Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale Model Car GC20 - 1969 Jaguar 420G - Brown Beige,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals CAT CATERPILLAR 24 MOTOR GRADER W OPERATOR 1 50 MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 85552,.VW Volkswagen Fridolin VW Volkswagen Kundendienst blue grey 1964-1974 limitier..,.Minichamps Lamborghini Countach Lp 400 1974,.WIKING 113 VW KAFER GREY-WHITE 1 40 RARE SELTEN IN NEAR MINT CONDITION IN BOX,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.FrontiArt AS005-06 - Acura ( HONDA ) NSX Baujahr 2017 in red 1 18 NEUHEIT,.Corgi 1 43 Scale Model Car 04203 Aston Martin DB5 goldfinger 50th Anniv Bond 007,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.GAIETY TOYS MORGAN 3 WHEELER CHROME RACING CAR CASTLE ART PRODUCTS RARE A058,.Corgi Toys no. 233 Heinkel Economy Car purple ovp,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1971 PORSCHE 917 FLAT 16 PredOTYPE 1 18 CAR MODEL BY TSM 111807R,.Ferrari Laferrari Aperta Spider 2016 red Corsa 322 Red BBR 1 43 BBRC187C1 Mode,.PROVENCE MOULAGE ASTON MARTIN DB1 ROADSTER 1949 - ANTHRACITE 1 43 -EXCELLENT -12, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Lledo cgoldnation street full set,.Johnny Lightning STREET FREAKS ZINGERS Lot Of 12 Awsome Cars NOS,.Corgi Toys No. 226, Morris Mini-Minor - Superb Mint,.AUTOart Ford GT Gulf Livery 2004 1 18 80513,.

SCHUCO Auwarter Porsche Renndienst Bus 1 43 450896600,.Maisto Ford Mustang Gt 2010 1 18 Scale Car,.Vintage Matchbox Lesney Cars Superfast and Carry Case Lot of 24 1970s,.AUTOART 1 18 73571 JAGUAR XJ-S CABRIOLET WHITE,.Dinky Toys 915 A.E.C. With Flat Trailer, Boxed, c.1973,.

BMW M6 - coupé - Kyosho 1 18,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 18 2016 Mercedes Benz AMG GT S C190 White Laureus Dealer model Norev,.Lamborghini Huracan LP 610-4 Police Car Autoart 1 18 NEU OVP,.1 18 Holden HR Premier (Pyrenees bluee Metallic) Classic Carlectables 18626,1961-1968 Fiat 2300 S Coupe Light bluee Met. by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 New ,.Ferrari F10 Fernando Alonso Felipe Massa 2010 Steering Wheel AMALGAM 1 4,.

Minichamps 1 18 Scale diecast 180 039009 Mercedes Benz 300SL 1954 Yellow,.DDA ACME 1969 Ford Boss 302 Trans Am Mustang Alan Moffat Racing Coca Cola 1 18,.A Pre-owned Franklin mint Chequer taxi cab, Boxed, paperwork, suite cases,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1 43 Minichamps 439069022 + 439161092 Krupp Titan + Hänger DB C4035 TOP Rarität,.

Lamborghini Countach Lp500S Walter Wolf Edition red Autoart 1 18 Aa74651,. We agree in part.

Furniture Hübner Pop Adgreenising Bus Man Sd 200 Detailed from Wiking H0 1 87,.Majorette volkswagen Coccinelle N 203,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Tekno 68895 MB Gigaspace with Kuehlkoffer 1 50,.Brand Pontiac Grand Prix Miller Car Train,.AUTOart Porsche 914 6 1 18 White Ivory,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Skynet Will Also Be Dangerous Again Detective Lepared Port No. 3 Masked Police,.1 200 BOEING 777-328ER SKY TEAM AIR FRANCE F-GZNN JF7773002,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Autoart 1 18 Scale 80506 Aston Martin DBR9 24H LeMans 2005 Enge Kox Lamy,; Mega RARE Mercedes S class W140 Ambulance Vector Models Hand Made 1 43 Lim.,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Motormax 1 12 Scale Diecast - 73001 Ford GT Concept Red White Stripes Model Car,.Matchbox Superfast Nr. 11B Flying Bug redmetallic silverne Bodenplatte in Box,Hot Wheels Indy 500 Rare Promo Car,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Paragon 1 18 Scale PA-88019 AMG GT3 Zakspeed th 24hr Nurburgring,.

