SCANIA TOPLINE Drag & Draw PLANTENEXPORT BLOEMENEXPORT,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Western Models 1 43 Scale WMS41X - 1949 Jaguar Mk.V - Bronze,.

1974 Lincoln Continental Mark IV Luxus Brown Met. BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 New,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Audi R8 LMS Edoardo Mortara Winner Audi R8 LMS Cup 2016 Sepang Race 2 (Aape,.Mini Champs 1902 Panar Ruvasor Type B1,.1 18 GT Spirit bmw m4 lb,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, CULT SCALE MODELS - JAGUAR E-TYPE SERIES II DARK blueE COLOUR 1 18 SCALE.,; Minichamps Porsche 911S Le Mans 1971 Waldegard Cheneviere 18 Scale New,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Vintage - ASTON MARTIN DB4 internal cream - 1 43 Solido n°111 serie 100,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Minichamps 1 43 AUDI R8 LMS 2016 AAPE by A Bathing Ape Phoenix Racing Asia,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale Model Car 11B - Jaguar Mk.VII M-Type Saloon - Dove Grey,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM105A 1939 Embricos Bentley Original Car Gunmetal,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

1 43 Gasoline BBR Model Ferrari F430 GT 12H Sebring 2007 Corsa gas10081,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Ferrari 456 GT Resin Model Car 239,.Volkswagen Beetle Kafer Camper Motorhome 1977 bluee White SCHUCO 1 18 SH0114,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.MakeUp VISION VM120A 1 43 Nissan Fairlady Z432R PS30SB 1969 orange Steel Wheel,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.AUTOart Lamborghini Aventador Liberty Walk LB-Works 2015 White 1 18 79105,.

PORSCHE 956 L Le Mans 1986 Spirit of America Joest Follmer Minichamps R 1 18,.Ebbro 1 43 Scale Honda Odyssey Absolute,.Universal-Hobbies 4868 New Holland Cr10.90 with Wheels 1 3 2,.Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale 5918 - Austin 7 Van - Green,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Chevrolet Corvette C7 Z06 Coupe 2014 Red Autoart 1 18 AA71262,.

Top Speed Pagani Huayra BC Auto Show Geneve 2016 Matt White Carbon 1 18 LE999,.Porsche 911 Turbo (green metallic) 1977,.MERCEDES Unimog 416 DoKa green 1975 1 18 Premium ClassiXXs PCL30090,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Lamborghini Aventador S Roadster green Mantis 1 43 Model LOOKSMART,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 18 AUTOart Lamborghini Gallardo LP550-2 BALBONI EDITION grey RARITÄT §,.MERCEDES BEMZ COLLECTION CLASSIC SCHUCO ORIGINAL BOX MERCEDES LIMITED EDITION,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK32 001A - 1953 Studebaker Commander Reworked M. Cooling,.MINICHAMPS 1 18 McLAREN F1 GTR BMW MOTORSPORT 24 ORE LE MANS 1997 MODELLINO,.CCC Models 1 43 Scale White Metal CCC1 Mercedes Benz 220S 1958 bluee,.

FRENCH DINKY TOYS 508 DAF 33 MIB 9 EN BOITE VERY NICE L@@K, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Old Cars Ferrari racing car transporter superb 1 43 SET WITH 2 FERRARIES SUP SET,.Mgb gt mk ll 1 18 autoart,. The PartridgeNew AUTOart 1 18 Honda NSX Type R '92 (Indy Yellow Pearl) 73297,.Hot Wheels Steering Rigs Peterbilt Cab dump trailer 1980 Bob's Sand & Gravel,.Autoart Toyota Cgoldlla 98 Didier Auriol GB 1 18 scale 80023,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1 18 Minichamps Porsche 918 Spyder Concept Car Red Yellow, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.SCHUCO 1 18 Porsche 911 Targa 4 GTS Die Cast Model,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Fujimi Mini Pet Series Ferrari 330 GTC plastic model Vintage rare from JAPAn F S,.SPA18LM85 by SPARKMODEL PORSCHE 956 WINNER LE MANS 85 1 18,PartridgeSchuco 8924 VW T1 JOHN DEERE LANZ 1 32,.Nouveau Autoart 1 18 le Retour de Ultraman Tapis Vihicle De,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 1979 BMW 3.0 CSL BMW Italia ETCC Zandvoort Grano Joosen 18New , (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Hot Wheels HWN2077 FERRARI M.SCHUMACHER 2003 1 18 Modellino,; Mercedes L 3500 flatbed, Mercedes-Benz racing section, 1 43, Premium ClassiXXs,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1969 IST SEAT 124 WHITE 1 18 RARE, NEW, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 73572 Jaguar XJ-S Cabriolet Red, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeTekno Denmark MG 1600 red,.

