Rialto Models 1 43 Scale Resin RL7219 - - - 1952 MGTD Bertone - Green 615ce8

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Rialto Models 1 43 Scale Resin RL7219 - - - 1952 MGTD Bertone - Green 615ce8
AUDI RS 5 2017 car miniature 1 18 collection gtspirit 062 limited 999 exp,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Drake ZT09176 AUSTRALIAN Drake 2x8 Dolly and 5x8 Trailer White Red 1 50,.1 18 UT Models Rare Soldout BMW E46 328i Green Saloon,.Brands 1 43 Lb Works 458 Scale,.Kings Models 1 43 1951 Ferrari 166 SC Buenos Aires Test Jim Kimberly,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Mini Champs Mercedes Fw 40 F. Massa 2017,.AUTOart 1 43 Lamborghini Aventador J (Metallic Red) Finished Item F S,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Opel Manta Te 2800 Coupe 1975 BoS Models 1 18 BOS108 Model,.French Dinky 506 Aston Martin DB3 Sport. Green. Near-Mint Boxed. 1960,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Universal Studios Japan JAL Minion Jet Miniature Model EMBRAER 190 USJ 315,.Porsche 911 Turbo 1977 greenmetallic 1 12 Minichamps 125066102 PMA G-Modell 1963,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WRK 40X 1954 FERRARI 375 PLUS PANAMERICANA RED, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Vintage Lesney Matchbox Police Patrol Car with box VHTF,.Ferrari J50 Spider 50Th Anniversary Ferrari Japan 2016 BBR 1 43 BBRC208F Model,.One Model 1 43 Nissan GT-R R35 2017 Gun Metal from Japan,.Schuco Volkswagen VW Kafer Jolly Green 1 18 450008000,.

Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2.7 1972 White bluee 1 18 Minichamps 107065020 NEW,.Rai S 2011 Kanagawa Area Police And Other Vehicles Crown,.Corgi CC99202, Eddie Stobart 40th Anniversary Four Piece Tractor Unit Set.,.HOTWHEELS SUPER ELITE X5491 1 18 FERRARI 458 ITALIA GT2 LAUNCH VER DIECAST RED,.Dinky Toys 917 Guy van Spratts in near mint all original condition,.

1 18 AUTOart Callaway C12 yellow - RARITÄT§,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 43 RUSSIAN CITY BUS ZIL-158 1957 Handmade,.Milestone Miniatures 1 43 Scale GC65B - Jaguar XK140 Roadster - bluee,.Diamond T Tanker (Texaco 1934) Resin Model Car B1052,1 18 Autoart 1973 Porsche 911 Carrera Rs 2.7 White ,.Maisto - Special Edition - McLaren F1 - 1 18 - Green - FAST FREE SHIPPING ,.

Märklin 1101 LKW Geldtransporter Bayerischer Rundfunkt Metall- Tin Plate in OVP,.1 18 Lamborghini Gallardo LP570-4 superleggera unmarked police with LED lights,.Chevrolet Camaro h Daytona 1968 1 18 - A1805713 ACME,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Ignition model IG0922 Mini Car 1 43 Nismo R32 GT-R S Tune white finished product,.


Gmts - golden Oldies Linie 50 4727 Scania S 0 Mit Curta Insider 1 50,.NIB 1 18 scale Model SPARK 2017 Porsche 911 r S259 YELLOW GREEN,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.VINTAGE - MERCURY Nr. 216 Lambretta MOTOCARRO - 50er Jahre RAR,.Minichamps 155728504 Collectible Miniature Car - gold White,.Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4 16 2001 set 1 43 Hakkinen + Coulthard (JS),." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1969 Chevrolet Nova blueE 18809 GMP,.PERFEX PERF216 RENAULT MASTER TDF 2013 VITTEL,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Minichamps 1 18 Scale - 155 808608 Ford Capri 3.0S Bastos SPA 1979,; 1 18 Premium ClassiXXs VW T3a Westfalia Joker 3 brown white ltd. 500,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

( GO ) 1 18 Biante Holden VK Commodore NEU OVP,.Magirus Deutz O6500 Autobus 1954 Green Ivory Red Schuco 1 43 SH8937 Model,1 18 Autoart Lamborghini Gallardo Lp550-2 Vb Balboni Ed. White - Rarity,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Schuco Volkswagen VW Kafer Jolly Green 1 18 450008000,.

