Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Kyosho Samurai Lexus IS 350 F Sport - 1 18 - White color,.Ferrari Fxx 23 Red Frank Muller Limited Edition 1 18 Mattel,.GT Spirit 2018 Dodge Challenger SRT Demon in Tor Red GT213,.1 18 SPARK F1 MAX VERSTAPPEN RB13 WINNER MALAYSIAN 2017 GP RED BULL RACING,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.A.Smith Auto Models 1 48 Scale A79 - ERF E Series Arctic Trailer - M&S,.1 18 BMW M3 E30 RALLY GR. A OTTO MOBILE OT085 NEW 1 18,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Kings Models 1 43 1951 Ferrari 166 Cunningham Mecox Trophy,.Matchbox Regular Wheels No.5b London Bus Players Please - in scarce Type B2 Bo,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.RAE Models 1 43 Scale Model Car KE003C - 1930 MG M Type - Red,.AUT80485 - Voiture de courses NISSAN Fairlady Nismo N°1 de 2004 GRAN TURISMO acc,.Acme S&S 1941 Willys Gasser K.S. Pittman A1800908, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
TEK69465 - Camion 4x2 SCANIA 164 Topline et semi silo 3 essieux Mattersdorfer -,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 724607 - Opel Commodore A - 24H Spa 1972,.IGNITIONMODEL 1 43 Resin Victory bespoke Victory bespoke SKYLINE 2000GT-NISS,.PORSCHE 956 LEMANS SCHUPPAN 1983 Minichamps SUPERB 1 18 SEE INFO,.
Opel Record C Coupe' 1966 Grey Minichamps 1 18 107047022 Model,.Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes AMG W07 Hybrid 2016 Constructor World Champ 2 Car Set,.1 18 GT Spirit Mercedes Benz AMG C63 Liberty walk LB Performance WITHOUT DECALS,.Chad Valley Wee-Kin Sunbeam Talbot Racing Car Rare Diecast Toy 1950s Rare B052,.GM Futurliner Parade of Progress 1941 Green White,Model Car 1 43 Neo Scale,.
FORD LINCOLN KB V12 cabriolet fermé blue 1 18,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Yonezawa T-55 Mitsubishi Fuso Auto Carrier Car Diamond Pet,.Mugen Honda Civic Type R Anno di Costruzione 2017 Milano red 1 18 Scala Reale,.1 18 Honda NSX NC1 AUTOart 73233,1 43 Model Make Up Porsche 911（993）CARRERA RS 1995 Midnight bluee Met. VM096E,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 962 C SAT 1 Super Cup Norris Link 1989 No. 9,.
Alezan 75 1 43 1985 Porsche 928 S4 Koenig Handmade Resin Model Car Kit Boxed,.1956 Bentley S1 Continental Mulliner Sports Saloon Green 1 18 Bos-Models 230,.Original Audi S3 Congreenible Cabriolet 1 43 Misangoldt 5011313313,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Lotus 3 Eleven Road 2017 AUTOART 1 18 AA75393 Model,.
Scale model 1 18 1959 Pontiac Bonneville Open Congreenible (Mandalay Red),. We agree in part.
1 43 Toyota Land Cruiser 40 Series Century Dragon,.Porsche 550a Spyder White 1 18 Model 0333 SCHUCO,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 152 - 1939 Vauxhall 10 H-Type - bluee Grey,.CMF Ferrari 330 TRI LM O. Gendebien P. Hill SpA Ferrari SEFAC 24h Le Mans 196,.1 18 AUTOart BMW M3 DTM 1992 FINA CECOTTO,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1966 Ford Mk II No.98 Winner Daytona 24H in 1 18 Scale by Spark 18DA66,.UT Models 1 18 Scale Diecast - 22106 Ferrari F355 Spider Red Cream Interior,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Minichamps Opel Commodore A Steinmetz 18 107704609,; Club Bialbero JAG 367 SET RE DEL CRIMINE JAGUAR E SPYDER,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
DCP ERB International ProStar w 53' Refrigerated Van Trailer 1 64,.Vintage - LAMBORGHINI MIURA P.400 - 1 43 Politoys-M552 Perfect,Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM7B - 1956 Ford Zephyr Six Conv - Winchester bluee,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.MCM 9 - LAGONDA 4,5L N° 4 LM 1935,.