Mclaren 1 18 OEM Model Mclaren P1 Volcano orange,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.(S) milton maxwell india CHEVROLET IMPALA FIRE SERVICE - 560 BOXED,.DCP DHL International ProStar w Wabash Double Pup Trailers 1 64,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK26 001B - 1955 Chevrolet Nomad CTCS Special 1 Of 375,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Ertl 1 18 Scale Diecast - CS6 Jaguar E-Type Roadster Austin Powers + Case,; CARAVANE type AIRSTREAM ALU 1 18,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Kyosho Sumurai LEXUS GSF 1 18 bluee w Box Inner Box Unopened F S from Japan,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


IMC32-0023 - Camion 6x2 MERCEDES Actros 2 Gigaspace aux colors HAVECON et port,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Corgi Vintage Glory Bedford TK Bajo Cargador Garrett Steam Tractor Set green,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Faenza 43 1 43 1960 Cooper Castellotti T51 Italian GP,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Mercedes W116 450 SEL 6,9 Servopumpe Pumpe Servo 1164601780,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Kings Models 1 43 1955 Ferrari 500 Settlers Trophy Hesketh Circuit Tony Gaze,.Lotus 72E 1973 Peterson ohne Fahrer-Figur Autoart 1 18 NEU OVP,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.IScale Mercedes-Benz GLC C253 Coupe 2016 bluee Model Car 1 18 Genuine New,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 43 Looksmart 1962 Le Mans Ferrari 250 SWB Breadvan (Abate & Davis - DNF),.

1 18 ERTL 1970 PLYMOUTH SUPERBIRD Pete Hamilton WINGED WARRIORS -RARITÄT §,.Matchbox 2001 Series 1 - 75 Full Set of Cars in the Box,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM77 - 1957 Riley 1.5 Saloon - Damask Red,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08734LBL BMW M3 E92 Laguna Seca bluee Model Car,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1 18 Kyosho Nissan Cima Pearl White,.

1 18 Minichamps 1986 McLaren MP4 2C 1986 Portuguese GP Rosberg 530861892,.Alfa Romeo 4C (alfa red) 2013,.SPARK 1 18 SCALE - S1807 AUDI R10 TDi LE MANS 2006,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, PORSCHE 911 TURBO 1977 - BIG 1 12 SCALE MINICHAMPS NEW IN BOX DIECAST PERU RED,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Vintage Dinky toys - VOLKSWAGEN 1500 - 1 43 Dinky toys 144 MIB,.Bmw 635 Csi Schnitzer 1 18,.New 1 18 Kyosho Car Model Land Rover Defender 90 Green 08901G,.NOREV 1994 Mercedes Benz S500 W140 Azurite bluee Dealer Edition 1 18New Item ,.Dinky Toys 513 Opel Admiral bluee mint in box and box with dealer tag Superb,.

Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK207 - 1960 Cadillac Series Sixty-Two Coupe pink Met, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin Sealed body - GT049 Porsche 911 991 Techart Turbo S,.Dinky Toys 131 Cadillac Eldorado Tourer Congreenible car rare version 1 43 NMIB,. The PartridgePorsche 550a Spyder White 1 18 Model 0333 SCHUCO,.Mercedes-Benz Strich 8 Saloon 1968 Sahara Yellow 1 18,.Porsche 911 Turbo 1977 - 1 12 - Minichamps,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, EXOTO SUNOCO PORSCHE 917 30 BARN FIND 1 18, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Tekno Denmark 831 Morris Marina 1100 perfect mint in box what a beauty,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Corgi Monte Carlo Cooper S - Red (Non picture box) - B A,.BMW 2002 Racing DRM Warsteiner GS Team Obermoser Norisring 1975 Spark 1 18,PartridgeMINICHAMPS MODELLINO AUTO PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RSR 2.7 1972 BIANCO blue,.1986 ROVER VITESSE 3.5 V8 RED 1 18 MODEL CAR BY MINICHAMPS 107138401,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, AM43345 ALFA ROMEO ROMEO 6C 2300B TOURING A THOUSAND MILES 1937, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 18 Hotwheels Rare Soldout 2006 Renault F1 Racecar Alonso Limited Edition,; Autoart Lamborghini Gallardo Lp 560-4 0674110746860 1 18 Scale Car,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Porsche 934, No.84, Lois, 24h Le Mans, 1 43, Premium X, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, HobbyJapan HJ1801DWSA 1 18 Toyota Soarer 3.0GT Limited MZ21 1988 white, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePorsche 911 (993) RWB blue 1 18 GT-SPIRIT,.

