Mercedes LS 322, orange, 1 43, 43, 43, Premium ClassiXXs 8c69b8

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Mercedes LS 322, orange, 1 43, 43, 43, Premium ClassiXXs 8c69b8
Siku 3816 Mercedes Sattelzug (Werbemodell - Sopro) OVP - 1612-174,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Minichamps MCLAREN F1 GTR LE MANS 1997 Lehto Soper Piquet 18 Scale LE304,.CMR 1 18 Scale Resin - 040 Ferrari Dino 206S Berlinetta Le Mans 1966,.WSI 01-2171 E.W. Kok DAF XF105 Super Space Cab + Reefer Trailer,.Alezan Alfa Romeo Predotype in Dark bluee on 1 43,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP109Z - 1983 ASTON MARTIN VOLANTE - MET. GREEN - OPEN TOP,.TEKNO 69480 Scania R Topline mit Meiller-Kipper 1 50,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Original OLD Wiking 1 40 VW Kafer Kever Mod 113 IN RED UNBESPIELD IN BOX ,.Looksmart LS482F LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR S ROADSTER ARANCIO ARGOS 1 43 Modellino,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Bbr F430 Gt 1 43 Scale Car,.GB DINKY 665 INTERNATIONAL HONEST JOHN MISSILE LAUNCHER MIB VERY NICE L@@K,.2015 Toyota Land Cruiser V8 whiteo Kyosho KSR18008W, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Minichamps 1 18 Scale 110 037211 - 1955 Mercedes Benz 300 SL - Red,.Ferrari J50 50th anniversary Ferrari in Japan 1 43 - BBRC208 BBR Models,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK173 - 1954 Monarch Lucerne Coupe - White Red,.1 18 Minichamps Porsche 956L h Le Mans 1983 BP,.

BoS-Models 197839 VW K70 gold 1 18 OVP,.Minichamps 1 18 CADILLAC LeMans DREAM CAR - 1953,.Lamborghini Gallardo Gt3 Fl2 2013 Composite Model Autoart 1 18 AA81357,.BBR GASOLINE MODELS 1 43. Ferrari 550 Maranello 2005 Limit.Ed.300 REF 10009,.French Dinky Toys No. 512, Kart, - Superb Mint.,.

MG 1 43 1953 Ferrari 735S Ascari Monza,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.BMW M4 GTS 2016 White 1 18 - 110025221 MINICHAMPS,.Carousel1 1 18 Scale Diecast - 4406 Watson Roadster 1964 Indianapolis 500 Winner,.AUTOART 1 18 ALFA ROMEO 4C SPIDER RED 70142,MINI COOPER S red white roof Autoart 1 18 SEE INFO IN BOX,.Autoart Mercedes Benz AMG G63 2017 1 18 Designo Mauritius bluee 76324,.

Vintage - Triumph Spitfire Tiger in My Tank - 1 43 Dinky Toys 114,.Xx Conrad 2109 Liebherr Ltc 1045 Schatte Car Crane Mobile Crane 1 50 Nip Xx,.1 18 Premium Classixxs VW T3 a Westfalia Joker Camping Bus Green Limited,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Batman - 1 18 Elite Cult 1995 Batmobile - Batman Forever,.

AM43F32 FERRARI 212 EXPORT MOTTO SPA FRANCORSCHAMPS 1953 TORNACO-WAGNER,. We agree in part.

Schuco Classic Studio II Kit Grand Prix Set AGR 01024,.UT Models 1 18 Scale Diecast - 20423 BMW Z3 Coupe 2.8,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Porsche 911 3.0 RS 1974 White 1 18 - GT223 GT SPIRIT limited 999 exp,.1 18 Classic Carlectables 2007 Lowndes Whincup Ford BF Falcon Bathurst Winner,.Nissan FIGARO 1 43 1 43 DieCast Model Opened Topaz Mist Kyosho NEW, RARE ,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; AUTOart - 1 18 - CHEVROLET CORVETTE - 1958 - 71148,.BRAND NEW MINICHAMPS 1 43 ALONSO 2005 RENAULT R25 LIMITED1008 AND WORLD CHAMPION,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, AUTOART 1 18 73571 JAGUAR XJ-S CABRIOLET WHITE,; DINKY TOYS 532 COMET WAGON WITH HINGED TAILBOARD + ORIGINAL BOX,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - C09521BK Lamborghini Aventador LP 570-4 Superveloce,.1968 Mustang Hot Wheels Toy Car White and bluee,1950 Aston Martin DB2 DHC Congreenible Dark Red by BoS Models LE of 504 1 18 New ,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.GT SPIRIT Koenig 512 BBI Turbo Red Ferrari GT165 1 18 Ltd,.

