Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals MILESTONE MODELS 1 43 BURRELL SCENIC SHOWMANS ENGINE 25 GREAT DORSET STEAM FAIR,.MCLAREN 650S GT3 A WINNERS 2016 12H BATHURST 1 18 MODEL CAR BY AUTOART 81643,.Tron 1 43 1974 Ferrari 312B3 Lauda Spanish GP,.Dodge Challenger R T Vanishing Point Fluchtpunkt Francisco DIRTY-Version 1 18,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Bedford Pullmore Car Transporter - Dinky SuperToys 982 England in Box 36746,.TEK67446 - MAN TGX Euro 6 XLX 4x2 Avec remorque 3 Essieux WANDT 75 JAAR - 1 50,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.LS COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - JAGUAR XJ6 - 1982 - LS025F,.Aston Martin Vanquish 2013 White Autoart 1 18 AA70250 Model,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Minichamps 1974 Fiat X1 9 Yellow with Openings LE 504pcs 1 18NewSO HOT WHEW ,.TOPSPEED 1 18 McLaren 675LT Spider Mantis Green Resin Model TS0069,.Kyosho Original 1 18 NISSAN SKYLINE IMPUL R32 GT-R Calsonic Diecast KYOS08361C, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Minichamps McLaren Ford M23 (J.Hunt) 1976 1 18 OVP ,.1 18 Honda Accord 10th Sedan Diecast Metal Car Model Toys Kids Boy Gift White,.Lotus Renault R30, No.9, 1 43, Minichamps,.Char Anti-Aérien AMX30 Missiles ROLAND MASTER FIGHTER BY GASO.LINE 1 48,.
MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS K5 MUIR-HILL TRACTOR AND TRAILER 'HOCH &TIEF' VERY RARE...,.Paragon 1 18 Scale - Jaguar XJ6 Series 1 2.8 Carman Red RHD Diecast Model Car,.Fire Brigade Models 1 50 Scale - FBM1 Scania Bedfordshire Fire & Rescue Service,.Tekno 58667 Mb-Actros LH Mp3 goldhofer Lxe 3 5 1 50,.Red Bull X2010 Predotype carbon look, Modellauto 1 18 Autoart,.
1 18 AUTOart PORSCHE 997 GT3 CUP 2006 Bloomberg Lmtd. Ed. - Neu OVP ,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.FERRARI LaFERRARI APERTA black DAYTONA Looksmart LS462A,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 127 - Saab 9000 CD - Green,.BBR MODELS 1 43 FERRARI 812 SUPERFAST 2017 red CORSA ART.BBRC198RCC1,Ikuso 1 43 scale Toyota Yaris WRC No. 10 car Yari - Matti Ratbara,.1 200 NORTHWEST AIRLINES CARGO 3-SPEED SERVICE 747-200 N64 JF7472005,.
Matrix 1 43 Scale Resin Model Car MX11001-011 - Jaguar MkV DHC - bluee,.WSI 01-2087 Tranex DAF XF105 Super Space Cab Curtaineside Combi,.Hobby JAPAN MARK43 1 43 Daihatsu Copen Robe Pearl White III Resin Model PM4355W,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
HOT WHEELS HWBCJ89 FERRARI 458 ITALIA SPIDER 2011 RED 1 18,.
( GOK ) 1 18 AUTOart Chevrolet Corvette C7 Grand Sport NEU OVP,. We agree in part.
Auto Cult B66961261 1 18 MERCEDES C-CLASS C63 AMG TEAM MERCEDES-AMG HWA N 3 SEAS,.Dodge viper srt10 coupe AUTOART 1 18 new in box sold out RARE (gt spirit),.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Ignition model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-R (PGC10) White Resin Model IG0178,.Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale diecast - L2977 Ferrari 125S Dark red,.Vintage Britains Fordson Mayor Tractor with Spudded Metal Wheels with Figure,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; DINKY TOYS 133 CUNNINGHAM C-5R ROAD RACER NEAR MINT BOXED,.TEKNO 63747 SCANIA L110 TORPEDO + SEMI-TRAILER VAN WAGON 1 AXLE MINT IN BOX,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, ALFA ROMEO 4C SPIDER - TSM 1 18 L.E. 999 ITEMS (TS0016),; 1 18 Autoart - Mercedes Benz AMG GT - S (Solar Beam) Full,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
1 18 AUTOART 73302 HSV VT2 CLUBSPORT R8 HERRON WHITE NEW,.WSI 01-1510 Scania R Topline Curtainside Trailer Käppeli,Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale Model Car GC43C - 1935 Jaguar SS Airline - Cream,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Spezial Harz - FIAT 242 E 1° serie Transporter geschlossen grey - 1 43,.
