Mercedes Benz SLS AMG AMG AMG Roadster 2011 red metallic 100039030 1 18 Minichamps 90e751

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Mercedes Benz SLS AMG AMG AMG Roadster 2011 red metallic 100039030 1 18 Minichamps 90e751
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals BBR 1 43 Alfa Romeo 156 Sedan 1997 in Azzurro Nuvola BG143D - Rare,.MEMO Tôle - Voiture de Course N°8 bluee,.Porsche 918 Spyder Paquete de Weissach Año Fabricación 2015 red 1 18,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast 150 089021 Ford Escort Cosworth 1992 Red,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Porsche 911 964 Carrera Rs 1992 Red Vm122F 1 43 Vision Finished Minicar New,.EBBRO 45119 1 43 HP SF14 SUPER FORMULA 2014 No.10 from Japan Model Car F S,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1 50 Scale SWORD FREIGHTLINER Century Class Tractor & Wabash Box Trailer SW2068,.Minichamps 107054000 1 18 VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE YEAR 1949 GREEN,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 18 GMP A1806007 Dodge Challenger SRT8 Texas Highway Patrol 2012,.OTTO 1 18 Scale Resin Model Car - OT699 Audi S8 White,.1 18 GT Spirit GT107 Mercedes C63 S AMG Touring. T-Modell. White, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

New Classic Craig Lowndes HRT Holden VS Commodore 1999 Reverse Livery 1 18 18670,.Mattel Ferrari F355 Spider 1 18 Scale Car,.WSI 01-2119 MSG MAN TGX XXL + 5 axle Nooteboom Multi PX,.American Classics 1 43 Scale Model Car AA19 - 1959 Dodge Royal - White bluee,.

Spark Audi R8 LMS Winner Bathurst 2018 Frijns Leonard Vantoor A 1 18 LE300,.Scania LB 141 S Tractor+ trailer 1 43 Minichamps,.DIECAST MASTERS DM71016 1 50 INTERNATIONAL HX520 TANDEM TRACTOR WITH XL120,.Moskvitch 434 A6 1 43 Novoexport USSR,.SUNSTAR - 1 18 - CADILLAC DEVILLE LIMOUSINE - 2004 - 4231,.

1 18 Hot Wheels Elite FERRARI 575MM MARANELLO Red,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Minichamps - Eddie Irvine - Ferrari- F310 2 - 1996 -1 18 - Full tobacco - Rare,.Triumph TR6 1969 dark green diecast modelcar 155132030 Minichamps 1 18,.Minichamps 1 18 1992 DTM German Masters JOHNNY BMW M3 E30 Die Cast Model,74673 AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Aventador J Metallic Red,.HWMVL7118 by HOT WHEELS FERRARI 125 S HIGH END 1947 1 18,.

Hot Wheels Ferrari 458 Speciale Elite Edition 1 18 BLY33,.Mini Champs 1 43 Scale Sahara Force India Formula 1 Team Mercedes VJM 09 Japan,.Bentley Exp 12 Speed 6e Exp Green 1 43 Model LOOKSMART,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Schuco (Asahi) 1 20 Porsche 924 Turbo Plastic Radio Control Near M BOX RARE,.

AUTOART Porsche 911 991 GT3 RS Lava orange Dark Grey Wheels 1 18Brand New ,. We agree in part.

Bmw M1 Procar 1979 Yellow 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,.1 18 AUTOart Callaway C12 yellow - RARITÄT§,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.VW Beetle Motorhome red - white 1 18 450011200,.Mercedes Crazy color G63 AMG 1 18 Limited Edition 463pcs. galacticbeam GT Spirit,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155 862644 BMW 325i Class Winners ETCC 1986,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes L 1113 Aerial Ladder DL30 Metzingen 1 43 Minichamps,.Mclaren 1 18 OEM Model Mclaren P1 Volcano orange,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Vintage Corgi 1100 - Carrimore Low Loader - Yellow bluee,; Lamborghini Huracan GT3 2015 yellow Modellauto 1 18 Autoart,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Autoworld 1 18 Scale Diecast - AMM1011 1970 Chevy Chevelle SS Maroon White,.Cummins Foton ISF 3.8 Engine Replica Static Display Desktop Model,AUTOart 1 18 Mercedes-Benz G500 SWB (Red) finished product,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Ferrari Laferrari Aperta red Corsa 322 BBR 1 43 BBRC187C2,.