Spark Model Toyota TS 040 Hybrid Toyota 1 18 18S144,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.25s 6-WHEEL COVERED WAGON BROWN & FAWN TILT VERSION ,.Roadace Replicas Red Porsche 911S Coupe 1975 1 100 Plaster - Very Rare,.Matchbox Lesney Kingsize K-11 Fordson Tractor & Farm Trailer RED Hubs MIB RARE,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, ARCADE CAST IRON GMC GREYHOUND BUS,; Porsche 911 991 GT3 RS Coupe White - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34064,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Sauber BMW C24B Formula 1 Valencia 2006 N.Heidfeld 1 18 Minichamps L.E.180 pcs,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

WSI 01-2119 MSG MAN TGX XXL + 5 axle Nooteboom Multi PX,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Porsche 917 Long Tail Martini LeMans 1971 Resin Model in 1 18 scale by CMR,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Volkswagen VW T1b Messerschmitt 1 18 Model 0289 SCHUCO,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Masterpiece Models 1 43 Scale Model Car MP01 - Hillman Husky - Grey,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Eligor MAN TGX EURO 5 TOIT MOYEN SEMI FRIGO LENTA , 1 43, 115920,.DIECAST CAR & CASE PORSCHE G993 RWB redANA RESIN MODEL GT SPIRIT GT737 1 18,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.77865 Porsche 356 Speedster nr 23F weiss ,1 18 Autoart,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Minicar Porsche Panamera Maisto 1 18,.

Euro Sports Bespoke Mini Champs 1 43 Scale Sauber Petronas C20 Kimi Raikkonen,.Opel Manta B400 Rally di San Remo 1983 Toivonen 1 18 Otto Mobile Ot761 Nuovo,.Hot Wheels Mustang Congreenible - White - RARE,.GAZ 3307, light bluee white, 1 43, Start Scale Models,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.PAZ 652 Odessa 1960 L.e. 300 pcs. 1 43 DiP Models 165212 NEW ,.

1940 LaSalle Series 50 Converible Coupe Dark Red by BoS Models LE of 504 1 18,.Schuco Piccolo 1 90 No.760 Demag Schaufelbagger red mit Ketten-Mechanik,.Dublo Dinky Toys; 064; Austin Lorry; Original Box,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, JAGUAR XJR12 Le Mans 1991 SUNTEC, Auto Barn 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Spark Model Lotus XI C. Chapman 1 18 18S131,.VINTAGE CORGI TOYS MODEL No.312 'E' TYPE JAGUAR VN MIB,.Pontiac Trans Am Firebird Jerry Titus, Acme A1805210 1 18th scale,.AUDI FLEET SHUTTLE QUATTRO CONCEPT Looksmart LSAUDIFQC,.MIN110770008 ALFA ROMEO F1 BRABHAM BT45B EQUIPO CARRERAS DE MARTINI J. PEGADO,.

CONRAD MAN TGA+TELESTEP TRAILER FELBERMAYR TOP & OVP ANSCHAUEN 1 50, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Audi R8 LMS Winner Macau GT World Cup in 1 18 Scale by Spark,.KK Scale 1 18 Scale Diecast KKDC180235 Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder '67 Yel,. The PartridgeGT Spirit Chevrolet Corvette Z06 C7-R Edition 2016 Yellow 1 18NewSWEET VETTE ,.Bos 1 18 Scale resin - 193562 Audi 80 GT Hell Green 1973 Model Car,.TEKNO 60587 Scania R TL 6x2 mit Kuehlauflieger 1 50,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM101X - 1957 Ford Zephyr Farnham Estate LCC 2013, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.AutoArt NISSAN SKYLINE GTR (R32) V-SPEC II silver 1 18 77346,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.MINICHAMPS VOLKSWAGEN 1600 Coupe 1.18 Red,.Guisval Serie Escorpion Control Official Tour de France set on 1 37 in Box,PartridgeTEKNO DENMARK 927 - JAGUAR E Type Hard Top Spider,.Minichamps Opel Experimental GT 1965 Yellow Model Car 1 43 Limited Ed. Genuine,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80432454782 BMW 3.0 CSL Hommage R, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Rare modele matrice résine moule SEAT MALAGA 1 43 Heco modeles voiture car FJ,; MINICHAMPS MERCEDES SLS AMG LIGHT GREY 1 18 (NEW EURO EDITION)NICE,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, American Classics 1 43 Scale Model Car AA19 - 1959 Dodge Royal - White bluee, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 18 Tecnomodel Maserati A6 GCS Barchetta 1953 red, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCAT CATERPILLAR 24 MOTOR GRADER W OPERATOR 1 50 MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 85552,.

Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155 776458 Porsche 934 Le Mans 1977,.DINKY TOYS . 305 - David Brown 995' tracteur, Clarke's negligent act.Chevrolet Corvette C7R Plain Body (2016) Composite Model Car 81650,.New 1982 Pontiac Trans Am KARR Elite Edition 1 18 Diecast Car Model by Hotwheels,.MERCEDES-BENZ GL-KLASSE X166 DIAMANTWEISS 1 18 NOREV DEALER VERY RARE,.

KK Scale 1 18 Scale Diecast KKDC180234 Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder '67 Red,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, AUTOART 79152 LAMBORGHINI HURACAN PERFORMANTE (MATT orange) 1 18TH SCALE,Minichamps 110037211 1 18 1955 Mercedes-Benz 300 SL (W198) - Red,. In Noska,Wsi 01-1578 Sigi Reil Scania R Topline,.Volkswagen T6 Multivan Edition 30 Minibus 2017 White NZG 1 18 LX95420040 Miniatu,.Diapet Vintage Yonezawa NO. 144 01537 MADE IN JAPAN NEW CROWN ROYAL SALOON TAXI,.Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 F-Modell white blue MInichamps Modellauto 1 18, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFMCC1 - 1960 Facel Vega HK500 1 Of 600 Red,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 180 120906 - 1966 Alfa Romeo Guilia 1300 - Dark Red,.Scale model 1 18 PORSCHE 911 GT3R - STREET - 2010 - orange,.New Burago 1 18 Ferrari 348ts Red Diecast Car from Japan,. Id., p 923.

Audi R8 LMS 18, SPARK - Audi Driving Experience - Audi-Dealer Edition, OVP,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Opel Rekord C Coupe’ 1966 White & bluee Minichamps 1 18 107047021 Model,Minichamps 1 18 Chrysler Norseman 1956,.WSI 01-2591 Kirscht Scania S Highline + Volume Trailer,.Chevrolet Corvette C1 1958 white, Modellauto 1 18 Autoart,.Kit Monté Base MRF 1 43 - Ferrari 365 GTB4 Speciale Pininfarina Hard Top - bluee,.1 18 BMW ALPINA B7 S TURBO COUPE (E24) 1985 GREEN METALLIC BY LS-COLLECTIBLES,.Lexus Lc500 Coupe 2016 Titanium Grey Met AUTOART 1 18 AA78871 Model,.Land Rover Defender 90 Camel Trophy Edition Almost Real ALM810211 neu OVP 1 18,. The parties Brand 599 Gtb Fiorano 1 18 Scale Car,.