Corgi Juniors Brazil (KIKO) No 13 Chevrolet Van Voe Varig Green Glass MIB RARE,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1 18 BBR MODELS F1 FERRARI SF16-H G.P AUSTRALIA 2016 K RAIKKONEN BBR181607,.MERCEDES Gt-S Amg (C190) 2016 AUTOART 1 18 AA76314 Model,.Delage D8 S 1933 fermée Fernandez et Darrin (1 43, Evrat),. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Maserati Quattroporte Metallic bluee 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,; Ixo Lamborghini Countach Pace Car Monaco GP 1982 CLC018,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Four Wheel Models 1 43 Scale FWAM14 - 1950 Aston Martin DB2 D Head Open - bluee,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - Dodge Viper GTS Inter Modell Bau' 96 Ltd 1000 Pcs,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Ebro 1 43 march 73S Fuji GC 1973 Red (resin model) finished product,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
GMTS - goldEN OLDIES LINIE 50 6167 Büssing 8000 Kipper mit Tieflader 1 50,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Lamborghini Gallardo Gt3 Fl2 2013 blue Autoart 1 18 AA81359 Model,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.KYOSHO Lexus GS F bluee SAMURAI 1 18 1 18 KSR18017BL Japan F S EMS,.1 43 Ferrari 612 Sessanta Special Version 1 43 MR OCLIMITED01 - Very Rare ,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.DINKY 991 A.E.C TANKER SHELL CHEMICALS(BOXED).,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Schuco Hanomag L28 flatbed with Goggomobil Goggomobil-Service 1 43 NEW 02938,.
LS Collectibles 1 18 Scale resin - LS008A TVR Sagaris 2005 Metallic Green,.AUTOart McLaren 570S 2017 Green 1 18 76042,.Lansdowne LDM 50 - 1957 Humber Hawk Estate Par Brooklin - Fait En Angleterre,.Revival 1 20 Scale Diecast Built Kit - REV3 Ferrari D50 F1 Red Race car,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.RARE GENUINE HAMM H13I ROAD ROLLER COMPACTOR VINCI EUROVIA CONSTRUCTION 1 50 NZG,.
POLITOYS - M 524 SIMCA 1500 - GREEN METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.Ignition Model 1 43 Porsche 962C Omuron Jspc 1989 55 V. Schppan Ig0512 Japan New,.BROOKLIN BRK 87X 1949 DESOTO STATION WAGON CTCS 2001 TOPLEY TAXI 1 OF 275 1 43,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Aventador J Geneva Motor Show 2012 orange Atlas,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Solido Serie 100 - Raro - Citroen Ami 6 Bicolor - 1 43 Mint,.AUTOART 78799 1 18 TOYOTA SPRINTER TRUENO AE86 INITAIL D PROJECT D FINAL,.FERRARI 512 BB Scala 1 18 Kyosho 08171R,.1 18 MAZDA 6 ( ATENZA ) LHD White Mazda dealer special order.NEW,.Maisto - Special Edition - McLaren F1 - 1 18 - Green - FAST FREE SHIPPING ,.
DV7722 ELIGOR 1 43 MAN TGXXL SEMI FRIGORIFIQUE TRANSPORTS AGENEAU CHEREAU 113232, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.VINTAGE CORGI TOYS MODEL No.318 LOTUS ELAN S2 OPEN TOP SPORTS CAR,.Vintage - Alfa Romeo Giulietta Ti Berlina - 1 41 Politoys Aps N° 32,. The PartridgeROLLS ROYCE CAMARGUE-DIAMONDS 3001-SCALA 1 22-BURAGO CON SCATOLA----B36,.1 18 Minichamps Tgold red STR11 GP 2016 117160055,.MakeUp VISION VM114D 1 43 Porsche 911 (993) GT2 street ver.1996 white,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, BIANTE 1 18 HOLDEN LH L34 SLR 5000 TORANA HDT 1976 BATHURST O'BRIEN NEGUS, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Ignition model 1 43 Calsonic Skyline () 1991 JTC finished product,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Playart set highway patrol item n. 7592 porsche polizei police 386,.BUGATTI EB110 GT blueE 1 18 DIECAST CAR MODEL BY AUTOART 70976,PartridgeTOP MARQUES COLLECTIBLES 2014 ALFA ROMEO 4C SBK RED 1 18 Scale. Hard to find ,.RARO modellino HINO CONTESSA 1300 COUPE' DIAPET model car made japan YONEZAWA,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 100 012104 BMW M3 GTR Street Yellow, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Kyosho x Hino Motors Exclusive FJHN04 1 43 Hino Dutro White Model Car from Japan,; AUTOart 70188 Alfa Romeo 4C WHITE 2013,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, CROWN PREMIUMS 1970 PLYMOUTH ROAD RUNNER NAPA TOOLS MOULON red 1 24 RARE , (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, AUTOart 74651 - 1 18 Signature Lamborghini Countach LP500 S Walter Wolf Edition, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSPARK MODEL S18260 PORSCHE CAYMAN GT4 CLUBSPORT 2017 WHITE 1 18,.
