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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
( eb) triang triang triang minic PUSH & GO MORRIS OXFORD 5357b6
Exoto 1 18 (GPC97004X) Lotus-Ford 49 Jo Siffert GP Spain 1968,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals AUTOart McLaren MP4-30 Honda F1 Spain GP 2015 Jenson Button Model Car,.ASTON MARTIN DB5 AUTO ART MILLENIUM 1 18,.MG Model Plus 1 43 1970 Ferrari 512S Monza,.Caterpillar 24M Motor Grader Norscot Cat 55264 NEW,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Cadillac Sedan Deville 1963 BoS Models 1 18 BOS350 Model,.Kyosho Triumph Tr3S 1 18 Scale Car,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 3049 MATERIAL HANDLER MODEL BN 85919,.Century Dragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - 2012 Toyota GT86 - Red,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 540 931808 Senna Collection McLaren Ford MP4-8 93,.SPA18S095 by SPARKMODEL porsche 911 SC 3L Gitanes 18,.Kings Models 1 43 1951 Ferrari 212 Syracuse Grand Prix Rudolf Fischer, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Ferrari New Spider California 2009 titanium Grey BBR 1 43 BBR213C Model,.1 43 ABC BRIANZA 184 NO BBR MASERATI MC12 STRADALE 2004,.MATCHBOX PRE-PRODUCTION PredOTYPE 'BALANCE PLANE CAR'. VERY RARE.,.Bentley S3 Continental Mulliner Park Ward Dhc Cabriolet 1963 BoS 1 18 BOS302,.

WSI SCANIA MODEL Scania R560 PACON WASTE DUBLIN STAS WALKING FLOOR V8 1.50,.Mercedes Benz W154 1938 CMC 1 18,.Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Model Car BCJ98 - Batman Forever Batmobile,.AUTOart 71274 1 18 Chevrolet Corvette C7 Grand Sport - Red with White stripes,.1 24 GMP Pontiac GTO 1970 The Judge Congreenible,.

AM43F60 FERRARI 340 AMERICA SPYDER VIGNALE 1955 blueE,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Tekno Denmark 415 Ford Taunus Transit V&D very scarce Dutch model rare,.Tekno 68866 Scania T5 Topline w Container Trailer container Regis 1 50 Scale,.AUTOart 1 18 Honda NSX (NC 1) 2016 Nouvelle bluee Pearl Finished Goods,1 18 AUTOART VW PHAETON W12 6,0 blueMET. NEU OVP,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155 841103 Audi Quattro Blomqvist New Zealand 84,.

NZG NZG8591 ASFALTATRICE VOGELE 2100-3i NEW VERSION 1 50 Modellino,.Ferrari 812 Superfast 2017 red Corsa Red BBR 1 43 CAR13 Model,.JUE Arpra (Industria Brasiliera) Leite PAULISTA Scania Vabis Tanker Boxed,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

GT SPIRIT Lamborghini Aventador LB Performanc 1 18 GTS18502K,.

Franklin mint Hudson hornet 1951 white Boxed Ex 1.24,. We agree in part.

Dinky Toys 148 - Ford Fairlane 1962-67,.1953 Lancia Aurelia PF200 Congreenible Dark Green Met. by BoS Models LE 504 1 18,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-r Pgc 10 Red Completed,.BMW M1 E26 Le Mans 1983 Warsteiner Team Brun Von Bayern Wint Minichamps 1 18,.Bespoke Model 1 43 1967 Ferrari 250 LM Prophet Charade,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Lion Car from Nederlands, DKW Sonderklasse, historic 1 43 diecast,.BMW 320i (E46 4), orange, 1 43, Minichamps,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Lamborghini Diablo Gt Titanium Metallic 1 18 Model GT SPIRIT,; DINKY SUPERTOYS MODEL No.504 FODEN 14 TON TANKER VN MIB,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1 18 Otto GT Spirit BMW 3.0 CS Alpina B2 Inka orange Limited 2000 OT214 Leather,.Chevrolet Corvette C7.R Plain Body 2016 White, Model Car 1 18 Autoart,Ros RS80108 GRU WOLFFKRAN 4517 1 87 Modellino,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Alfa Romeo Alfetta 1600 Red 1975 TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TSM141831R Model,.

