Schuco VW Bus T1b Martini blue-black 1 1 1 18 limitiert 1 1000 f1e320

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Schuco VW Bus T1b Martini blue-black 1 1 1 18 limitiert 1 1000 f1e320
Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12007 - Man King Trailer & Reel Load - Morris Leslie,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals MG K3 Magnette Racing Car 1933 in Monza bluee - 1 24 Hand Built Metal Model,.Corgi Two Preproduction Magnum PI Ferrari 308 GTS never produced Plane White,.LS- COLLECTIBLES 1 18 Lancia Delta Integrale Evo Martini 5 White 1993 - LS034C,.AUTOart 1 18 Toyota TS040 HYBRID Le Mans 24-hour race 2014 FIA World Enduran,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18 Minichamps Mclaren F1 Road 1993 Die Cast Model 504PCS LIMITED,.BENTLEY BENTAYGA SUPERB DIECAST MODEL GREAT DETAIL 1 18 SCALE VERY RARE KYOSHO,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Lamborghini Aventador Lp700-4 Roadster 2013 Arancio Argos Looksmart 1 43 LS413D,.1 18 Rare Car Citroen Ami6 Noreb,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Minichamps 1 18 Diecast 155 821105 Audi Quattro Sport Blomqvist Swedish Rally 82,.PORSCHE 956 WINNER LEMANS SCHUPPAN SPARK SUPERB 1 18 SEE INFO,.Schuco SH0097 GOGGOMOBIL 1955 RED W WHITE ROOF 1 18 Modellino, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

SpecCast SPEC1626 FARMALL 340 GAS NARROW FRONT C BARRA FALCIANTE 1 16 Modellino,.Mercedes 260D Pullman 1937 BoS Models 1 18 BOS117 Model,.Toyota 86 Gt Rhd Asian Version grey Autoart 1 18 Aa78772 Modellino Diecast,.Porsche Carrera GT Diecast Model Car 78046,.

Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 125 - Saab Sonett II - Green,.RARE, YTC-02 Dodge Power Wagon green 7th Matchbox , Matchbox, MoY, Code 2, w.Box,.1 18 Mazda MXR-01 n°6 Le Mans 1992 1 18 • Spark 18S044,.NISSAN ZYTEK GREAVES LMP2 Spark resin IN BOX 1 18 SEE INFO,.BBURAGO GRAND PRIX 1 TYRRELL 6-WHEELER - FIRST NATIONAL CITY - F1 1 14 - GIB,.

CORGI MAJOR MODEL No.1109 BRISTOL BLOODHOUND on LOADING TROLLEY n MINT BOXED,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 43 2010 Toyota Landcruiser 200 Militsia Moscow,.WIKING Audi BMW und Andere PKW Konvolut 25 Stk 1 87,.Mercedes-Benz Lps 1632 Cabeza Tractora Año Fabricación 1969 blue red Oscuro 1 ,ERTL Precision Series The Allis-Chalmers Model WC No.2245 1 16 Scale Boxed,.Touring Superleggera Berlinetta W.Ferrari F12 Ch.2016 Tecnomodel 1 18 TM18-18E M,.

Ignition model 1 43 Mazda Savannah S124A White finished product,.Dinky Toy No 182 is the model of the Porsche 356A coupe Cream spun hubs VNMB,... TEKNO DENMARK 415 FORD TAUNUS TRANSIT AMSTEL BIER EXCELLENT CONDITION RARE,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Schuco 00289 - VW T1b Kasten Bj. 1959 Messerschmitt Kabinenroller 1 18 NEU,.

PERFEX 1 43 BERLIET VXB170 VBRG GENDARMERIE PC ref 712 serie limitée 200 pieces,. We agree in part.

1970 Chevrolet Camaro Z28 Metallic Green 1 18 Auto World AMM1095,.Corgi Toys No. 419, Ford Zephyr Motorway Patrol, - Superb Pristine Mint,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Audi R18 TDI - Fässler Lotterer Treluyer - 24h Le Mans 2011 - 1 43 Spark,.Spark 1 18 Porsche LMP1 Le Mans Winner 2017 - Bernhard Bamber Hartley,.MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB 65D 1981 CADILLAC ELEGANTE - RED,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1997 Hot Wheels, complete, First Editions, Treasure and Series Cars,.Carousel 1 Rodger Ward Leader Card Roaster Special - 1962 Indy 500 Winner,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Dinky Toys 968 B.B.C. Roving Eye Vehicle very near mint in box all original,; Kyosyo Mini Car KSR18009CR samurai 1 18 Mazda Roadster Red genuine from JAPAN,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Ignition model IG0922 Mini Car 1 43 Nismo R32 GT-R S Tune white finished product,.Porsche 911 RS 2.7 1972 opening features - Minichamps 1 18,XX Conrad 2116 02 AC55-3 Mobilkran Felbermayr 1 50 NEU in OVP XX,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Rare SPOT-ON Triang 270 - FORD Zephyr Six - 1 42 SUPERB Mint ,.