Bentley Continental GT 2008 white 1 18 MINICHAMPS,.1 43 BBR C35AW Ferrari 599 GTO 2010 white w red stripe limited ex. no 8 59, Clarke's negligent act.1 32 Wiking Claas Mähdrescher Commandor 116 CS 0778 34,.1 43 RL131 ASTON MARTIN GREEN PEA BY SMTS,.Hot Wheels McLaren Mercedes MP4 20 2005 1 18 Raikkonen Sparco Edition (JS),.
HOT WHEELS ELITE 1 18 BATMAN THE DARK KNIGHT 1st ED. NEW FREE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps Tgold red HONDA STR13 2018 Hartley 18 Scale,Brand Chrysler Town Country Minicar,. In Noska,Norev 1 18 Scale Diecast NV18001B - Citroen DS 21 Chapron - Dk Red,.Lansdowne 1 43 Scale LDM29X - 1935 Triumph Vitesse Flow-Free - WMTC Turquoise,.Bespoke Model 1 43 1952 Ferrari 212 l'Ouvo Avusrennen,.WOW RARE VINTAGE ISRAELI 1950's-60's GAMDA ARMORED CAR MADE ISRAEL, EX++ L@@K , necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale diecast - L2980 Ferrari 365 GTB4 red Red,.2 SET Hot Wheels Collector Choice 30th Anniversary REDLINE 1968-98 VW DRAG BUS,.1971 Dodge Charger Superbee PLUM 1 18 Auto World 1056,.Century Dragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - 2012 Toyota GT86 - Met Copper,. Id., p 923.
Rai S 2005 Important Person Predection Vehicle Century,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 Mercedes Maybach S 650 Cabriolet año 2018 color Designo Circón red Norev,Rare Colour Corgi Toys No. 241, Ghia L6.4 with Chrysler Engine, - Superb Mint.,.GT Spirit 2018 Dodge Challenger SRT Demon in Tor Red GT213,.Microworld BE12 DIORAMA F1 LOTUS ANDRETTI 1978 WINNER + 6 figure Modellino,.DINKY TOYS 985 CAR TRANSPORTER TRAILER NMIB,.RENAULT ALPINE A110 WINNERS 1973 TOUR DE CORS RALLY 1 18 BY KYOSHO 08485 A,.Mercedes L3000, dark green, 1 43, Premium ClassiXXs,.2017 Mazda MX-5 Roadster Classic Red 1 18 Kyosho Samurai KSR18009CR,. The parties BBR METAL KIT 1996 McLaren Mercedes MP4 11 No. MET62,.
TEKNO 1.50, 9551 SCANIA HIGHLINE DEALER MODEL BULK POWDER TANKER SUIT WSI CORGI,.LS488A LOOKSMART 1 43 Ferrari 488 Pista Geneva Motor Show Red 2018,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 43 AUTOart mclaren F1 Coupe Die Cast Model White RARE,; Rare 1 43 Suzuki Lapin Renault 4 Look, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
AUTOart Nissan Fairlady Z Nismo 380RS 1 18 Grey,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Mercedes LKW LPS 1632 - blue red - Road Kings 1 18 - RK180022,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Rare Vintage Tootsietoy No.117 Zephyr Railcar (1935-1936),.LS Collectibles LS020A BMW 323i E21 Alpina C1 Baujahr 1983 silver 1 18,.Tamiya Mini 4WD Speciale Item Mini 4WD Cup Junior Curve Circuit,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,2014 BMW i8 eDrive Crystal White 1 18 Paragon Models 97083,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.AUTOart 81602 - 1 18 Audi R8 LMS Plain Body Version (white) (composite model),.Tamiya 1 10 Electric RC Car Series No.585 Alfa Romeo 155 V6 TI Jaeger Meister,.TEK70139 - DAF Euro 6 XF Space Cab Flexitrailer 45 FT De Rijke - 1 50,.GT Spirit 1 18 Scale GT742 LB Performance Nissan GT-R R35 orange,.Bburago Mercedes-Benz 300 SL 1954 1 18 Special Paint Air Brush (JS),. The ScottsdaleFORD MUSTANG SHELBY GT350 WIDEBODY blue Deep Impact 1 18,Minichamps 1 43 McLaren MP4 2 Tag Turbo N.Lauda 1984 EDITION 43 No.20 4-2,.Shinsei 1 50 Scale Diecast Metal Model - Mini Power Wide Komatsu Bulldozer D475A,. Id.,Mini Champs Dtm No 1,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, FORD MUSTANG SHELBY ELEANOR GT500 1 18 Film 60 secondes chrono,; Minichamps Williams Ford FW07B Carlos Reutemann 1980 1 18,Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 026007 - 1982 BMW 323i - Metallic Red,.1 18 Apex - 2014 HSV VF Maloo R8 - Fantale orange l.e. 320 