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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
VW Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Bus T3 Westfalia Camper Camping Hochdach Joker Premium Cl 1 18 328bc7
Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model 151 - 1949 Vauxhall Velox Caleche - Met Green,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals MODELLINO AUTO SCALA 1 18 FERRARI 225 S 90 SPYDER TECNOMODEL CAR MODEL MINIATURE,.MINICHAMPS McLaren Mercedes MP4-23 Heikki Kovalainen 1 18 530081823 503081823,.New Drake Maxitrans Freighter Road Train Trailer Red White 1 50 Replica ZT09139,.80432153612 DEALER KYOSHO 1 18 BMW X5 4.8i WHITE NEW SHIPPING WORLDWIDE,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1 43 BBR FERRARI 360 MODENA N GT RED H LE MANS 2002 TEAM AUTO PALACE BG238,.Austin Allegro 3 - Somerville 143 England 1 43 in Box 34375,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1 18 Gmp Gentilozzi Homelink, Ford Mustang Trans Am Winner Limited 1000st Rare,.1 18 Minichamps 100798600 Ford Capri Turbo Size 5 Red Limited Edition 504 Pcs,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.NOREV 1997 Mercedes Benz S600 W140 V12 Grey Metallic 1 18 LE 1000New Item ,.CMR 1 18 Scale - CMR045 Porsche 917 LH Le Mans 1971 Rodriguez, Oliver,.Carrera Servo 132 Porsche 936 88404 New, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Ferrari California T Spider Closed Roof 84Th Geneve Auto 2014 BBR 1 43 BBRC140B,.Porsche 911 S, No.82, Kremer Racing, ADAC 1000KM Nürburgring, 1 43, Minichamps,.Spark McLaren Honda MCL32 GP Australia 2017 Alonso 18 Scale New Release,.Minichamps Ford Capri Turbo Gr.5 D&W DRM 1982 1 18 100828503,.

Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 125 T Modena Test Alberto Ascari,.MINIMARQUE 1 43 - 1947 JAGUAR 3.5 LITRE DHC OPEN RHD - GREEN,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 142 - Standard Flying 12 Deluxe - Fawn,.Top Marques 1 43 Scale CR1 - 1929 Morris Minor - Brown,.Drivers Selection 1;18th Porsche 911 Turbo S in Racing Yellow – Limited Edition,.

NISSAN ZYTEK GREAVES LMP2 Spark resin IN BOX 1 18 SEE INFO,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Brand 1 40 Minicar Diamond Pet Crown Japan Airlines 43 Scale Car,.Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM10 - Austin Tourer - Light bluee,.Drake ZT09158 Maxitrans Skel B Double Trailer Combination Yellow 1 50,Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08736GP BMW M3 Coupe Moto GP 2008 Safety Car,.Lesney Matchbox 1958 RW45A Yellow Vauxhall Victor Car GPW Green Windows Mint Bxd,.

Corgi-Maxwell Mini Toys 547 'Thums Up' Coke Van. Rare Boxed. Original,. CONRAD MAN TGA+TELESTEP TRAILER FELBERMAYR TOP & OVP ANSCHAUEN 1 50,.BMW 1800 TI 1965 RED Minichamps 107024001,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

MINICHAMPS Bentley Embiricos 1939 MC-107139822,.

New Biante 1 18 HRT 1991 Tooheys 1000 Runner-Up ATCC Diecast Model B293706F,. We agree in part.

Looks Mart Ls460A Lamborghini Centenario,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 530 971890 McLaren MP4 12 Testcar D. Coulthard,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Crossway Models 1 43 Scale CM14 - Morris 8 Open 2 Str S2 Green,.TOP MARQUES COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - MOSLER MT 900 - 2000 - TOP46A,.DCP Owner Operator Peterbilt 379 w Fontaine Magnitude Lowboy Trailer 1 64,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; TEK65392 - DAF XF105 SSC 4x2 Avec benne 3 Essieux WILLI BETZ - 1 50,.Peugeot 404 Diesel Record Car 1 18 Spark S18037 Miniature,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Corgi toys 1108 BLOODHOUND MISSILE AND LAUNCHER BOXED excellent,; Jaguar F-Type R Coupe 2015 matt grey Autoart 1 18 NEU OVP,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Kyosho SAMURAI 1 18 LEXUS RX 200t F Sports White Resin Model KSR18014W,.Super Rare Yellow Maisto 1 18 1957 Chevrolet Corvette American Car Figure,GMP Ford Mustang Shelby GT350 1965 Red 1 18 A1801802R,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Bentley Continental GT V8 S green 1 18,.