Conquest Models 1 43 Scale Nr.1 - 1954 Oldsmobile Starfire 98 FAULTY,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.K2000 Knight Rider K.I.T.T. Joy Ride DIE CAST METAL,.MR Models Lamborghini Sesto Element Carbonium Decals auf blueer Alcantara Basis,.IMBRIMA INBRIMA MATCHBOX TROL FIAT ABARTH B904,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Minichamps 180812925 1 18 BMW M1 Procar GTO Class Winner LA Times GP 1981,; 1 43 RL120 Aston Martin AMR1 Le Mans by SMTS,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Diecast Car Model KengFai Honda NSX RHD 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

AA87181 by AUTOART PORSCHE 908 3 NURBURGRING 1971 18,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 70013 Range Rover 4.6 HSE RH Drive Red,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Norev 1 18 Scale Diecast - 183577 Mercedes Benz 200 1966 Green,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

2004 Cadillac Deville Limousine whiteo 1 18 Sun Star 4232,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.2000 Hotwheels Harley Davidson Electric Racing Set,.AUTOart Nissan Skyline GTR (R32) 18 89279,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Otto 1 18 Scale resin - OT155 Volkswagen Beetle 1200 Oettinger Grey Model Car,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.DIECAST CAR & CASE LAMBORGHINI MURCIELAGO R-GT KYOSHO KSR18505BK 1 18 RESIN CAR,.

2009 Brawn GP BGP001 World Champions 1 18 Minichamps 186090022,.Pathfinder Vanguard 1 43 Scale VAN5 - Morris J Type Van 1 Of 100 Red Hull Mail,.Schuco Volkswagen T1b KASTENWAGEN Ferrari Transporter FRANCORCHAMPS 1 18 New,.Mercedes Benz Polizei Wagon 6 Batt Op Remote Control Mint in Box (1960s) ITB WH,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Kyosho TF-5S chassis, with Lexus SC430 body,.

EXOTO RENAULT RE-20 TURBO GP FRANCE 1980 Arnoux 18 OVP,.ACME 1941 JR Thompson & Poole Gasser 1 18 LE 600pcs NewSUPER NICE ,.Bristol L5G bus by Scale Link Ltd. SLBK01WD-A,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 503 - 1937 Ford 8 -7Y - Green,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1956 Desoto Firedom 4-Door Seville bluee by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 Scale New,.1 18 Biante - Holden HQ Monaro GTS350 Sedan - Purr Pull LTD ED. 1150 NEW,.ODGI Toys Of Yesteryear White Metal Triumph Mayflower 0911 In Metallic Grey,.Mclaren P1 Gtr 2015 Dark Grey orange AUTOART 1 18 AA81543 Miniature,.GREENLIGHT 1.18 MAD MAX FORD XB FALCON MFP SEDAN 1st OF THE V8 INTERCEPTORS,.

Heco N140 1 43 1988 Ferrari F40 with Engine Set Handmade Resin Model Car, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Knight rider Electronic Vehicule 1 15 Scale Diamond Select,.DIAPET Yonezawa T-92 1 50 MAC Auto Transporter BOXED,. The PartridgeMinichamps Mclaren Honda Mp4-31 J. Baton Monaco Gp 2016,.ALIANCE BUS REALATION GIFT WOOD WITH ROLLING WHEELS 1 50 MINT BOXED DEN OUDSTEN,.1 43 Minichamps Audi Avantissimo Break 2001 Resin Model 440013010,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1 43 AMR 004b CADILLAC COUPE CABRIOLET 1950 SERIE 61 COLLECTOR RARE GYL, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.DINKY TOYS 968 BBC TV ROVING EYE VEHICLE OVP 1960 MECCANO,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Vintage - LAMBORGHINI MIURA P.400 - 1 43 Solido Ref. 161 serie 100,.Ferrari 1 18 458 Italia Hot Wheels Elite,PartridgeLS Collectibles 1 18 Scale Model Car LS038B - 1997 Honda Prelude - Purple,.To Marques 1 18 Scale Resin - TOP011 Alfa Romeo 4C SBK Pace Car Red,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 50 WSI DAF XF SSC 2x 20 ft. Container SZ Hamburg Süd Oehlrich 01-2429, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, BBURAGO GRAND PRIX 1 TYRRELL 6-WHEELER - FIRST NATIONAL CITY - F1 1 14 - GIB,; Alfa Romeo 2000 Beige 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, TOGI ALFA ROMEO ALFA 164 - RED 1 23 RARE - VERY GOOD CONDITION IN BOX, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, KYOSHO J COLLE 1 43 SUBARU LEGACY B4 2.0 R 2005 WHITE PEARL, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCORGI TOYS 1137 FORD TILT CAB ´H´ SERIES W DETACHABLE TRAILER OVP MINT,.

Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80432411557 BMW M6 GT3 DTM Race car,.1 18 AUTOART - ALFA ROMEO TZ 2 1965 (RED) - ZUM SONDERPREIS , Clarke's negligent act.Brand Ap-1050 Asphalt Paver Caterpillar 1 50 Scale,.Bentley Flying Spur W12 - 1 18 - Kyosho,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80 43 0 396 026 BMW M3 DTM 1987 Team Zakspeed,.

Samurai 1 18 Subaru BRZ Yellow Edition Completed,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 2015 The Arkham Knight Batmobile 1 18 Hot Wheels Elite BLY23,GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin - GT732 - Porsche 911 964 RWB Hoonigan - White,. In Noska,AUTOART 1 18 NISSAN GT-R NISMO GT3 WHITE,.McLaren P1 GTR in YELLOW GREEN STRIPES in 1 18 Scale by AUTOart,.Classic 43 1 43 Scale Model Car 1000 - 1959 Jaguar Mk2 Saloon - Green,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 143 - Austin Allegro 3 - Snapdragon, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Signature 1 18 Scale Diecast 18118 1934 Aston Martin Mark 2 Dark green Model Car,.BIANTE 1 18 PYE LUFF HOLDEN VF COMMODORE MOBIL HSV SUPERCAR 2017 BATHURST,.Rare 1924 Bugatti Type 35 B11XN62 New In box FM 1 24 bluee Diecast Franklin Mint,.Peugeot 905 Evo 1 Bis Winner Le Mans 1992 Spark 1 18,. Id., p 923.

New Biante 1 18 HSV E3 GTS Sting Red Holden Special Vehicles BR18404A Resin,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, AUTOart McLaren 570S 2017 Green 1 18 76042,Kyosho 1 18 Porsche 356A 1600 Speedster,.LookSmart LS476A 1 43 Ferrari 488 Challenge,.New Engine with Display Showcase from 1955 Mercedes 300 SLR Mille Miglia 1 18 Di,.HART SMITH ASAM MODELS WHITE METAL BUILT KENWORTH TANKER SHELL AUSTRALIA 1 48,.FERRARI PORTOFINO SALONE FRANCOFORTE 2017 yellow MODENA Looksmart LS480C,.DINKY TOYS HONG KONG CHEVROLET IMPALA 57 003,.HPI 8825 1 43 Calsonic Skyline GT-R R33 1995 JGTC Sendai,. The parties Vw Corrado Vr6 Otto 1 18 Scale Model BNIB,.

Matchbox Lesney 53 Mercedes - Benz Coupe GPW near mint in near mint fresh box,.Char Anti-Aérien AMX30 Missiles ROLAND MASTER FIGHTER BY GASO.LINE 1 48,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, FRANKLIN MINT 1 10 1976 HARLEY DAVIDSON ELECTRA GLIDE ROAD RALLY - MINT BOXED,; Auto World Miniature Car Dirty Version Christine 1958 Plymouth Fury 1 18 Scale,, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