Minichamps 430 750011 Ferrari 312T 1975 C. Regazzoni,.1 43 scale Lexus LFA Tokyo Motor Show 2009 vehicles car model toys from japan 8O,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, FrontiArt SA006-04 Mercedes Benz SLR McLaren Bj. 2003 black-carbon 1 18,; Kyosho 80430394361 1 18 BMW E91 3-ER TOURING 2005 DARK blueE METALLIC, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Scotts 2000-20 20 Classic Push Reel Lawn Mower,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Mint Mist Maisto 1 18 Diecast Car 2010 Chevrolet Camaro Ss Rs Yellow,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Samurai 1 18 Subaru BRZ yellow edition finished product JP,.Lamborghini Aventador S 2016 Arancio Argos 1 43 Model LOOKSMART,.New Drake 2x8 Dolly & 3x8 Swingwing Trailer 1 50 Chrome Yellow ZT09178,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Raro modellino FIAT 850 SPIDER DIAPET 1 43 model car toys made japan YONEZAWA,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.MPA Kit Assembled 1 43 - Ferrari 512 M Tergal Tour de France Auto 1971 No.142,.Franklin Mint 2000 Corvette Platinum Power LE 500 1 24 Scale. Hard to find ,.Opel Kadett van Gama 461 Germany 1 20 in Box 12653,.1 18 KYOSHO BMW 328 CI COUPE E46 DUNKELgreenMET. OVP SELTEN,.Panasonic Toyota F1 Tf104 Working On A Complete Pit,. The Scottsdale1 43 RL43LE Jaguar XJC Steed's Big Cat ,Chgold Q made in Japan A part number Japanese cars seven set,.1 18 GT Spirit Porsche 911 993 body RWB redana in Matt Purple GT737 Leather,. Id.,LS Collectibles LS038C HONDA Prelude Coupe Baujahr 1997 in blue 1 18 NEU,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, FERRARI 458 GTB 56CM. 95600,; Conrad 75204 MAN TGS 5 4achs mit Pritsche + PK 530002 BOK SENG 1 50 NEU in OVP,TRIANG SPOT ON ' NEW ZEALAND ' ISSUE 107 HILLMAN MINX,.(S) Pathfinder white metal VAUXHALL VICTOR FB 1962 - PFM 23,. The ScottsdaleFERRARI 512S Movie Le Mans RARE NOSE CHANGE CMR 1 18,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, SUNSTAR 1 18 4196 AUDI QUATTRO RALLY H.DEMUTH A.FISCHER SANREMO RALLY 1982,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Franklin Mint 1 16 Scale diecast - B11UM58 1905 Rolls Royce 10HP Green,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Holden HR Premier (Egmont Maroon Metallic) Classic Carlectables 18671,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ignition Model Nismo R32 Ig0959 Nissan Skyline Gt-R,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Hot Wheels Redline Classic 36 Ford Coupe, Purple HTF 1968 US tan interior NM,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 18 Autoart Chevrolet Corvette (Signet Red), (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Minichamps 1 18 Scale - 155 818633 Ford Capri 3.0S V.M Woodman Spa 1981, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Alfa Romeo 33.2, No.37, 1 43, Best,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeDINKY 172 Studebaker Land Cruiser Low-line - Superb Rare,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, IMBRIMA INBRIMA MAJORETTE FORD CAPRI B224,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheFour Wheel Models 1 43 Scale FWLG34 - 1954 Lagonda 3Ltr 4Dr Saloon - Larch Green,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Club Bialbero 100FS COFANETO 100 ANNI SPYDER 1 43 F750 + Modellino,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,1972 Pontiac Firebird Trans Am bluee 1 18 Auto World AMM1076,Faenza 43 Models 1 43 1956 Ferrari 500 TR Reims 12 hrs Picard Manzon,.1 18 Universal Hobbies Land Rover Defender 110 Station Wagon Td5,.BMW 3er Reihe E21 Alpina Tuning LS020D green green LS Collectibles Resin Hi 1 18,. The HuygheSomerville Models BHM 1 43 Scale 149 - 1949 Vauxhall Velox L Type - Grey,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheKings Models 1 43 1957 Ferrari D50 Wolfgang Von Trips Ciudad GP,.

WSI07-1012 - Porteur SCANIA R143 6x2 avec remorque 2 essieux - 1 50,.TOP SPEED 1 18 HONDA CIVIC TYPE R WHITE TS0156 AWESOME DETAIL RESIN,.

Schuco Piccolo Special POS Display Set + 4 Cars SHU05131,.BBR 1 43 Ferrari LaFerrari Aperta grey Ferro BBRC187D,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Norev 1 18 Benz S Class W126 560SEL Die Cast Model Green,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBrand Toyota Tundra Crewmax 2008 143 Scale Car,.Ferrari SF70H Gp Montecarlo 2017 Winner Sebastian Vettel BBR 1 43,.

For example, in Partridge,Audi TTS Roadster, 1 43 , yellow Vegas 5011410513,. In Jorgensen, supra,AUTOart Mercedes Benz AMG GT S Designo Gloss Bl 1 18 76313,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 43 Infiniti Concept White,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Porsche 804 F1 Joakim Bonnier Formula 1 GP Nürburgring 1962 AutoArt 86274,. That is the same situation in this case.Spark Porsche 911 991 GT3 R 24h Nurburgring 2018 18 Scale LE of 500 New ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Porsche 911 by Singer Entenbürzel grey GT088 GT-Spirit GTS Models 1 18,. Detroit Edison, supra.

WSI Mercedes Benz Arocs MP4 Big Space SLT - Wasel - 1 50,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast 100 728104 Ford Escort Mk1 RS 1600 RAC Rally 1972,.AUTOart 81528 1 18 LAMBORGHINI HURACAN GT3 2015 YELLOW,.

Kyosho Bentley Mulsanne Speed Onyx 1 18,.