Brabus 600 Auf Basis Mercedes Benz Amg Gt S 2016 gold 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Lansdowne LDM.112 - 1956 Ford Zephyr Congreenible Por Brooklin - Hecho En UK,.Kyosho original 1 18 Lamborghini Miura P400S bluee finished product,.OLGA 1 18 PAINTED GIRL FIGURE BY VROOM FOR AUTOART MINICHAMPS,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 125 T Modena Test Alberto Ascari,; 1 43 SRC15 1967 HONDA RA273 SURTEES MONACO WITH REMOVEABLE NOSE BY SMTS,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Autoart Rwb 993 1 18 Scale Car,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

AUTOART 74604 1 18 LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP610-4 yellow MIDAS PEARL EFFECT YELLOW,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1954 Mercedes-Benz 180D Universal W120 blue 1 18 BoS-Models 077,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

77865 Porsche 356 Speedster nr 23F weiss ,1 18 Autoart,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Vintage - FIAT Abarth 1000 bialbero - 1 43 Mercury Art. 41,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Schuco 1 43 - Bus Bus Car Mercedes O 6600 With characters 02743,.LS Collectibles LS038C HONDA Prelude Coupe Baujahr 1997 in blue 1 18 NEU,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.PORSCHE 911 TURBO 1977 - BIG 1 12 SCALE MINICHAMPS NEW IN BOX DIECAST PERU RED,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 18 Biante - Holden HX Panel Van - HDT Service Vehicle - Raceday Decals,.

Ford Capri 1 Rs 2600 1970 orange, Model Car 1 18 Minichamps,.Kyosho 1 18 Pma Bmw M3 Dtm Scale Car,.Brooklin CSV16a - 1960 Miller – Meteor Cadillac Guardian Ambulance - Made in UK,.Minimax Lotus 78 1997 Japan Gp N5 143 Scale Car,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.NEW Hobby Japan MARK43 1 43 Honda Civic Type R (FK2),.

Kings Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 500 F2 German GP Mike Hawthorn,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast 150 084070 Ford Sierra RS Cosworth RHD White 1988,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale - 08112B Morgan Plus 8 Super Sports bluee,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Original Jaguar model car I Pace Photon Red 1 43 50JEDC280RDY I-Pace Red New,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Autoart 1 43 Scale Bugatti Eb 218,.Schuco VW T1 Samba HIPPIE 1 18 450028300 0,.Diecast Car Model Lexus LS500H LS500 h 1 18 (Grey) + GIFT ,.Jouef 1 18 Scale Diecast - 48824 Ford GT40 Le Mans 1969 Gulf,.1 18 GT Spirit Porsche 911 RUF SCR 4.2 964 Body Red GT192 Leather Base,.

Ebro Wedge Sport Advance Rcf, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.DCP Knight Transport Peterbilt 379 w 53' Refrigerated Van Trailer 1 64,.BBR Models 1 43 Ferrari Dino 246 Gts Spider 1969 red Art. BBRC54A,. The Partridge18119 AUTOart 1 18 BAC mono metallic red,.MARK43 PM4343W 1 43 Toyota Altezza RS 200 Sports version Super White II Japan.,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.134 TRIUMPH VITESSE ALL CARD BOX MIB,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Carrera Servo 132 Porsche 936 88404 New, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Autoart 1990 Nissan Skyline GT-R R32 Group A 1990 Reebok w Driver 1 18 In Stk,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.DINKY 580 980 HORSE VAN, USA ISSUE, VERY NEAR MINT IN HUDSON DOBSON SAMPLE BOX,.Kings Models 1 43 1950 Ferrari 166 Buenos Aires GP Winner Luigi Villoresi,PartridgeRAE Models 1 43 Scale Model Car KE003C - 1930 MG M Type - Red,.1 18 GT Spirit Porsche 911 3.2 Liter Speedster in Red GT130 Leather base,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Lesney Matchbox 1958 RW45A Yellow Vauxhall Victor Car GPW Green Windows Mint Bxd, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Porsche 911 targa 4S limited exclusive Edition 300 - Spark 1 18 WAX02100029 Neu,; Meccano DINKY UK SUPERTOYS original 918 GUY OTTER EVER READY BATTERIES 2nd 1956,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, ISCB66961011 by 0 Mercedes-Benz g-Klasse (W463) 2015 1 18, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, AUTOART 74673 1 18 LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR J RED SUPERCAR DIECAST, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSkoda Superb III 2015 White 1 18 Model ABREX,.