ISO Grifo 7 Litri (IR8) 1972 1 18 BOS133,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, ABC 217 ALFA ROMEO 2600PININFARINA SPIDER - RED 1 43 -EXCELLENT CONDITION - 3+23,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)FERRARI PORTOFINO SALONE FRANCOFORTE 2017 ALLUMINIO OPACO Looksmart LS480B,.1 43 BBR C35AW Ferrari 599 GTO 2010 white w red stripe limited ex. no 8 59,.GT SPIRIT 1 18 SCALE AUDI ABT RS6+ MISANO RED,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 18 Kyosho Bentley Bentayga Bright Bronze Nr. 08921BZ OVP,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz. SA002-91 - FrontiArt SophiArt BMW M4 - Matt light grey - 1 18,.DINKY TOYS 24C CITROEN DS 19 BERLINE AVEC GLACES MADE IN FRANCE MECCANO,.Corgi Toys 335 Jaguar 4.2 Litre E Type 2+2 mint in box what a beauty superb,.1 43 Gasoline BBR Ferrari F430 GT2 24H Le Mans 2007 Scuderia Ecosse gas10086,.HOT WHEELS FIRE RODS '80S CORVETTE 26 RED & WHITE W+,. The ScottsdaleBrooklin models, 1 43, 1964 1 2 Ford Mustang Indianapolis pace car 1964,Dinky Toys 470, Austin Van SHELL - B.P., Mint in Box ab1628,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 796484 - Porsche 934 Anny Charlotte Verney LM '79,. Id.,PEUGEOT 306 MAXI Gr.A N°25 RALLYE MONTE CARLO 1995 PIERGIORGIO MINI RACING 1 43,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, New Drake Skel B Double Trailer Combination Diecast Replica Model 1 50 Membrey,; Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155736592 Porsche 917 10 Farewell In The Snow Nurburgring,Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFMCC1 - 1960 Facel Vega HK500 1 Of 600 Red,.DV6941 ELIGOR 1 43 RENAULT R340 TRANSPORTS TRANAFIS 110338 HORS COMMERCE,. The Scottsdale77416 AUTOart 1 18 Nissan Skyline GT-R R32 V-Spec II Tune Version White,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Schuco Hanomag Robust 900 with Showmen Dare Green Tractor 1 3 2 Item 450780300,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Dinky toys 197 Morris Mini Traveller in Cream Superb Original & Boxed,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Ford Capri Heyer DRM 1978 1 18 • Minichamps 100798652,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Kyosho 1 18 Scale 09216RR Audi R8 5.2 FSI Quattro Brilliant Red,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, MINICHAMPS 180039009 1954 54 MERCEDES BENZ 300 SL GULLWING W198 I 1 18 YELLOW,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC21LE - Jaguar XK150 Coupe - gold, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Ferrari California T Spider Open Roof 2014 BBR 1 43 BBRC139C Model, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, MakeUp VISION VM096D 1 43 Porsche 911 (993) RS 1995 (Japan Ver) White,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMERCURY - Art 13 - Fiat Nuova 1100 blue - 1 48e - - Boite d'origine,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, AGUTI TOYS MATCHBOX SUPERFAST DODGE CHARGER MARK III EXTREMELY RARE,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMetosul Morris Mini Cooper made in Portugal 1 43 scale NM+ scarce red-brown,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Ferrari J50 Spider 2016 red Tristrato Red Met BBR 1 43 BBRC208i,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Corgi Toys No. 319, Lotus Elan Coupe No. 7., - Superb,BOXED DINKY 968 BBC TV ROVING EYE VEHICLE,.Dinky Supertoys No 923 is the Big Bedford van,in the livery of Heinz Exe Boxed,.FAW 1 18 Scale Diecast - FAW Toyota Land Cruiser White gold,. The HuygheBmw 316 1978 Red 1 18 Model 107024100 MINICHAMPS,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheZC611 JPS KP234 Miniature Voiture Kit Metal Resine 1 43 Rondeau M482 LM 1983,.


Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Daytona 1973 P. Gregg 1 18 GT Spirit gt728 NEW,.1 18 Highway 61 Supercar1 1968 Plymouth HEMI Barracuda Sox & Martin neu OVP,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Rare 1 43 Norev Vw Bus T1A,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge2010 BMW Serie 1 (F20) Midnigt bluee 1 18 Paragon Models 97005,.2016 Red Bull Daniel Ricciardo Monaco GP by Spark,.

For example, in Partridge,Liontoys 79055 Man Tg-A XXL Szm bluee 1 50,. In Jorgensen, supra,McLAREN BMW GTR F1 24h Le Mans 1997 Bscher Pirro Capello Loc Minichamps 1 18,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Minichamps 180953304 Mercedes C-Class DTM 95 J. Magnussen 1 18 MIB,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Gmts - golden Oldies Linie 50 8102 Hanomag B11 Radlader Yellow; 1 50,. That is the same situation in this case.LS Collectibles 1982 MITSUBISHI 3000 GTO White in 1 18 Scale New Release,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Paragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - PA-98303R - Jaguar XJ6 2.8 - Carmen Red - RHD,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Corgi 269 James Bond 007 Lotus Esprit, Near Mint in Original Box,.Schuco VW Bus T1b Persil 1 18 limitiert 1 1000,.EBBRO 1 43 REITO MOLA GT-R SUPER GT500 2013 No.1 finished product,.

Toyota 2000 Gt 1970 Bellatrix Yellow 1 43 Model 8374 HPI RACING,.