Century Dragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - 2012 Toyota GT86 - White,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Audi R8 LMS Plain Body Version Composite Model Car 81601,.Revell 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08807 Mercedes Benz 180 Fire Car,.BBR Models 1 43 Scale Resin - GAS10031S Maserati MC12 SPA 2005 Team JMB Racing,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, AUTOart LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR J (green ithaca green) 2012 1 18 74677,; STAR WARS ALTAYA R2 D2 BELLE AFFAIRE ,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Rare AUTOart Made Ford Fourtynine Concept Minicar,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Hot Wheels Mattel J2994 Formula 1 (GP Monza ) 2006 M.Schumacher (S3),. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Porsche 934 RSR Brumos h Daytona Gregg Busby 1976 1 18 Schuco 450033800,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

AUTOart 1 18 Liberty Walk LB-WORKS Lamborghini Aventador Red finished product,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.PORSCHE 911 CARRERA CABRIOLET 1983 MINICHAMPS 1 18 RARE NIB,.Corgi Toys Vintage Diecast Model Car 327 - MGB GT - Red,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1972 Cadillac Coupe DeVille gold with White Roof by BoS Models LE 300 1 18 New,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Triumph Tr6 Spider 1974 Green LS Collectibles 1 18 LSC002A Model,.

Spark 1 18 Scale Resin - 18S250 Mercedes F1 W07 Hybrid Abu Dhabi GP 2016 W C,.MERCEDES BENZ 280 SE AVEC SON VOILIER orange ET white MAJORETTE EN BOITE,.Ignition Model 1 43 Taka-Q Toyota 90C-V () 1990 Le Mans New F S,.Hot Wheels Mattel Buttmobile Camouflage 1 18 Scale Car,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Autoart 1 18 Scale 80506 Aston Martin DBR9 24H LeMans 2005 Enge Kox Lamy,.

AUTOART 81543 McLAREN P1 GTR (DARK GREY METALLIC orange ACCENTS) 1 18TH SCALE,.Hot Wheels Basic Sealed International Shipper Case 144 count case B,.AUTOart 1 18 Toyota Sprinter Trueno AE86 Initial D project D Final version model,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, AUTOart 73277 Mini Car 1 18 Honda S800 yellow finished product from JAPAN NEW,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.TrueScale TSM131813R 1 18 Resin McLaren MP4-12C GT3, 2012 Macau GT Cup, Watts,.AUTOart 76315 MERCEDES BENZ G 500 4 x 4 2 1 18 MODEL CAR ALIEN GREEN,.Lamborghini Huracan Super Trofeo 2015 Bianco Isis 1 18 Model 81557 AUTOART,.1 2 2016 FELIPE MASSA REPLICA MINI SCHUBERTH HELMET WILLIAMS FORMULA F1 NEW RARE,.BETAL Saloon Friction Drive - RARE ,.

1 43 Russian van UAZ-450 1958-1965 Handmade Sarlab, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Vintage - DAF City-Bus SB 200 DO STADSBUS - 1 50 Lion Toys n°38,.Kyosho Mattel 1 18 Scale Ferrari 599 Gtb,. The PartridgeAutoart SUBARU IMPREZA WRC 1997 LIATTI FABRIZIAPONS RALLY MONTE CARLO 1 18,.1 43 Looksmart Ferrari 599 HY-Kers Salone di Ginerva 2010 Matte Metallic Green,.KYOSHO 1 18 08111W MORGAN 4 4 SERIES II WHITE,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Minichamps Opel Commodore A Steinmetz 18 107704609, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Kings Models 1 43 1952 Ferrari 166 Woodcote Cup Goodwood Bill Dobson,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Kyosho Mini Champs 1 12 Honda Rc212V Motogp 2012,.New Classic Carlectables Craig Lowndes Holden Commodore VF 2015 Bathurst Winner,PartridgeJRD Citroen DS 19 Cabriolet Chapron Leman BBY for Magic Models 1 43 Handmade,.CLASSIC 1.18 FORD FALCON XW GT-HO PHASE 2 BRAMBLES RED 18595 LTD ED OF 650 MADE,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, WSI01-2092 - Camion porte containeur Scania R09 Topline avec conainer 40ft aux c, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, GRAVEYARD CARZ ROAD2RACEMODELS 1 18 Graveyard Carz (2012-Current TV Series)...,; 1 18 Norev Porsche 917K h Watkins Glen v.Lennep Larrousse 1970,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 602328 Samson PG II 35 36m Boom, 1 32 ROS, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK83A 1947 Ford V8 Station Wagon Parred Green Poly, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMinichamps Mercedes 280CE Dark Red 1 43 Rare SOLD OUT ,.

