Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals UT Models 1 18 Scale Diecast - 27811 Porsche 911 Turbo 993 Arena Red,.Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT591 Audi Sport Quattro S1 Pikes Peak 1984,.FRANKLIN MINT 1982 CORVETTE..1 24..RARE COLLECTORS SERIES LE..UNDISPLAYED..DOCS,.Kings Models 1 43 1954 Ferrari 625 British Grand Prix Winner Froilan Gonzalez,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.RECOLLECTIONS 1 43 HILLMAN IMP CALIFORNIAN PredOTYPE RED,.1 18 McLaren 12C 2011 1 18 • Minichamps 110133020,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB64D 1981 CADILLAC SEVILLE - gold,.Quartzo 1 18 Scale Diecast - Q9001 Lotus 49 Winner British GP 67 Jim Clark,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 43 Century Dragon BMW 850ci Die Cast Model,.OTTO MOBILE Mercedes-Benz AMG 500CE Brilliant Red 1 18 LE 2000New Item ,.Spark 1 43 BMW M235i 2015 Nurburgring 24h from Japan, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Porsche 934 - 24h Le Mans 1978 - Chasseuil Lefebvre Mignot - 1 43 Spark 5091,.ABC BRIANZA 257 PORSCHE ALCADOR SBARRO S20 - ANTHRACITE 1 43 - VERY GOOD,.SMTS 1 43 Scale Built Kit Model Car CL31 - Jaguar XJ6 Series 1 - Green,.VW Volkswagen T1 blue grey Messerschmitt Kabinenroller Transporter 1950-1967 1..,.
Franklin mint Scale model of a 1929 Bentley 4.5 litre blower Boxed,,.AUTOART 1 18 73571 JAGUAR XJ-S CABRIOLET WHITE,.AUTOart 1 18 Porsche 356 Speed Star F (White) Finished Goods 77865 JAPAN,.UT Models 1 18 Scale diecast - 180 074031 Ferrari F355 Spider 1994 Yellow,.1 18 AUTOart 71271 Chevrolet Corvette C7 Grand Sport (arctic white bluee stripes,.
MG Model Plus 1 43 1967 Ferrari 330 P4 Brands Hatch,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 43 BBR 1952 Ferrari 212 Ibarra SM28C Carr Panam Handmade Model Car Box ,.Tekno LKW DAF 106 XF SSC Aerop. Kühl-KSZ Wolter Koops,.1 18 Porsche Carrera GT (Red) Auto Art 78044,Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 067122 Porsche 911 Turbo S 2016 Red,.Otto 1 18 Scale resin - OT155 Volkswagen Beetle 1200 Oettinger Grey Model Car,.
Raro Modelo Matrix Ferrari F 308 GTS 1 43 Heco Modelos Coche F308 Sn,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM101X - 1957 Ford Zephyr Farnham Estate LCC 2013,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - CMC96 Batman Returns Batmobile,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
1 18 AUTOart NISSAN GT-R NISMO LM 2015 TEST CAR (COMPOSITE MODEL 2 OPENINGS),.
Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM10 - 1964 Jensen 2CV8 1 Of 600 Green,. We agree in part.
Audi 80 Gr.II, No.26, Audi Motorsport, ETCC, Monza, 1 43, Neo,.ACME Models 1 18 Scale A1805405 - 1965 Chevrolet El Camino - Maroon,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.McLaren F1 GTR Gulf Team Davidoff h Le Mans 1998 - 1 18 - Minichamps,.HOVER HONG KONG 870 LOTUS RACING CAR No 6 - BATTERY L38.0cm - GOOD IN BOX,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK102X - 1936 Hudson Terraplane CTCS Special 2005 1 Of 200,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; OPEL C Kadett GT E Rallye Monte Carlo 1976 Röhrl Euro Händler RAR OTTO 1 18,.FERRARI 308 GTB 1976 RED KYOSHO 1 18 NEUVE EN BOITE,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 2-Car Set BMW M6 GT3 & Porsche 911 GT3 R Nürburgring 2018 Falco Motore,; Paragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - PA-97092 BMW X4 Imperial bluee,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Regular Wheels LESNEY MATCHBOX 62 RADIO RENTALS TV VAN MINT IN BOX,.Chevrolet Woody Station Wagon, yellow wood look, 1 18, Sun Star,Carousel1 1 18 Scale Diecast - 4406 Watson Roadster 1964 Indianapolis 500 Winner,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Vintage - FORD FAIRLANE VN mint - Dinky toys 148,.