made,. The ScottsdaleMint 1 87 Minichamps Mini Champs Bmw M2 Coupe 2016 F87 Alpine White Alpin For,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, MINICHAMPS Williams Martini Racing MC-117150019,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; YONEZAWA DIAPET FUSO T29 SEMI REMORQUE D&P 1 35 PROCHE DU NEUF MADE IN JAPAN,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Corgi Toys 230 Mercedes-Benz 220 SE Coupè VP unbespielt Rarität ,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX REGULAR WHEELS 52-1 RARE 5 DECAL YELLOW MASERATI RACE CAR,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Kyosho 1 18 Scale diecast - 08901FW Land Rover Defender 90 Fuji White,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 43 BBR Ferrari 360 Modena Saloon de Geneve 1999 Yellow MIB Rare No AMR ABC, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, CMR 1 18 Scale Resin - 034 Ferrari 275 GTB Street Version Yellow, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 18 GMP FORD MUSTANG 1988 New York State Trooper POLICE RARITÄT neu i.ov,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeVintage Corgi 1100 - Carrimore Low Loader - Yellow bluee,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin - GT141 Ruf CTR-2 Sport (Porsche 911) Yellow,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMercedes 600 Pullman, RHD, John Lennon, 1 43, TrueScale Miniatures,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MERCEDES BENZ GLK WHITE 1 18 MINICHAMPS CAR COLLECTION SUPERBE,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Matchbox Regular Wheels No.5b London Bus Players Please - in scarce Type B2 Bo,Wonderful modelcar CITROEN CURRUS CH14 CAMPER FILCA 1965 -green white - 1 43,.EXACT DETAIL 224 CAMARO SEA TERROR 1968 1 18 Modellino,.Ferrari 599 Gto 2010 Yellow Red BBR 1 43 BBRC35C Model,. The HuygheMugen Civic Type R Milano Red Top Speed TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TS0113 Miniat,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheDrake ZT09166 Maxitrans Freighter B Double Trailer Set Toll 1 50,.
Lamborghini Aventador lb Performance Olive Green Model Car 1 18 Gt Spirit,.DIECAST CAR & CASE MERCEDES-BENZ CLK GTR ROADSTER GT SPIRIT GT155 1 18 RESIN CAR,.
GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin - GT077 Bentley Continental GT V8S Metallic green,.Kool Toyz Target Hot Wheels Power Launcher 67 Camaro Purple Rare,. Nonetheless, on the facts of AUTOart NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R (R32) AUSTRALIAN BATHURST WINNER 1992 RICHARDS SKAIF,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMaisto M82133 1 6 Scale Rc Ferrari 488Gtb with Working Headlights And An Abso...,.Aston Martin V8 Vantage Volante built 1977 bluee 1 18 GT-SPIRIT,.
For example, in Partridge,Hot Wheels Dixie Challenger orange With Flag Unpunched VHTF Hong Kong,. In Jorgensen, supra,LS Collectibles 1994 TOYOTA CELICA GT-FOUR ST 205 Yellow 1 18 Scale LE250 New,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Deagostini classic dinky toy collection,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,KYOSHO 1 18 AUDI R8 5.2 FSI QUATTRO DIECAST CAR MODE RED 09216RR,. That is the same situation in this case.UT Models 1 18 Diecast Car 21024 - Chevrolet Caprice Metro Dade Police Car,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Corgi Toys 335 Jaguar 4.2 Litre E Type 2+2 mint in box what a beauty superb,. Detroit Edison, supra.
1954 Maserati 250 race car diecast metal F1 World Championship Polistil 1 16 10 ,.Evrat Bugatti T55 Super Sport Cabr. Vanvooren Rondoni 1932 Closed 1 43 EVR209f,.VW Polo GTi flashred 1500 diecast modelcar OT270 Otto 1 18,.
Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 166 Bruxelles GP Winner Luigi Villoresi,.