Kings Models 1 43 1954 Ferrari 625 Italian Grand Prix Robert Manzon,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.RAE Models 1 43 Scale Model Car KE003C - 1930 MG M Type - Red,.DIAPET Yonezawa T-92 1 50 MAC Auto Transporter BOXED,.Minichamps 2012 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 24h Nuremberg 18New Item ,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Boxed Corgi 218 Aston Martin DB4 1960-62 Spun Hubs VN MIB,; 1970 HEAVY CHEVY -HOT WHEELS-RARE-ORIGINAL LOOSE REDLINE-VHTF- blueESPOILERS,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Hot Wheels Porsche P-917 917 Redline. Excellent Condition. 1969 Hong Kong,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Hot Wheels Aries Wagon 3258 Yellow Chrysler Woody DieCast Hong Kong 1981 Mattel,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

WSI Scania Highline 8x2 Palfinger System Hakenlift Container 15M3 bluee Shine ,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

WSI 01-1726 Hovotrans Scania R Topline Combi,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Johnny Lightning 1 64 Scale 26104 - Set Of 12 Models - James Bond 007 Release 1,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Rare 1960s Marklin Mercedes Unimog Giftset,.Hot Wheels Mattel J2994 Formula 1 (GP Monza ) 2006 M.Schumacher (S3),. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Spark 18S104 1 18 PORSCHE 911 (997) GT3 RSR LE MANS 2013 DEMPSEY FOSTER LONG,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.DIECAST MASTERS 85552 Cat 24 Motor Grader 1 50,.

Matchbox Kingsize K-11A Fordson Tractor & Trailer seltene orange Felgen in Box,.Kyosho 1 18 BMW MINI COOPER Die Cast Model Congreenible Version Die Cast Model,.MATTEL HOT WHEELS - FERRARI - F1 F248 N 5 66 POLE POSITION - ALL TIME POLE 66 6,.2018 HOT WHEELS 11a MEXICO CONVENTION 1 OF 1 ´55 CHEVY BEL AIR GASSER CHARITY,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Ignition model 1 43 Nissan Cedric Cima (Y31) Pearl White Resin Model IG1089,.

ALEZAN MODELS . 1 43 . ALFA ROMEO KAMAL . GENEVE 2003 .,.Crossway Models 1 43 Scale AC06 - Triumph 2000 Saloon - Damson,.Trax 1 43 TSS20 1954 Ford Mercury Sedan Grey Ghost in It's original boxes.,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 123 - Saab 95 Estate - Red,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 18 Minichamps Ford Capri Rs 3100 (1974) White Limited Edition 1000 Pc.,.GT3 Porsche 911 991 2017 silver blacke Felgen 1 18 Minichamps limited,.PORSCHE 911 Carrera SC RS Rallye Tour de Corse 1985 Beguin Ro OTTO RAR 1 18,.CMR 1 18 Scale Resin - 029 Ferrari 512S Long Tail S.E.F.A.C 24H Le Mans 1970,.Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC12 - 1954 Riley Pathfinder - Met Green,.

Matra DJET Monte Carlo 1967 Bizarre BZ323 Spark 1 43 Ultra Rare , the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Danhausen AMR 1 43 Ferrari 250 GT Coupe Pininfarina 58 red Handmade OVP,.SCHUCO VW T2 a VAN MUELLER REISEN TECHNO CLASSICA 2011 1 43 NEW IN BOX 1 OF 80,. The PartridgePorsche 911 (993) rwb (Sky bluee),.1 18 AUTOART Mercedes Benz 500SEC AMG Spa Ludwig,.DUGU ITALY FIAT S76 BEAST OF TURIN MINT BOXED,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Dinky Toys no. 24L - 2 CV Vespa 400 Boxed, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2.1 - 24h Daytona 1977 - 1 of 1.000 - Norev - 1 18 - 187,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Mercedes LP608 Martini 1 18 Premium Classixxs 30043,.Bentley Continental Gtc White Minichamps 1 18 100139032 Model Diecast,PartridgeLAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP 610-4 SPIDER 2015 ARANCIO BOREALIS Looksmart LS452B,.BOS170 by BOS MODELS maserati Quattroporte 1 18,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Autoart 73653 - 1 18 Jaguar F-Type R Coupe (2015) - Firesand Metallic orange, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, DINKY TOYS 667 MISSILE SERVICING PLATFORM VEHICLE, NEAR MINT IN GOOD BOX,; Willi Betz Spedition Autotransporter 5618 9153 mit Beleuchtung Scenix Edition,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Corgi Toys 204 Rover 90 Saloon Excellent plus in complete original box, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 50 GMTS golden Oldies Scania S 0 Koegel Kühlauflieger Polar Express 4721 NEU , (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeAston Martin Vanquish S (2017) Composite Model Car 70271,.