Top Marques 1 43 - MG Record Breaker EX181 Teardrop 1957 Phil Hill,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.AUTOART Motorsport 1 18 Mercedes-Benz C-Class DTM 2007 Schneider NEW ,.Spark Porsche 962 C N Â° 17 2Nd Lm 1986,.MINICHAMPS 1 18 Ford Capri Turbo Gr5 Winner DRM 1981 Ludwig Art.100818602,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Cycles Royal Mail bike with trailer,; Crossway Models 1 43 Scale CM22 -1936 Austin Ruby Mk II - Maroon,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Deutsche post Mercedes 10000 Bus H0 1 87 Å,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
DEJOU ANCIEN CAMION BENNE CARRIÈRE 64-10 à VÉRIN 6 ROUES JOUET à TIRER BOIS 1960,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Dodge Challenger Trans AM Street Version 1970 1 18 - A1806001B ACME,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R (R32) GROUP A 1990 CALSONIC 18 AUTOART 89079,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
1 18 AUTOart 74772 LANCIA DELTA S4 metal grey - zum SONDERPREIS,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.TIN WIZARD 1 43 HORCH 830 COUPE 1933 blueE, EXCLUSIVE CAR GERMANY,.HOT WHEELS JAPAN HISTORICS 2016 COMPLETE SET OF5'71 DATSUN 510 NISSAN SKYLINE W+,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Minichamps 1 43 Porsche Cayman GT4 Clubsport 981 Japan Edition 33pcs Limited,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Resin Car Model IG-Model Nissan Leopard 3.0 Ultima (F31) 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,.
MERCEDES BENZ-TYP 010000-1938-1 43-CONRAD-EDIZIONE LIMITATA NUMERATO---------B39,.1 18 Ferrari F125 S año 1947 Hot Wheels L7118 Burdeos,.Vintage Dinky 492 - Loud Speaker Van - bluee,.FAST & FURIOUS 7 Plymouth Barracuda Highway 61 Maßstab1 18 OVP NLIMITED,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Matchbox Superfast No 61 bluee Shark SCORPION Label AMBER Glass VNMIB VERY RARE,.
1939 Mercedes-Benz T80 Recordwagen silver 1 18 BoS-Models 202,.WSI 01-2199 Vennesla ( Nor Cargo ) Scania R5 Topline + Reefer Trailer,.1 43 ignition model- IG1418 Nissan Cedric (Y30) 4Door Hardtop Brougham VIP White,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Brand Dealer Box Mini Car Bmw 2002 Turbo,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.AUTOART 87328 LOTUS 72E 1973 EMERSON FITTIPALDI (W DRIVER) 1 18TH SCALE,.Very Rare And Sort After Corgi Toys Promotional Window Streamer, - Superb Mint,.Matchbox Superking Big MX Set 5 Quarry Site & Traxvacator USA Version,.1 43 Century Dragon Red Flag CA770 Limousine,.1 64 Kenworth T600 Semi Trailer Toll Trux TX4E,.