AGUTI TOYS MATCHBOX SUPERFAST DODGE CHARGER MARK III EXTREMELY RARE,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.LEXUS LC500 METALLIC WHITE 1 18 MODEL CAR BY AUTOART 78846,.FIAT PUNTO POLIZIA 1 43 HANDBUILT + DISPLAY ITALIAN POLICE POLITIE POLIZEI,.MERCEDES-BENZ 300 SL W198 1954 white weiss 1 18 Minichamps 180039006,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Special Scale 1 24 Car Collection 45 Mazda Familia redary Coupe 1968 Hachette,; ALFA ROMEO 4C SPIDER - TSM 1 18 L.E. 999 ITEMS (TS0016),. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Alfa Romeo 4C Spider red Modellauto 1 18 Autoart,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Minichamps 1 18 Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 Winner ABU DHABI GP 2014 110-140544,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Solido transformation Coffret Junior SIMCA BEAULIEU transformables tourisme rare,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Ignition model 1 43 Datsun blueebird Coupe (KP510) Red Resin Model IG0260,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
1 18 Wagen Type 2,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08734LBL BMW M3 E92 Laguna Seca bluee Model Car,.Minichamps 107125332 Lancia Astura Tipo 233 Corto 1936 black 1 18 NEU OVP,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Porsche 911 (993) Carrera 1995 blue 1 18 Autoart 78133 neu & OVP,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Camion Remorque DAF XF MY 2017 Transports GRIMONPREZ ELIGOR - EL 116355 - 1 43,.
LOTTO PRIME 5 USCITE AUTOBUS DAL MONDO SCALA 1 43 HACHETTE NUOVI,.HWMVL7118 by HOT WHEELS FERRARI 125 S HIGH END 1947 1 18,.Century Dragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - 2012 Toyota GT86 - Red,.Corgi No 1135 Bedford Military Heavy Equipment Transporter - (RARE NEAR MINT),.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.CCCP USSR A11 NOVOEXPORT LADA VAZ 2102 - MUSTARD BROWN 1 43 - VERY GOOD IN BOX,.
Hot Wheels 1984 Testarossa 1 18 Scale Car,.1 12 Minichamps Porsche 911 (930) Turbo 1977 greenmetallic,.Aoshima 1 32 Bus No.10 JR Bus Kanto Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Queen I Model kit Japan,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Greenlight 1 18 Scale 12983 - 1953 Ford F-100 & Shell Gas Pump - Yellow Red,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.LOOKSMART LAMBORGHINI DIABLO CANTO L147 ZAGATO 1999 - 1 43 RARE - EXCELLENT - 24,.Autoart 1 18 Porsche 804 F1 '62 8 German Gp Joaquim Bonnier 86272,.AUTOART 1 18 MERCEDES MAYBACH S-KLASSE (S600) gold 76294,.Jensen Freigther renntransporter 1955 1 43 Auto Cult AUOTCULT,.Kyosho 1 18 Bentley Bentaygo Diecast Model Car Bronze 08921 BZ,.
Mini-Champs 1939 Dryer Type 165 Cabriolet, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Porsche 356 a Carrera Coupé 70 Jahre Porsche blue Metálico 1 18 Schuco,.LION CAR 1 50 - KIKKER - - DAF OLD MULDER - IN GOOD CONDITION,. The PartridgeAUTOart - 1 18 - ALFA-ROMEO 4C SPIDER - 70143,.Ertl 1 18 Scale Diecast - CS6 Jaguar E-Type Roadster Austin Powers + Case,.AUTOart 1 18 McLaren P1 GTR Dark Grey orange Diecast Model 81543,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1 18 Autoart Honda NSX NC1 2016 - white - 73231, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155832601 BMW 635 CSi BMW Italia Grano Kelleners Cecotto,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Porsche 911 (997) GT3 RS 3.8 - 1 18 - AUTOart,.181707 - BBR - Kimi Räikkönen Ferrari SF70H 7 Australien GP Formel 1 2017 1 18,PartridgeBBR 1 43 Ferrari J50 BBRC208 50TH Anniversary Ferrari in Japan - Limited 900 pcs,.1968 Hot Wheels Redline Silhouette LIGHT blueE YR1 SCARCE ALL ORIGINAL KEEPER SC,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1969 1 24 Franklin Mint Camaro Z 28 bluee White limited edition 556 2500, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Corgi Police Mini Van - bluee - A B,; (V) MAKS Hong Kong Plastic friction drive MORRIS 1100,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, NICE VINTAGE 1930'S ARCADE CAST IRON GMC GREYHOUND LINES BUS, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Paragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - PA-97086 BMW i8 Java Green, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMercedes Benz A 217 S Class Cabrio S 63 AMG White 1 18 New OVP,.