TEK69465 - Camion 4x2 SCANIA 164 Topline et semi silo 3 essieux Mattersdorfer -,.BBR Models 1 43 Ferrari 488 Challenge Finali Mondiali Daytona 2016 Modellino, Clarke's negligent act.Lamborghini Aventador lb Performance Olive Green Model Car 1 18 Gt Spirit,.Minichamps Talbo Lago T 150-C-Ss Coupe,.New 1 43 Car Model Ignition Model Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-EL (C211) bluee 0327,.

Bentley Continental GT 2016 RHD Verdant 1 16 Scale Paragon 92888R,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Top Marques J&M Classis 1 43 Scale TM012 - 1929 Morris Minor - Brooklands Green,Dinky Toys Supertoys no. 981 Express Horse Box British Railways ovp,. In Noska,SPARK MODEL S18260 PORSCHE CAYMAN GT4 CLUBSPORT 2017 WHITE 1 18,.FERRARI PORTOFINO SALONE FRANCOFORTE 2017 ALLUMINIO OPACO Looksmart LS480B,.1 18 NOREV MERCEDES AMG GT-S COUPE DEALER EDITION SOLARBEAM METALLIC NEW,.1 43 Hpi Racing Ford Gt, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Tamiya Mini 4WD Special Sale Item Japan Cup Junior Circuit Straight,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 127 - Saab 9000 CD - Green,.(V) MAKS Hong Kong Plastic friction drive MORRIS 1100,.GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin body - GT108 Porsche 911 991 Techart Targa white,. Id., p 923.

Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80430024439 BMW 325ti Compact Light green,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, BBR Ferrari 488 GT3 1 43 BBRC180RS - limited 24 pcs ,Vintage - Lamborghini Islero - 1 43 Politoys -m558,.CULT 1 18 Scale Model - ASTON MARTIN DB5 Shooting Brake by Radford - Green,.Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT247 Citroen CX25 TRD Turbo 2 1991 Metallic Grey,.Minichamps 1 18 Resin 1937 Talbot Lago 107117122,.Kings Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 500 F2 Syracuse GP Luigi Villoresi,.MCG 1991 Chevrolet Caprice Classic Sedan NYPD 1 18 Rare Find Nice ,.Alfa Romeo Giulia 1300Cc Vigili Del Fuoco 1966 Minichamps 1 18 183120992 Model,. The parties Krupp Sw O480 Autobus Ludewig 1952 Red Cream NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46616 Model,.