UT MODELS 1 18 - 80 43 9 421 164 BMW Z3 ROADSTER 007 JAMES BOND goldENEYE,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.BBR Models 1 43 2002 Ferrari 575 Geneva Salon Red,.MAISTO MERCEDES SLS gold 1 18 Nice to own Last One ,.AUTOart 87177 Nissan Skyline GTR (KPGC-10) Japan GP 1971 Nr.18 1 18 NEU OVP,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Mazda 6 Atenza (LHD) 2015 Red, Model Car 1 18 Dorlop,; Minichamps 180812925 1 18 BMW M1 Procar GTO Class Winner LA Times GP 1981,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, BBR Model 1 43 Ferrari J50 Spider 50th Anniversary Ferrari Japan Art. BBRC208A,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Rialto Models 1 43 Scale Resin RL7219 - - - 1952 MGTD Bertone - Green 615ce8Rialto Models 1 43 Scale Resin RL7219 - - - 1952 MGTD Bertone - Green 615ce8Rialto Models 1 43 Scale Resin RL7219 - - - 1952 MGTD Bertone - Green 615ce8Rialto Models 1 43 Scale Resin RL7219 - - - 1952 MGTD Bertone - Green 615ce8

Ashton Models 1 43 AH 7 Ahrens-Fox NS4 Pittsburgh No 2 Feuerwehr OVP (JS2047),. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

WSI01-2108 - SCANIA 141 Avec remorque frigorifique 2 essieux - 1 50,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Minichamps Audi Quattro S1 Pikes Peak 1987 1 43 Mini Champs Diecast Sport Quatro,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Tekno LKW Scania R blueeStream Topl. Aerop. Kühl-KSZ Walter Fritz,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.DIECAST MASTERS DM71016 1 50 INTERNATIONAL HX520 TANDEM TRACTOR WITH XL120,.MINICHAMPS - 1 18 - DELAHAYE TYPE 145 V12 COUPé - 1937 - 107116120,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 736523 - Porsche 917 10 Rinzler Motoracing Can Am 1973,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.SUN MOTOR COMPANY 1 48 - 148 - EAST YORKSHIRE SERVICE VEHICLE,.

Revell Audi TT Rare 1 18 Scale Diecast Metal Pale Yellow Collectible Model Car,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 143 - Austin Allegro 3 Police Car - bluee,.Franklin Mint LE Callaway Corvette, Signature Edition, 1 24th scale, car only,.Hot Wheels 1 12 Elite Batman Classic TV Series Batcycle CMC85 MIB,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.BMW 850i CABRIOLET RED LTD ED 500 PCS 1 18 MODEL CAR BY SCHUCO 450006800,.

Mattel F1 Gp M Schumacher 1 18 Scale Car,.Lot of 12 Die-Cast Cars By The National Museum Mint,.Samurai 1 18 Lexus RX 200t F Sports White New,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 1967 Ford mustang gasser gone in 6 seconds , grey ACME 18885,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Maserati Quattroporte Metallic bluee 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.PROMO ECMA ESDO Kit à Monter 1 43 - Imperia TA8 Berline,.Matchbox RW 45B Ford Corasair rare greye Räder in E Box,.ERTL INTERNATIONAL PAY HAULER, STUNNING EXAMPLE, APPEARS UNOPENED FROM NEW MODEL,.1 18 Lancia Astura Tipo 233 Corto 1936 1 18 • Minichamps 107125332,.

Range Rover L405 TDV8 4.4 V8 White Vogue Detailed Diecast Model 1 18 Welly GT, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.JADA 1967 IMPALA SS WHITE PAINT SAMPLE PredOTYPE FROM ROY NAKAMURA COLLECTION,.WSI 01-2087 Tranex DAF XF105 Super Space Cab Curtaineside Combi,. The PartridgeOtto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT220 Triumph TR7 Groupe B Tony Pond 24H Ypres 1980,.AUTOart Nissan Fairlady Z432 1969 1 18 77437,.Porsche Modellauto 911 (991 II) Turbo S Racingyellow 1 18 Limited Edition,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, BBR 1 18 FERRARI SF16-H SCUDERIA FERRARI KIMI RÄIKKÖNEN GP ITALY 2016, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.CP MODELLI ALFA ROMEO PULMONO SCUDERIA FERRARI MARANELLO 1955 HANDBUILT 1 43,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Jaguar E-Type Roadster 1961 bluee 1 12 - GT219 GT SPIRIT,.Spark Mercedes F1 W05 Gp2014 1 18 Scale,PartridgeNew 1 43 Ignition Model Nissan Laurel 2000SGX (C130) White 0138,.Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale Model Car US11B - 1964 Studebaker Avanti II - White,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Diecast Masters 1 50 Scale 71015 International HX520 Tandem XL120 Trailer, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, ISCALE 1 18 Scale 118006 Mercedes Race Transporter 'The bluee Wonder',; FRANCORCHAMPS MODELS PORSCHE 997 GT3 CUP 1°CHALL.BENELUX '13 VAN HOOYDONK ABBOTT,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Acme 1 18 Scale A1805901 1963 Super Duty Pontiac Tempest Daytona 250, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 18 Gt Gt061 Spirit Ford Mustang by Toshi Lmtd Edition 504 Pcs. from 2015, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeNew Time Concept Jellyfish Chair In Denim bluee,.