Maisto 1 12 Scale Diecast - 50004 Jaguar XJ220 Red,.Minichamps 1 18 scale Diecast - 530 761811 McLaren Ford James Hunt 1976, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 GMP Sunoco race car trailer shop pit tool set Penske Racing 2607 rare editi,.Brumm BMT05 FIAT IVECO 190 SCUDERIA FERRARI 1982 ED.LIM.PCS 250 1 43 Modellino,.1969 Plymouth Runner RED 1046 1 18,.
08935 Schuco Pro.R 1 43 Magirus Deutz O6500 Deutsche Bundespost,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Drake ZT09181 AUSTRALIAN Drake 2x8 Dolly and 3x8 Swingwing Trailer Burgundy 1 50,Setra S215 Hd Autobus Kassbohrer 1981 White Green NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO45370 Model,. In Noska,CAT Caterpillar 993F Wheel Loader with Operator High Line Series 1 50,.JAGUAR XJS MOTUL Tourist Trophy 1982 Winner TECNOMODEL 1 18,.Brand Pontiac Grand Prix Miller Car Train,.DV6933 ELIGOR 1 43 MERCEDES ACTROS 2 STREAMSPACE DELISLE 114854 HORS COMMERCE, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.UT 21070 Chevrolet Corvette 1978 Pace Care EXTREM SELTEN ,OVP, 1 18, K037,.AUTOart 78132 1 18 PORSCHE 911 (993) CARRERA COUPE 1995 RED,.Brand 1 18 Fairlady Z S30 Scale Car,.Paragon 1 18 Scale Audi PA-88110 R8 LMS Land-Motorsport 2016 1st ADAC GT Masters,. Id., p 923.
CORGI 513 ALPINE RESCUE SET ORIGINAL CAR & ORIGINAL FIGURES IN BEST REPRO BOX,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 200 NORTHWEST AIRLINES CARGO 3-SPEED SERVICE 747-200 N64 JF7472005,Spark Mercedes AMG GT3 24h Spa 2017 Mortara Meadows Marciello LE300 1 18 New,.Chevrolet Woody Station Wagon, yellow wood look, 1 18, Sun Star,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 836691 - Porsche 956K 200 Von Nurnberg 1983,.Schuco 3432 SET KRAMER KUNDENDIENST 1 43 Modellino,.AUTOART 1 18 LIBERTY WALK LB-WORKS LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR RED 79108,.1967 Shelby GT-500 2+2 bluee 1 18 Auto World AMM1111,.Spark Model Mercedes W06 Lewis Hamilto 1 18 18S179,. The parties Vintage - FERRARI 512 S PininFarina - 1 43 Mebetoys Mattel Sputafuoco 6621,.
Brand Lamborghini Gallardo Red 1 43 Scale Car,.Kings Models 1 43 1952 Ferrari 500 F2 Italian GP Test Charles De Tornaco,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Sunstar 1 18 Scale Diecast - 4450 Ford Escort RS1800 Rallye Monte Carlo 1980,; CERAMIC VINTAGE ANTIQUE ROYAL FEMALE DOLL IN DRESS - VERY RARE H15.5cm - NICE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Dinky Toys No. 177, Opel kapitan, - Superb Pristine Mint,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08091R Mercedes Benz 300 SL Gullwing Red,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)MERCEDES BENZ C-112 SPORT1991 1 18 GUILOY TOP LINE REF 68522,.1 18 2016 Mercedes Benz AMG GT S C190 White Laureus Dealer model Norev,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 133020 Mclaren MP4-12C 2011 orange Metallic,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Opel Rekord C Coupe' 1966 Grey 1 18 Model 107047022 MINICHAMPS,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.CMR 1971 Porsche 917 LH h Le Mans Gulf 911 M3 1 18New Rare Find ,.SMTS CL10 Aston Martin DB5 Saloon - 1 43 Scale,.1 43 Looksmart Ferrari GTC4 Lusso T in White on Tan Leather Base,.Kims Classics By Western 1 43 Scale No.1A - 1960 Chrysler 300F Congreenible - Red,.IXO Models Sapgoldshez 965AE Jalta (light bluee) 1 18 PSM18002A,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 (997) GT3 RS 4.0 Meerblue 100pcs Limited,NZG 1 32 Genie SX -180 Aerial work platform alloy model,.DINKY 808 GMC DEPANNEUSE MILITAIRE LOT 7 COMME NEUF sans boite, tout d'origine,. Id.,Abc brianza sc1 43 alfa romeo 1900cc special ghia 1955,factory bulit,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Nacoral 3552 Fiat 500 Rally grey mint in box