Ignition model 1 43 Toyota Dome RC84C () 1984 JSPC Resin Model IG0337,.Minichamps BRABHAM BT52 WORLD CHAMPION 1983 Piquet 18 Scale Rare LE 1000, Clarke's negligent act.Ertl 1 18 Scale Diecast 32832 1968 Ford Mustang CJ 428 bluee John Force Series,.PENGUINMOBILE PENGUIN PINGUIN BATMAN CORGI 259 - 1978 NIB NEUF BOITE DC COMICS,.CMC 1 18th scale Porsche 901 Sportcoupe,.

1958 Chevy Corvette, Red - Auto Art 71148 - 1 18 Scale Diecast Model Toy Car,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 Minichamps Porsche 918 Spyder Production Version grey - DEALER-VERSION,DINKY TOYS 559 FORD TAUNUS METALLIC BRONZE MINT BOXED RARE ,. In Noska,CIJ C.I.J 1 43 Renault Mille Pattes Pile Marcoule Bourgey ref 3.75 N° 1 Old toy,.VINTAGE MATTEL RRRUMBLERS HOT WHEELS ERA MOTORCYCLE TOY 3 SQUEALER,.GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Mercedes Benz SLR McLaren 722 GT Resin sealed Model Car,.Märklin metall 1947 Mercedes Benz Bayerischer Rundfunk mit Zertifikat, OVP, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.DINKY TOYS No 176 AUSTIN A105 (RARE GREY LATE VERSION),.SIKU 1070 BMW 735 IL E32 BRONCITredMET. SELTEN B4,.Rare Die Resin Citroen Bx Sport Car 1 43 Heco Models Vehicle bluee Us,.Spot On Triang 103 281 MG Midget New Zealand Issue Rare,. Id., p 923.

Citroen DS Limousine (1969) Resin Model Car 220001,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Neo 43917 Magirus Deutz Type D Tlf 16,Professional Fire Brigade Mülheim,Ruhr,197,Mclaren F1 Gtr Short Tail 1994 White AutoArt 1 43 AA56003 Model,.Ferrari J50 Spider 2016 red Tristrato Red Met BBR 1 43 BBRC208i,.Porsche Limited Playboy Collection 1 32 Rare Item,.Minichamps 100139422 1 18 BENTLEY CONTINENTAL R-TYPE 1954 CREME,.Rare Vintage Tootsietoy No.117 Zephyr Railcar (1935-1936),.Tron Model 1 43 1948 Ferrari 166 SC Soave Besana FIRENZE,.CMR FERRARI 512S 1 18,. The parties WOW EXTREMELY RARE Lancia Delta HF Integrale 16V Turbo 1989 Red 1 18 Sun Star,.