Altes VERO Parkhaus 3 Etagen OVP und unbespielt Lagerfund 1 43 DDR,.Schuco Varianto Elektro 3118 Station Car boxed, Clarke's negligent act.Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08091R Mercedes Benz 300 SL Gullwing Red,.Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80530 BMW M3 GTR Nurburgring 2005 Plain Red,.MATCHBOX MOKO LESNEY MODEL No.15b redINOFF SUPER ATLANTIC TRACTOR MIB,.

1 18 AUTOart PORSCHE 911 (997) GT3 RS 4.0 (GREEN) 2011,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 1 18 Scale 100 798601 Ford Capri Turbo Gr. 5 Sachs DRM 79,TootsieToy Fageol Bus USA 1927-1933 C9 Near Mint,. In Noska,AUTOART 89180 NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R (R32) AUSTRALIAN BATHURST WINNER 1991, 1 18TH,.Ferrari F10 Fernando Alonso Felipe Massa 2010 Steering Wheel AMALGAM 1 4,.MINIMARQUE 1 43 SCALE AUSTIN ATLANTIC A90 COUPE + ORIGINAL BOX,.Dinky Space Toys Original Shop Display Poster Rare Diecast Models 1960,s old, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Spark Pescarolo C60-Judd N 17 2Nd Lm 1 18 Scale Car,.Auto Art 1 18 Porsche 911 996 Gt3 Rsr,.AUTOart 1 18 Lotus Exige S Red 75381 Die-cast Compreted Model,.IG1262 ignition model 1 43 Nissan Cedric Y32 Gran Turismo Ultima White,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 GT Spirit Mercedes Benz C Class C63 AMG Touring in White GT147 Red Leather,Kenna models KM3, 1953 MG TF Green ( MB ),.Conrad MAN TGS L Euro 5 2achs Siloauflieger Eqiom Neu OVP,.BBR Models 1 43 Ferrari F430 Gt LMGT2 Krohn Racing 24H Le Mans 2011 BBRC68,.Abingdon Classics 1 43 Scale MR8 53 - 1931 MG Midget C Type - Brown Cream,.1 43 BBR FERRARI LAFERRARI F1 METALLIC RED DELUXE RED LEATHER BASE LE 35 PCS MR,.Tekno LKW MAN TG-X XXL Aerop. Schubboden-SZ Cand-Landi,.Opel Commodore A Steinmetz  1 18 Umbau Tuning 1 18 Youngtimer Rennsport 1 18,. The parties Negotiation Ok Ferrari F50 1 18 Size Open,.

New Biante 1 18 HDT Holden LH Torana L34 O'Brien 1976 Hardie Ferodo 4th Place,.American Classics 1 43 Scale Model Car AA19 - 1959 Dodge Royal - Grey Maroon,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1995 Action Racing Collectables Davey Allison Havoline 1 24,; AMG Models 1 43 1954 Ferrari 553 French GP Reims Froilan Gonzalez, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