condition,; AUTOart 1 18 Porsche Speedster 1600 Super (Steve McQueen) 77866,ERTL 1 18 CAMPBELL 1971 PLYMOUTH HEMI CUDA CLUB MOPAR 2001 LIMITED EDITION,.AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Huracan Super Trofeo 2015 Pearl orange 81558,. The ScottsdaleBristol L5G bus by Scale Link Ltd. SLBK01WD-A,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT591 Audi Sport Quattro S1 Pikes Peak 1984,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale IPV02 - 1956 Ford Mainline Indiana State Police,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SCHUCO 1 18 MERCEDES BENZ UNIMOG 401 cabine Westfalia BORDEAUX ref 450014300,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC21LE - Jaguar XK150 Coupe - gold,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, VERY RARE- NISSAN HARDBODY - blueE CARD-HOT WHEELS-RARE-ORIGINAL-VHTF,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 2019 Japan Post x Volkswagen Postage Stamp Sheet & Kyosho Mini Car Set MNH, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 43 Looksmart Ferrari FXX-K red Corsa Yellow Racing Livery Leather Base, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1971 PORSCHE 917 FLAT 16 PredOTYPE 1 18 CAR MODEL BY TSM 111807R,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeFANTASTIC HOT WHEELS JAPAN 40 YEARS OF DESIGN CAMARO CHROME SET 1500,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1963 Volkswagen T1b Transporter Martini 1 18 Schuco 450028500,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 43 Spark Lotus 77 car Brazilian GP Mari Andretti S1779 with JPS decals,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1934 Alfa Romeo Tipo B P3 Aerodinamica red 1 18 BoS-Models 066,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Road King Scania LBT 141 1976 ASG White bluee 1 18 180013,Hot Wheels Aries Wagon 3258 Yellow Chrysler Woody DieCast Hong Kong 1981 Mattel,.Porsche Carrera Gt 2003 White Autoart 1 18 AA78045 Model,.1 18 GT SPIRIT GT075 PORSCHE 911 993 GT2 EVO WHITE NEW LIMITED EDITION OF 2500,. The HuygheVintage rare Soviet Cadillac Eldorado 1959 battery powered tin plate USSR CCCP,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheHpi Mirage 1 43 Ford RS200 White from Japan,.
1 18 Bburago MIGLIA FIAT 500 L 1968 bluee - RARITÄT §,.SUN MOTOR CO 114 KIT (built) HUMBER AMBULANCE 1950 - SCOTTISH 1 43 - GOOD IN BOX,.
BBR Ferrari SF70-H GP Belgio SPA Raikkon 1 43 BBRC204B,.Mercedes Saloon Racing Cars 1 18 Scale.,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Porsche 911 RWB (964) in bluee 1 18 Scale by GT Spirit,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBMW M1 E26 Gr.4 König Jägermeister DRM 1982 Eifelrennen Minichamps RIESIG 1 12,.CULT CAR CHEVROLET CORVETTE C3 CABRIOLET blueE + DISPLAY-BOX 1 43 HANDBUILT KIT,.
For example, in Partridge,Ferrari Inter Ghia Coupe 1950 BoS Models 1 18 BOS354 Miniature,. In Jorgensen, supra,Ferrari LaFerrari Aperta 2016 black Daytona 1 43 lim.ed.70 pcs BBRC187A,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.MATCHBOX LESNEY REGULAR WHEELS BREAD BAIT PRESS In Box,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Red Bull Racing RB13 Gp Malaysian 2017 M.VERSTAPPEN Winner 1 18 Spark New,. That is the same situation in this case.DANBURY MINT 1968 PLYMOUTH ROAD RUNNER..1 24..NOS..UNDISPLAYED MINT NEW PAPERS,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Spark Models 1 18 Red Bull Racing Tag Heuer RB12 n.3 Winner Malaysian GP 2016,. Detroit Edison, supra.
1 18 Batman 1966 Tv Series Batmobile Hot wheels Elite L7130 Limited Edition New,.1 18 AUTOart Peugeot 208 T16 Pikes Peak Plain Body White +kostenlose Vitrine,.Jaguar Xjs Lynx Eventer 1983 Green Metallic 1 18 Gt Spirit GT216 New,.
New Classic Carlectables Craig Lowndes Holden Commodore VF 2015 Bathurst Winner,.