Porsche 918 Spyder Paquete de Weissach Año Fabricación 2015 red 1 18,.Aston Martin Rapide S 2015 - 1 18 - AUTOart, Clarke's negligent act.Schuco Volkswagen VW T3a Joker camper with 1 18 450038700,.ALMOST REAL 1 18 RANGE ROVER 1970 WHITE,.ENIF 1 43 Mitsubishi Colt Galant GTO MR 1970 orange ENIF0046 from Japan Limited,.

MG 1 43 1954 Ferrari 553 Gonzalez French GP,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Maserati Quattroporte Granlusso My17 2017 bluee Passione Met BBR 1 43 BBRC192A Mo,Minichamps McLaren TAG MP4 2C World Champion 1986 Prost 18 Scale LE of 700,. In Noska,New Burago 1 18 Ferrari 348ts Red Diecast Car from Japan,.Chevrolet Corvette C7.R Plain Body 2016 white, Modellauto 1 18 Autoart,.2016 Bentley Continental GT Congreenible LHD Sunburst gold 1 18 Diecast Model Car,.Tamiya Mini 4WD Limited Edition Junior Circuit Slope Section (orange) 95447, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Schuco 1 18 Volkswagen T2a Pritsche w Soapbox Derby Cars 450018200,.SCG 003C - 24h Nürburgring 2017 - Westphal Mailleux Simonsen - 1 43 Spark SG 334,.Maisto 1 12 Scale Model Car 33201 - 1992 Jaguar XJ220 - Dark bluee,.Norev 1 18 Scale 183464 - 1991 Mercedes Benz 560 SEL - Met Pearl bluee,. Id., p 923.

Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM93X - 1936 Bentley 4.25 Ltr FHC - Metallic Green,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Opel Rekord C Coupe’ 1966 White & bluee Minichamps 1 18 107047021 Model,Mclaren 650S Gt3 2017 White AUTOART 1 18 AA81640 Model,.PROVENCE TALBOT GRAND SPORT 1959 - blueE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - RARE - 23,.Starsky hutch 1 18 barris gold,.Mercedes L 408 Jägermeister Kastenwagen 1972 1 18 Premium ClassiXXs NEW,.Brand Sauber Mercedes C9 [62] 1987 Lem,.Skoda Octavia III 2014 Grey Metallic 1 18 Model ABREX,.Norev 1 18 Scale 183457 - 1976 Mercedes Benz 450 SEL 6.9 - Met Grey bluee,. The parties Corgi Toys no. 205 Riley Pathfinder Saloon ovp,.

SOLIDO 139 MASERATI 3.5L 1 43 OLD ORIGINAL MADE IN FRANCE,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 180 120906 - 1966 Alfa Romeo Guilia 1300 - Dark Red,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Porsche 917 Flat 16 1971 True Scale Miniature 1 18 Tsm111807 Miniature,; Vintage SCHUCO Mercedes C111 1 16 Scale Battery Op. RC Toy Car, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]


Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Vintage Britains 9527 - FORD 5000 Tractor diesel - 1 32 Nuovo Mint,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Bmw 1Er M Coupe’ 2011 bluee Metallic Minichamps 1 18 110020025,.BMW V12 LMR WIN SEBRING 1999 KRISTENSEN LEHTO MULLER BBR BG168 1 43 100 PCS,.Kyosho Ferrari 250 Gto Le Man 1962 19Th Car 1 43 Scale,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Bmw 316 1978 Red 1 18 Model 107024100 MINICHAMPS,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 43 RL120 Aston Martin AMR1 Le Mans by SMTS,.Steam Tractor Engine -In Working Order-Brandless,.Delahaye 135 MS carrosserie Pourtout par Belle Epoque,.Kings Models 1 43 1948 Ferrari 166 SC Dalmiro Castex GP Gabriele Besana,.CHEVROLET NOVA 1970 Film LE FLIC DE BEVERLY HILLS 1 18,. The ScottsdaleFujimi model Initial D series 10 FD3S RX-7 Keisuke Takahashi specification,1932 Ford cinq Fenêtre release n°1 citron Cosmic voiture gonflée ACME,.Danbury Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast - 828-005 1940 Ford Deluxe Coupe Red,. Id.,RARE CIJ 3 42 RENAULT Prairie Marine 1.43 NB,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 151 - Vauxhall Caleche - Cream,; Ertl 1 18 Scale diecast AWSS118 06 1959 Cadillac ECTO-1 Ghostbusters + Slimer,Corgi Citroen DS Tour de France, Superb in Mint Original Window Display Box,.1 18 Autoart Nissan Skyline R34,. The ScottsdaleIgnition model 1 43 TENORAS NISSAN R89C 1990 Le Mans 24H IG0911,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Jaguar E-Type (RHD) 2015 Continuation Gun Metal, Model Car 1 18 Paragon,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Kyosho Bmw M6 Cabriolet 18 Scale Car,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, WMCE 1971 PONTIAC FIREBIRD WHITE - WMCE 15,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Evrat Bugatti T55 Super Sport Cabr. Vanvooren Rondoni 1932 Closed 1 43 EVR209f,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Minichamps 1 18 Scale Model Car 155 788601 - 1978 Ford Capri 3.0 - Yellow,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, AUTOart Lamborghini Liberty Walk Huracan White 1 18 79120, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Elite Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano Pininfarina 1 18 Model, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, ARPRA SUPER MINI SCANIA T 112 1 50 DIECAST NM BOXED VERY RARE,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeAston Martin DB5 Shooting Brake green 1964 1 18 scale Resin,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, AUTOART 1 18 LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO LP550-2 VALENTINO BARUBONI WHITE,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheOpel Kapitan 1958 BoS Models 1 18 BOS021 Model,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Chevrolet Corvette 1986 black Autoart 1 18 Aa71242 Model Car Diecast,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Motor City (USA 4 - 1 43) - 1951 Chevrolet Bel Air Hand Top Two-tone Green,1 18 NZG VW T6 Edition 30 white 9542 40,.1 18 AUTOART - BMW M3 DTM 1992 JÄGERMEISTER HAHNE zum SONDERPREIS,.NEW Exact Detail 1 18 1967 Chevrolet Camaro RS SS Die Cast 67 Chevy Lane,. The HuygheUniversal Hobbies UH4128 SEMINATRICE PNEUMATICA KUHN TT3500 2014 1 32 Modellino,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAUTOART 71271 CHEVROLET CORVETTE GRAND SPORT 1 18 ARCTIC WHITE blueE STRIPES RED,.

Autoart 1 18 Porsche 911 997 Gt3rs 3.8 White Red Stripe 78143,.Paragon 1 18 Diecast - 80432339606 BMW M4 Coupe Austin Yellow Metallic,.

2016 Bentley Continental GT Congreenible Sunburst gold 1 18 Paragon Models 98232,.Spark Tgold red Str12 Australia Gp2017,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Ferrari 250 Gto Coupe Victoria High Auto Mechanics 1964 MG 1 43 GTO43076,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeVintage - ASTON MARTIN 3L DBR I - 1 43 Solido Ref. 107 serie 100,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.25b COVERED WAGON ( GREY VERSION ),.

For example, in Partridge,Mercedes-Amg Gts Amg N 0 (C190) 2014 White Autoart 1 18 AA81531 Model,. In Jorgensen, supra,WSI 01-1745 Mercedes Benz Actros Big Space With reefer trailer Staf,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Schuco 00376 Volkswagen T1b Bus Samba Wintersport in blue white 1 18 NEU ,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Märklin 1102 MB W196 Formel 1 Rennwagen,. That is the same situation in this case.BROOKLIN MODELS 1 43 - 173 MERCURY MONARCH HARDTOP - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 28,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.AXEL'R AXM012 MIRAGE-FORD GR8,JCB,N.10,2°E 5° LE MANS 1976 LAFOSSE-MIOGAULT E BE,. Detroit Edison, supra.

1-18 1989 Mclaren Mp4 5 Honda N.2 2nd Gp di Monaco A.Prost Marlbgold Declas,.Spark 1 43 Lola Judd Team Sebah Le Mans 2009 S1445,.Triumph Vitesse DHC white '62-'68 1 18 Cult Scale Models,.

Mint Mattel 1 18 Ferrari F2002 Barrichello 2002 Hotwheels,.