BRABUS 700 BITURBO ROADSTER (pearl white) 2013,.Minichamps 1 18 scale diecast - 155 832530 BMW 635 CSi Schnitzer ETCC 1983, Clarke's negligent act.AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Huracan GT3 Pearl Green,.Scania R024028A Sattelzug Schreuders (Ingen - Holland),.Rai S 1 43 Land Cruiser 2013 Police Headquarters Security Division Commander,.


The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, LS Collectibles 1 18 Scale - LS029A BMW Alpina B7 White,LESNEY MATCHBOX 1-75 42A EVENING NEWS VAN (24 BPW) - NR MINT in original C BOX,. In Noska,Lexus Lc500 Coupe 2016 Titanium Grey Met AUTOART 1 18 AA78871 Model,.Lamborghini Countach , Walter Wolf Edition in Red in 1 18 Scale by AUTOart,.MINI RACING 1 43 SCALE WHITE METAL MODEL No 85 PORSCHE 956 L FULL LIVERY LE MANS,.Fiat 1100 Lusso Bianco blue 1 18 Model BOS MODEL, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.CORGI TOYS 436 Citroen Safari ID 19 mint in box all original condition,.CCC Models 1 43 Scale White Metal CCC1 Mercedes Benz 220S 1958 bluee,.Lamborghini Huracan Lp580-2 2015 Arancio Borealis Looksmart 1 43 LS455G Model,.Skoda Octavia III 2014 Grey Metallic 1 18 Model ABREX,. Id., p 923.

GT Spirit 1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 24h Le Mans Loos Barth LE of 504 1 18New,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Opel Rekord C Coupe’ 1966 White & bluee Minichamps 1 18 107047021 Model,Tekno LKW Scania Hauber Topl. Aerop. Cont-SZ Regis,.Ferrari F60 America Spider 2014 60Th Anniv. Usa red Corsa BBR 1 43 BBRC182F Mi,.POLISTIL S77 VW VOLKSWAGEN KÄFER- SKI KITZBUHEL 1 25 - RARE SELTEN - IN BOX,.Corgi Toys 357 Land Rover Weapons Carrier perfect mint in box Superb,.Corgi Police Mini Van - bluee - A B,.Kyoscho 1 18 Nr. 08171Y FERRARI 512 BB Berlinetta V12 yellow in OVP (A677),.AUTOART 1 18 MERCEDES MAYBACH S-KLASSE (S600) WHITE 76291,. The parties TEKNO DANEMARK 828 - VOLKSWAGEN 1500 in VVery Near Mint cond,.