Old Cars 1 43 Bus Reisebus Iveco Orlandi PALLADIO DALLA VIA limited Autobus RAR,.Corgi Toys - 241 - Ghia L.6.4 green métallisé - 1 43e - England,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, New Mercedes AMG C 63 S Coupe 1 18 White Edition Limited B66965707 GT Spirt C205,; 2017 Audi A4L TFSI Sline Dark Brown 1 18 Dealer Edition FAW1005BR, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Alfa Romeo 4C 2013 White Autoart 1 18 AA70185,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Brand New 1 18 NOREV CITROEN DS23 DS 23 PALLAS (blueE) DIECAST CAR MODEL,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)TRACTOR AGRICULTURAL HANOMAG R35 FARM WITH ROOF 1955 Minichamps 109153071,.AutoArt 1 18 Scale Diecast Model 89246 - BMW E30 M3 DTM 1992 - Fina - Cecotto,.AUTOart 1 18 2004 Ford GT with Gulf Racing bluee & orange Paint Scheme,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 18 AUTOart LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR J (red J METALLIC RED,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.MAYES MODELS 1 43 1941 MONTY'S HUMBER TOURER - OLD FAITHFUL,.MERCEDES BENZ 280E 280 E W123 1976 green METALLIC 1 18 CULT SCALE MODELS NEU,.New ignition model 1 43 Porsche 962C OMURON JSPC 1989 V. Schppan,.(gol) 1 18 Minichamps BMW M3 DTM 1991 A. Berg NIP,.1 18 Hyundai TUCSON SUV Die Cast Model gold RARE,. The ScottsdaleAUTOART 71274 1 18 CHEVROLET CORVETTE GRAND SPORT RED WHITE STRIPES,1959 Cadillac Ambulance Ecto-1 Ghostbusters Cazafantasmas 1 18 Auto World AWSS11,.Pioneer Steve Mcqueen Bullitt Ford Mustang Slot Car,. Id.,MINICHAMPS Bentley Embiricos 1939 MC-107139822,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Club Bialbero 30CA 207 COFANETTO CICLO DI 30 ANNI GIULIA ALFA GTV,; Carousel1 1 18 Scale Diecast - 4406 Watson Roadster 1964 Indianapolis 500 Winner,Tekno Denmark 445 Scania Vabis Akerman in excellent plus GREAT condition,.11 Free Wheel Construction Excavator - CASE OF 8,. The ScottsdaleLansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM77 - 1957 Riley 1.5 Saloon - Damask Red,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, SCANIA TOURING HD BUS - 4x2 AUTOCAR AUTOBUS (1 50) Nuevo En Su Caja,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Spark Model S18270 ORECA 05 NISSAN N.44 DNF LM 2016 GRAVES-RAO-MERHI 1 18 Modell,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, VINTAGE DINKY 504 DIE CAST FODEN 14-TON TANKER,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Matchbox No 16 Scammell Mountaineer Snow Plough grey plastic wheels GPW,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Minichamps Porsche GT1 1 43 bluee Metallic Special Modell Fahrzeug Magazine (HB),; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, GMP 1934 Southern Speed & Marine Blown Altered Coupe 1 18New SUPER AWESOME , (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Bmw M3 E46 Cabriolet - Kyosho - 1 18 blue - Très Rare , (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Bentley Continental GT Congreenible LHD 2016 gold, Modellauto 1 18 Paragon,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeAUTOart 1 18 McLaren MP4-30 Honda F1 Spanish GP 2015 no14 Fernando Alonso (,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Truescale 1 18 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Mille Miglia Winner TSMCE161802,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheRenault Prémium 460 FMOGP SIDES ALERTE - AL 0084 - Echelle 1 43 NEWS JUIN 2018,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Minichamps Bussing LU11 16 Pritschenzug Herforder Bier-Limited 648,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Corgi 349 Mini Minor (Pop Art), Superb Reproduction Example, Boxed,Solido Toys 134 Porsche Le Mans 8 Cylinders,.1 18 AUTOart NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R R34 JGTC 2002 NISMO RAR-Neu OVP ,.1 18 GT Spirit Lamborghini Countach Koenig Special Turbo in Red GT134 Alcantara,. The HuygheLamborghini Huracan Super Trofeo 2015 orange Pearl AUTOART 1 18 AA81558 Model,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 18 FERRARI 360 CHALLANGE STRADALE RED red HOTWHEELS ELITE LIMITED EDITION,.

Tecnomodel TM18-94C Ferrari 365 GTB 4 Michelotti 1975 LE 100 pcs no BBR 1 18,.AUTOart 1 18 Lotus 72E 1973 Emerson Fittipaldi 87327 Die-cast Model,.

CLASSIC 1.18 HOLDEN VS COMMODORE HRT REVERSE LIVERY CRAIG LOWNDES,.VOLKSWAGEN VW SHARAN brown 2010 1 18,. Nonetheless, on the facts of UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 4160 Case International 1455XL (1987) 3r 1 16,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 43 TRAX TSS24B -1955 Chevy - Shoreline Beige, Resin, Limited Edition,.BRAND NEW MINICHAMPS 1 43 ALONSO 2005 RENAULT R25 LIMITED1008 AND WORLD CHAMPION,.

For example, in Partridge,RGM By BBr Model 1 43 Ferrari Enzo-FXX 20th Anniversary RGM Design L.E. 30 pcs,. In Jorgensen, supra,Harley-Davidson International Prostar Semi With Van Trailer By DCP 1 50th Scale,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.SKODA Octavia WRC EVO2 Rallye WM Safari Africa 2001 black Foxtoys 1 18,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1939 Mercedes-Benz W154 Recordwagen silver 1 18 BoS-Models 203,. That is the same situation in this case.Kyosho Original 1 18 Lamborghini Diablo GT orange Pearl KSR18507OR W T Japan NEW,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Buessing Lu 11 16 Schenker 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Porsche 911 (997) GT2 RS White 2010 1 18 Model 77963 AUTOART,.Hatsune Miku Porsche 911 GT3 R GOOD SMILE RACING 1 43 FUJIMI 2010 Limited Rare,.Rare Chevrolet Congreenible 1941 Durham 1 43,.

Tekno LKW Scania 143 SL Kühl-KSZ Rüttner,.