1 18 Spark 2017 Porsche 911 R White Green Scale Model Car,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Taunus 17M Badewanne 1960 L.bluee 1 18 Revell-Auto Art MG,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, MATCHBOX 900 TP-21 DATSUN 260Z REMORQUE MOTO MOTORCYCLE TRAILER MIB NEUF,; Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT157 Alpine A220 Le Mans 1969, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Tekno 67349 MB Actros Streamspace Tank Trailer 1 50,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Neo Setra Kässbohrer S 215 HD - weiss green - 1 43,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1986 Aston Martin Zagato Coupe Resin Model in 1 18 Scale by Cult Models,.Hispano Suiza H6A Victoria Town Car Yellow 1923 (closed) (GLM 1 43 43215001),.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS - AUSTIN ATLANTIC,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Vintage 1940'S Buddy L Station Wagon Wood Pull Toy 19 long Rolls Nicely,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.CORGI 486 KENNEL SERVICE WAGON WITH FOUR ORIGINAL DOGS,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 027030 - 2018 BMW i8 Roadster - Metallic Grey,.New Minichamps 1 43 Williams FW 08 C Ford Ayrton Senna 1983 from Japan,.1 12 Mini Morris Minor 1000 Saloon año 1965 Sun Star 4786 black,.Matchbox RW 23D Trailer Caravan pink in früher Gußform vom yellowen Modell,. The ScottsdaleRare Tekno 1 50 SCANIA 144 TOPLINE WM ARMSTRONG LTD,Tekno 67378 Scania R TL with Steinauflieger 1 50,.Revell 09018 Wartburg 313, Metall-Modell in 1 18, NEU in OVP,. Id.,Skoda Superb III 2015 White 1 18 Model ABREX,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ULTRA Models diecast 1 43 city trolleybus MTB 82D 1947 CCCP USSR NIB,; Autoart Lamborghini Gallardo Lp 560-4 0674110746860 1 18 Scale Car,AUTOart Nissan Skyline GTR (KPGC10) 1 18 87176,.Dodge Viper Gts Viper bluee 1 18 Model GT SPIRIT,. The ScottsdaleProvence Moulage Kit Monté 1 43 - Alfa Romeo Disco Volante Coupe,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, WIKING Audi BMW und Andere PKW Konvolut 25 Stk 1 87,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Red Bull Racing RB13 Gp Malaysian 2017 M.VERSTAPPEN Winner 1 18 Spark New,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Looks Mart Ls460A Lamborghini Centenario,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, WOW EXTREMELY RARE BMW E21 318 Saloon 1975 D.bluee 1 43 Minichamps-323 E30 E36 M3,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, IG0782 ignition model 1 43 LB-WORKSGT-R (R35) orange model cars,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Lamborghini Aventador S Ad Personam 2016 grey Acheso LOOKSMART 1 43 LS468SE Mo, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, BMW 1800 TI 1965 RED Minichamps 107024001, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, MATCHBOX LESNEY REGULAR WHEELS BREAD BAIT PRESS In Box,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeToyota Hiace 200 series GL white 1 18 model car Kyosho samuari,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Franklin Mint 1 24 Datsun 240Z Classic Sports Car W ALL PAPERWORK NO OUTER BOX ,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSchuco 1 18 VW T1b Bus Mit der ganzen Familie unterwegs 450037700 NEU OVP,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra. F038-02B - Fronti-Art Koenigsegg ONE 1 - Pebble White - 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,SUN MOTOR COMPANY 1 48 - 148 - EAST YORKSHIRE SERVICE VEHICLE,Nascar 1 12 Tony Stewart Home Depot 2000 Pontiac Grand Prix,.KK Models 1 18 Scale 180071 - Volkswagen VW Passat B3 Estate VR6 - bluee,.Red Line Ferrari F2008 Firano Test 1 43,. The HuygheVintage - Dinky Toys 515 - Ferrari 250 2+2 Gt Pininfarina Coupe - Mint Box,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheGT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin - GT134 - Lamborghini Countach Koenig Turbo Red,.

Good Smile Company 1 43 Miku Hatsune AMG 2016 Super GT300 Season Opening Ver.,.LS MODEL LANCIA DELTA INTEGRALE EVO2 MARTINI 5 1983 L.E. 500 FREE SHIP. WORLD.,.

1 43 Looksmart Ferrari FXX-K red Corsa Yellow Racing Livery Leather Base,.ISCALE 1 18 Scale Diecast - 5011618552 Audi R8 Spyder V10 Dynamite Red,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM25 - 1948 Morris Eight Series E 1 Of 600 -Maroon,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeAutoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 70256 Aston Martin Rapide S 2015 Stratus White,.Schuco-Edition 00031 1 18 Mercedes-Benz 170V Reichspost Limited Blech OVP,.

For example, in Partridge,Carrera Servo 132 Porsche 936 Jägermeister 88430 NEW,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 18 NOREV 1997 MERCEDES-BENZ W140 S600 GREY NEW LIMITED EDITION OF 1000,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Lamborghini Gallardo Gt3 Fl2 2013 Composite Model Autoart 1 18 AA81357 Model,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,SMTS 1 43 Scale Built Kit Model Car CL31 - Jaguar XJ6 Series 1 - Green,. That is the same situation in this case.DINKY TOYS 32E BERLIET POMPIERS PREMIERS SECOURS + BOITE D'ORIGINE,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Green Light Ford Crown Nypd 1 18 Scale Car,. Detroit Edison, supra.

CALSONIC SKYLINE GT-R JGTC FUJI --RESIN-- HPI 43,.Provence Moulage Citroen Cruise Crosser Salon de Geneve 2007 1 43 Handmade Rare,.MERCEDES BENZ C-112 SPORT1991 1 18 GUILOY TOP LINE REF 68522,.

BMW M1 Procar BMW Motorsport Procar Series 1979 - 1 12 - Minichamps,.