CORGI GS 38-321-322-323 MONTE CARLO ORIGINAL GOODLIGHT PLAYWORN CARS GOOD SET,.Aertssen - OSDS 3-axle wheel well semi lowloader with MB Actros StreamSpace 6x2, Clarke's negligent act.Vintage - Alfa Romeo Carabo Ertone - 1 25 Politoys -S 592,.Kyosho Minutes Auto Scale Volkswagen New Beatle TurboS japanese car model 9M,.WSI 01-2025 Skaks Mercedes Benz Actros MP4 Giga Space + 5 Axle Low Loader,.

Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM23 - Austin Devon Estate - Red,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ferrari GTC4 LussoT Bianco Italia Metalliz BBRC191BI 1 43 scale,1 18 AUTOART - ALFA ROMEO TZ 2 1965 (RED) - ZUM SONDERPREIS ,. In Noska,Matchbox RW 45A Vauxhall Victor yellow greye Plastikräder top in B MOKO Box,.1 8 GAZ M21 VOLGA DeAgostini - Issues No. 41-50,.BEST From Exoto Tifosi Dining w Enzo Ferrari 1 43 Item BST09602,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale IPV25 - 1956 Ford Mainline - R.C.M.P., necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Kings Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 500 F2 Bordeaux GP Winner Alberto Ascari,.1 18 Mazda 6 Sedan Atenza año 2015 Dorlop 1004BL blue,.2017 Audi A4L TFSI Sline Red 1 18 Dealer Edition FAW1005R,.Exoto 1 18 Scale Lotus Ford 49 Jo Siffert 1968 Spanish F1 Grand Prix 97004,. Id., p 923.

Vintage - FERRARI 512 S PininFarina - 1 43 Mebetoys Mattel Fire breathers 6621,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, MATCHBOX 900 TP-21 DATSUN 260Z REMORQUE MOTO MOTORCYCLE TRAILER MIB NEUF,Corgi Classics 1995 Management Buyout Bus (MBO) - Super Rare ,.Cadillac DAMS LMP 24 Hours of Le Mans Limited Edition 200 BBR 1 43 Scale,.McLaren MP4-12C, dark red, 1 43, AUTOart,.Austin Allegro 3 - Somerville 143 England 1 43 in Box 34375,.MILESTONE MINIATURES 1 43 GC14 - JAGUAR XJ6 1969 - RED,.1 18 Norev Mercedes-Benz Sprinter DPD Delivery Van Modified One Off,.PORSCHE Cayenne Turbo 1 18 AutoArt,. The parties VAN X VW Volkswagen T4 Premium 2 x Side Window, 1 x Tailgate Curtain Van-X VAN-X,.


Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1979 Opel Admiral B Green Metallic by BoS Models LE of 500 1 18 Scale New,; Mercedes Benz Bb Cw311 1978 BoS Models 1 18 BOS198, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Hot Wheels Set of 25 Real Riders 5 X 5 Complete Sets of different series, New,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Norev 1 18 Scale 183467 - 1986 Mercedes Benz 300 SL - Metallic Red,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 18 Biante - Holden HT Monaro - Verdgold Green with Antique gold Interior,.Transitional Matchbox Superfast No 72 Standard Jeep LEMON YELLOW Spiro Wheels,.Ford Focus RS 2016 1 18,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Chevrolet Corvette (1958) Diecast Model Car 71147,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.ATELIER MODELS 1 43 1949 FERRARI 166 Jean Renaldo,.1 18 Schuco VW T1 Samba Bus brown red 45 002 8400,.Schuco Piccolo Porsche 356 Ferrari Barchetta Set Le Garage Japan ,.Looksmart LS442 BUGATTI TYP 57S COMPETITION COUPE' AEROLITHE 1935 MET.LIGHT GREE,.BMW 4er B4 Alpina F32 Coupe blue Ab 2013 Nr 90 1 18 GT Spirit Modell Auto mit ..,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 (997) GT3 RS 4.0 orange 100pcs Limited,Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM14 - 1958 Riley 1.5 1 Of 600 bluee,.Gumpert Apollo S 2011, L.e. 300 pcs. 1 43 FrontiArt F013-02,. Id.,New 1982 Pontiac Trans Am KARR Elite Edition 1 18 Diecast Car Model by Hotwheels,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH4168 1 16 CASE INTERNATIONAL 1455XL 4TH GENERATION,; DV8112 MINICHAMPS 1 43 HENSCHEL HS140 JARGERMEISTER 499171940 Ed Lim,LLEDO DG Full Set of 14 CANADIAN Series DG6 Model T Ford vans DG6074 to DG6086,.1968 Chevrolet Nova SS 396 Bill Grumpy Jenkins Peach State 1 18 Scale,. The ScottsdaleNew 1 43 Ignition Model Nissan Skyline 2000 GTR KPGC110 White 0775,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, ARPRA SUPER MINI SCANIA T 112 1 50 DIECAST NM BOXED VERY RARE,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Welly 2008 Bentley Continental Coupe Supersports White 1 18 ScaleAwesome Car,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mercedes 1422 Metz DLK23-12 Fire Brigade 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Dinky France Citroen DS ID 19 Break Ambulance, VNM in Good Original Box,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, MODELLINO AUTO SCALA 1 18 FERRARI 225 S 90 SPYDER TECNOMODEL CAR MODEL MINIATURE,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Mercury Park Lane Hardtop (1959) Diecast Model Car H5164, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Paragon 1 18 Scale PA-98232R Bentley Continental GT Congreenible 16 Sunburst gold, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Porsche Cayman Gt4 Clubsport 2017 White 1 18 Model S18260 SPARK MODEL,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeAutobus de Colección - Routemaster OB Sunstar . escala 1 24 (V1832),." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Scania-Vabis L 110 low bed trailer Tieflader Akerman Kran Bagger Tekno 1 50 TOP,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSun Star 1 12 Morris Minor 1000 Saloon Grey - Boxed,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.AUTOart 1 18 Lotus 72E 1973 Ronnie Peterson Diecast Model 87329,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Pathfinder Vanguard 1 43 Scale VAN5 - Morris J Type Van 1 Of 100 Red Hull Mail,J.M. Schneider Delivery car Set Centennial collection Wooden Display case Mint,.Old Wiking (Germany) Dark bluee Porsche 356 Split Window Coupe Plastic,.Bentley Continental GT 2016 Burgundy 1 18 Scale Paragon 98221R,. The Huyghe1 43 Looksmart Alfa Romeo Giulia Coupe GTA 1300 Junior 68 white Alcantara Base,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMint 1 43 Red Bull Tag Heuer Rb12 Ricardo Monaco Gp 2016,.

1 12 Mini Morris Minor 1000 Saloon año 1965 Sun Star 4786 black,.C1965 Dinky No 436 Atlas Copco Compressor Lorry & Box,.

Matchbox SF Nr.70B Dodge Dragster pink rare browne Bpl. auf rarer Blisterkarte,.Western Models 1 43 Scale WP101 - Triumph Stag Congreenilble Yellow,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Ford GT 2018 Heritage Edition -,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeTEK69046 - Camion remorque frigorifique Mercedes benz Actros Streamspace aux cou,.LOOKSMART LSLM077 Collectible Miniature Car Red,.

For example, in Partridge,AUTOart 1 18 Mercedes-Benz G500 SWB Red finished product,. In Jorgensen, supra,Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT657 - Ferrari 308 GTB Tour De Corse Rally 1982,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Ferrari Dino 246 Gts Metal Grey BBR 1 43 BBRC54H Model,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,AUTOart 1 18 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 1973 orange Completed Model 78057,. That is the same situation in this case.1 18 AUTOART 80517 2005 SUPER GT ZENT CERUMO TOYOTA SUPRA NEW,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Autoart Plain Body 2004 Red 1 18 Viper Competition Car,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Hot Wheels 50th Anniversary Die Cast 1 64 Zamac Flames Collection Case 72 Cars,.MIN180943314 by MINICHAMPS MERCEDES-BENZ C-CLASSE 1994 18,.Kings Models 1 43 1956 Ferrari D50 Longnose French GP Test Fangio,.

1 18 Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 SS Corsa Spider 1939 1 18 • Minichamps 107120231,.