Rover Vitesse 3.5 V8 Red 1986 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Kings Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 500 F2 German GP Test Louis Rosier,.BEATLES1997 Corgi Die cast Vehicle ToyMystery BusMIB,. The PartridgeMinichamps 1 18 Scale diecast - 155 361004 Auto Union Typ C 2nd Monaco 1936,.Ferrari Enzo Ferrari Jamiroquai (2002) 1 18 Hot Wheels Elite Limited Edition,.WSI 01-1313 set 2 x Scania van Caudenberg Belgium,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Chevrolet Chevelle Malibu Ss Code L79 1965 White, Model Car 1 18 Acme, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale Model Car GC29W - Jaguar Mk7 - Old English White,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Porsche 934 RSR VAILLIANT Schuco in box SUPERB 1 18,.Ertl 1 18 Scale Diecast - CS6 Jaguar E-Type Roadster Austin Powers + Case,PartridgeFranklin Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast - FMC15 1961 Jaguar E-Type Roadster green,.BBR Models 1 43 Scale 17418 - F1 Ferrari F92A G.P. Sudafrica 1992 J.Alesi,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, IG0529 ignition model 1 43 Alpha Porsche 962C () 1990 Le Mans Japan NEW, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 18 Autoart - Porsche 993 Rwb (White Gungrey Wheels),; Plymouth GTX 1967, Acme A1806703 1 18th scale,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, FERRARI LAFERRARI F70 HYBRID ELITE YELLOW 1 18 DIECAST MODEL HOTWHEELS BCT81 NEW, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, IXO 1988 Toyota Celica GT4 ST165 Red 1 18 ScaleBRAND NEW Very Nice , (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePORSCHE 907 N.54 DAYTONA 1968 ELFORD-NEERPASCH-SIFFERT 1 18 SPARK S18DA68,.
BRITAINS 155MM GUN 1 32 scale 9745 excellent boxed,.PORSCHE 907 8 Racing Lang Le Mans 1968 Spoerry Steinemann Spark Resin 1 18, Clarke's negligent act.Autoart 75382 - 1 18 Lotus Exige S 2012 - Yellow - Neu,.Lamborghini Aventador Liberty Walk 2015 Red AUTOART 1 18 AA79108 Model,.WSI Eigenbau Scania R Container Sattelzug KlOIBER 20ft. Hapag LIoyd 1 50,.
GT Spirit Shelby Ford Mustang Super Snake 2017 Deep Impact bluee Resin Model 1 18,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, BBR MODELS 1 43 F1 FERRARI F2002 GP SAN MARINO 2002 WINNER M. SCHUMACHER ART.,MINICHAMPS Cadillac Cyclone XP 74 MC-107148221,. In Noska,Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Daytona 1973 P. Gregg 1 18 GT Spirit gt728 NEW,.Bburago Special Edition Mercedes-Benz 300 SL 1 18 Air brushed Magic Dawn (JS),.VINTAGE 40s CAPTAIN MARVEL TIN TOY RACE CAR LITHO WINDUP 1947 FAWCETT COMICS,.Chevrolet Camaro SS Corgi 1 43 Made in Great Britain, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.REVELL 1 12 08453 MINI COOPER RED RHD,.Hot Wheels Ferrari 458 Speciale Elite Edition 1 18 BLY33,.1 18 VW BORA 2002 DIE CAST MODEL GREY RARE W CERTIFICATE,.IXO Models Sapgoldshez ZAZ 965AE Jalta(turquoise) 1 18 PSM18001A,. Id., p 923.
Marsh Models 1 43 Scale Metal Built Kit MM20 1972 McLaren M20 Peter Revson,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Spark 1 43 Porsche 962 C No. 19 6Th 1988,Lamborghini Murciélago LP670-4 SV - 1 18 - AUTOart,.McLaren P1 2013 XP2R Nürburgring Development Vehicle limited to 500,.Dinky Toys 918 Guy Van EVER READY EXCELLENT BOXED,.Minichamps MotoGP Ducati Desmocedici GP09 2009 C. Stoner 1 12 122090127,.MG MODEL 1 43 Ferrari 365 GTB 488 Ch.18095 24h Le Mans 1975 Art. BB43006,.Kings Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 625 Susa-Moncenisio Umberto Maglioli,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE VW Karmann Ghia T34 1600 Coupe 1966 White 1 43 Minichamps,. The parties Schuco 1 43 Reisebus Magirus Deutz O6500 DP 450893500,.