AUTOART 1 18 MCLAREN MP4-12C orange 76006,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Acme 1 18 Scale Diecast - A1801806 1968 Shelby GT350 Special order WT 6066,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 180 049027 Opel GT 1970 White Red,.IKARUS-256.51 white dark red 1 43 Classicbus RARE ,.Spark Oreca 05 Nissan LMP2 Le Mans 2015 KCMG in 1 18 Scale. New Release,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Conquest Models 1 43 Scale Nr.1 - 1954 Oldsmobile Starfire 98 FAULTY,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Roadace Replica (Great Britain) Red White Stripe AC Cobra Daytona Plaster 1 100,.917 PORSCHE by Glen Smile MOTORBUCH VERLAG STUTTGART 2010 rare photobook German,.AUTOART 1 43 JAGUAR D-TYPE LE MANS 24 HOURS '55 CHAMPIONSHIP CAR,.ABREX AB18033SK SKODA YETI FL OUTDOOR 2013 LIGHT blueE METALLIC 1 18,.Matchbox No. 66 - Harley Davidson and Sidecar in originaler Box,. The ScottsdaleTEKNO DENMARK 804 MG MIDGET TD 1952 + BOX - VINTAGE ORIGINAL MODEL (S),Schuco Porsche 934 RSR Jägermeister (00335) - 1 18,.1971 Plymouth Hemi Cuda 60 Segundos - Shannon 1 18 Highway-61 18010,. Id.,Mercedes Benz A 217 S Class Cabrio S 63 AMG White 1 18 New OVP,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Saure 129 Wiking 1 87 Porsche 356 Typ 2 purplet unverglast ohne Box 512240,; RARE Porsche 911 GT3 R Nurenberg Toy Fair Show 2019 IXO 1 43 1 of 99,1 18 Scale Classic Carlectables Holden HJ Monaro GTS - Jamacia Lime,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - L7115 Ferrari F430 Challenge Team Shelton,. The Scottsdale2018 Lexus GS F bluee 1 18 Kyosho Samurai KSR18017BL,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Spark Porsche 911 GT3 R 24h Nurburgring 2017 18 Scale LE of 300 New ,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Kings Models 1 43 1956 Ferrari D50 Longnose French GP Test Fangio,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Tarmac works Model Spoon Honda Civic Type R EG6 Group A Racing White,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Sun Star Ford Escort Mk2 1600 Sport 2 Door In orange 1 18 Scale Diecast Model.,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Minichamps Mercedes AMG F1 W07 Hybrid World Champion 2016 Rosberg 18 New ,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, M0855 Polistil F1 1 55 - Tyrrell RACING color Arancio - in blister- RARA, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Schuco 09015 - OPEL Blitz Renntransporter PORSCHE Stuttgart 1 43 Neuheit , (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Vision Carrera Rs 1992 Gard Red 1 43 Porsche 911 964,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeKyosho Ae86 Trueno Minicar Initial D,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Hot Wheels Wonder Woman Invisible Jet SDCC 2010 - Mint ,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheKyosho samurai 1 18 TOYOTA Land Cruiser AX G Selection White KSR18008W,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.70224 AUTOart 1 18 Aston Martin V8 Vantage '85 green,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,AUTOart 70143 - 1 18 Composite Alfa Romeo 4C Spider - yellow predo tipo yellow,F43M016 FERRARI 500 TR N.287 COPPA SANT'AMBROEUS 59 MONZA '59 A. M. Peduzzi,.KYOSHO 08431R FERRARI GTO red OVP 1 18,.GMP Vintage 1932 Ford Duece Coupe Fendered Highboy 1 18 Scale Diecast '32 Car,. The HuygheAUTOart Aston Martin V12 Vantage Bathurst 1 18 81507,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMinichamps 2013 BMW M3 DTM MARCO WITTMANN BMW TEAM MTEK Dealer Ed 1 18New ,.

PORSCHE 962 JAGERMEISTER WINNER SPA 1986 BOUTSEN JELINSKI 1 18 SPARK 18S090,.Minichamps 1 43 F1 Set Red Bull F1 S. Vettel Season 2010-2012 World Champion,.

1 18 Ferrari LaFerrari año 2013 Hot Wheels BCT80 black,.Hi Story 1 24 Mugen MUGEN S660 2015 carnival yellow II finished product,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Scion Fr-S Versione Nord America Lhd silver 2012 Autoart 1 18 AA78778 Model,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeTransitional Matchbox Superfast No 53 Ford Zodiac Darker Lime Green Wide Holl Wh,.DINKY TOYS S.H.A.D.O UFO INTERCEPTOR CODE 3 MINT GERRY ANDERSON,.

For example, in Partridge,(A) marklin MERCEDES BENZ ARAL PETROL TANKER - 8032,. In Jorgensen, supra,Alfa Romeo 4C Spider 2015 White AUTOART 1 18 AA70141 Model,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Lotus 72E 1973 Peterson ohne Fahrer-Figur Autoart 1 18 NEU OVP,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Norev 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80432413752 BMW M1 Hommage orange Metallic,. That is the same situation in this case.Matchbox Rare 2011 Limited Edition Gathering Promotional MCCH VW Caddy MIB set,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Ignition model 1 43 DENSO Toyota 90C-V 1991 JSPC IG1103 Best Buy Gift New,. Detroit Edison, supra.

VW T2 Kasten - bluee '50 years' 1 18 Schuco,.Durham 1 43 Scale DUR 27 - 1939 Ford Panel Van K&R Toy & Auction Show 1 Of 300,.Vintage - Tracteur Panhard et Semi-Remorque S.N.C.F. Mint - Dinky Toys 32AB,.

Vintage - BMW 2000 CS - 1 43 Solido 157 serie 100,.