1965 Chevelle MAROON w vinyl top 1 18 Acme,.1997 Porsche 911 Gt1 24hrs Leman in 1 18 Scale,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, VINTAGE HOT WHEELS TOY JEEP CJ-7 1981 MOC,; Porsche Cayman GT4 bluee metallic 1 18 450040200, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Fertig Resin 1 50 ROMAN 8.135F - Fankit Models,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, WSI MODELS 01-1020 MAN XLX TRACTEUR LESTE 8X6 FANGER (CH) PARFAIT ETAT .,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Red Line Chevy Camaro Official Pace Car 1967 & 1970 Hot Wheels Red Line Crew Car,.Original FRENCH DINKY 530 CITROEN DS 19 - EXCELLENT in original BOX,.BBR Models Ferrari Dino 246 GT Nart 24H Le Mans 1972 Modellino,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Märklin 8000er Modellauto Nr.8031 Magirus Deutz Autokran 1960 mit OVP,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.NSU Ro80 (1967) Resin Model Car 151015404,.Norev 1973 2017 bluee Alpine A110,.AM43347 ALFA ROMEO ROMEO6C 2300B TOURING 24h PESCARA 1935,.FERRARI 312T4 World Champ 1979, RARE Race Finished, 1 18th GP Replicas,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 134 - P-2 Rover 14 1 Of 25 - Green,. The ScottsdalePORSCHE 911 Carrera RSR Le Mans 1973 Martini Racing Müller Lenne Spark 1 18,(GOR) 1 12 Anson Dodge Viper RT 10 NEU OVP,.Drake Maxitrans Freighter B Double Flat Top Trailers 1 50 Hogans Heavy Haulage,. Id.,TEKNO 71780 SCANIA TORPEDO TRACTOR SOLO 4X2 HERZER ( AUSTRIA ) MINT BOX,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, EIDAI GRIP McLAREN M26 - MARLBgold JAMES HUNT - F1 WHITE 1 20 RARE - GOOD,; MINIMARQUE 1 43 UK28A - 1959 FORD POPULAR TWO DOOR SALOON RHD MgoldCCO BEIGE,Toyota 86Gt Asian Version Bianco AutoArt 1 18 AA78773,.FERRARI J50 50th ANNIVERSARY FERRARI JAPAN 2016 BBR LIM. BBRC208 1 43,. The ScottsdaleJADI BMW 503 1956 (silver-metallic red) 1 18 OVP,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Carousel 1 1 18 Scale Diecast - 4406 1964 Indianapolis Watson Roadster A.J Foyt,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Oldcars Iveco Turbo + Trailer in Red Grey on 1 43 in Box,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, GT SPIRIT 1 18 Scale Audi RS5 Congreenible - Misano Red,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, DV8206 ELIGOR 1 43 MAN TGX SEMI CITERNE whiteHE TRANSPORT MARMETH 113499,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Hot Wheels Honda CIVIC EF Super Treasure Hunt,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Porsche 991 911 GT3 R 24 Hours of Spa 2017 Herberth Motorsport 43 Spark, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1956 Desoto Firedom 4-Door Seville bluee by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 Scale New, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, AUTOART 1 18 RWB 993 (GREEN GUN GREY WHEELS) 78151,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeLesney Matchbox Models of YESTERYEAR Y5 YELLOW 1907 PEUGEOT No Front Seat Bead,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Brooklin BRK 96 - 1931 Marmon Congreenible Sedán Top Up - Hecho En Inglaterra,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMATCHBOX SPEED KINGS K-46 MERCURY COMMUTER RACING CAR & TRAILER 'TEAM' MIB,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 18 Schuco 450006700 Mercedes Maybach Visiion 6 Coupe red,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Schuco 1 43 Reisebus Magirus Deutz O6500 DP 450893500,2018 Bentley Continental GT in Sequin bluee in 1 43 Scale by Looksmart,.TEKNO DENMARK 828 - VOLKSWAGEN 1500 in Mint cond.,.Spark 1 18 2017 Porsche 911R in White with Green Stripes - Item S236,. The HuygheMini Champs 1 43 Super Aguri Honda SA06 Japan GP 2006 Takuma Sato,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMinichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155 026006 BMW 323i 1982 Grey Metallic,.

Skoda Octavia III 2014 Grey Metallic 1 18 Model ABREX,.Kenna Models 1 43 Scale Model Car KM10818 - Allard - Red 1 Of 600,.

CORGI 339 MONTE CARLO MINI COOPER 'S' ORIGINAL WINDOW BOX+DIORAMA SCENE DISPLAY,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale - 08112B Morgan Plus 8 Super Sports bluee,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Minichamps Ford Escort RS 1600 RAC Rallye 1972 18 mint boxed neuf boite,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeIllustra Models1 43 Scale White Metal J011 - Austin Seven - Green,.Corgi Toys 204 Rover 90 Saloon Excellent plus in complete original box,.

For example, in Partridge,Dinky Toys 1424 Renault 12 TL near mint in box difficult to find so complete,. In Jorgensen, supra,Pre-owned Franklin mint 1930 V16 Cadillac LWB, Imperial sedan, Boxed, paperwork,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.76114 AUTOart 1 18 Mercedes Benz G500 SWB bluee model cars,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 18 Biante - 1972 Series Production Touring Car - Ford XY GTHO Phase III NEW,. That is the same situation in this case.1 18 APEX HOLDEN HSV GEN-F MALOO R8 UTE 2014 STING RED LIMITED EDITION OF 528,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 18 Hot Wheels 32 Ford Coupe,. Detroit Edison, supra.

ENGINE WITH DISPLAY SHOWCASE FOR 1955 MERCEDES SLR MILLE MIGLIA 1 18 BY CMC 120,.LS Collectibles 1 18 Scale Resin - LS002B Triumph TR6 Roadster Dark bluee,.Rare matrice moule résine FERRARI Mondial 1 43 Heco modeles voiture SH,.

Willys Gasser 1941 Thompson and Poole red Modellauto 1 18 Acme,.