Autoart 1 18 Mclaren 12C In Stunning orange Signature Autoart 76006 Very Rare,.Cadillac Deville Coupè 1967 BOS MODEL 1 18 BOS240,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 18 GT Spirit GT710 BMW F32 435i M Performance. Alpine White,; Porsche 911 Pocher 1 8, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Scania LBT 141 yellow blue 1976 Modellauto 1 18 Road Kings,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Milestone Miniatures 1 43 Scale GC6MG - 1958-61 Jaguar Mk.IX - Maroon Grey,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 18 Minichamps McLaren MP4-12C 2011 redmetallic ltd. 750 pcs.,.BUGATTI TYP 57S COMPETITION COUPE' AEROLITHE 1935 Looksmart LS442,.Pma 1 18 Rart Toyota Rt3 F3,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,FIAT PUNTO POLIZIA 1 43 HANDBUILT + DISPLAY ITALIAN POLICE POLITIE POLIZEI,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Schuco Magirus Deutz O6500 Deutsche Bundespost 1 43 45089,.1 18 Minichamps Porsche 906 LH 24 H Sebring 1967 - Squadratartaruga,.Toyota 86Gt Asian Version Bianco AutoArt 1 18 AA78773 Model,.Ferrari Portofino Closed Roof - IAA Frankfurt 2017 Matt Alluminium 1 43 BBRC209B,.Danbury Mint 1958 Edsel Bermuda 6-Passenger Station Wagon 1 24 NEW,SEALED,MINT,,. The ScottsdaleQuartzo’s 1 18 scale model of Jim Clark’s Lotus 49,Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 530 133424 McLaren F1 Road Car 1993 White,.Corgi 256 Volkswagen 1200 East African Safari. With Rhino. Boxed. 1960's Issue,. Id.,Mark 43 1 Subaru Wrx Sti Type S Vab 2017,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, BMW 3.0 Csl Tribute Light Green 1 18 Norev Dealer Collection,; J&M Classics 1 43 Scale JM49 - Healey Duncan Coupe - British Racing Green,1 43 BBR Ferrari Laferrari FXXK No.47 026 100 VERY RARE,.1 18 AUTOart Chevrolet Corvette C5-R 2003 24HR LeMans,. The ScottsdaleWiking 480 und 481 Lkw Krupp-Titan, Chassis red 1 87, Top,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, BENTLEY CONTINENTAL R TYPE COUPE 1954 .dred Minichamps 1 18 SUPERB see info,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Not sold in stores R30 Skyline Silhouette Victory Commemorative toy, hobby, toy,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Dinky Toys 24UT 24 UT Simca 9 Aronde taxi in very very near mint condition,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Corgi Major Toys - 1141 Bedford TK Articulated Milk Tanker - near Mint boxed,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Minichamps Mercedes SLS AMG GT3 2014 Nuremberg Toy Fair 1 43Very Rare Collector,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Gmts - golden Oldies Linie 50 453230 Henschel Hs 140 with Kipper 4x2 1 50, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Modellino Ferrari FXX K 2016 N.55 Bianco Avus BBR Models, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Bespoke Model 1 43 1978 Ferrari 365 GT4 BB Daytona,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeKYOSHO ORIGINAL 1 18 KSR18502CP LB WORKS Lamborghini Aventador Pink F S NEW,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, TEKNO .. Scania Corr Bredhers Irish T Cab 1 50 Not WSI CORGI,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheFerrari 640 f1-89 berger Kit montato tamiya 1 20,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 18 Minichamps, Porsche 906 LH, 12H Sebring,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,EXOTO SUNOCO PORSCHE 917 30 BARN FIND 1 18,Dinky 23b Hotchkiss Racing Car, Pre-War,.Alfa Romeo 33 2 I. Giunti le mans 1968 1 18 18S129 SPARKMODEL,.RECOLLECTIONS 1 43 HILLMAN IMP CALIFORNIAN 052 500 WHITE,. The HuygheWestern Models 1 43 Scale WMS46 - Ford Galaxie Skyliner Congreenible - Red,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheDINKY TOYS 508 DAF VERY RARE SER SELTEN NMIB,.
C2 Märklin 1952 MB 300 SL Hochglanz Version,,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK4X - 1937 Chevrolet Coupe James Leake Special 1 Of 150,.
76296 AUTOart 1 18 Mercedes Maybach S600 Pullman White model cars,.AUTOART 72642 FIAT ABARTH 1000 TCR, MATT GREY blueE STRIPES 1 18TH SCALE,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 18 REVELL NSU TT CUP Racing R.Podak - RARITÄT neu §,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeLOTUS esprit Typ 79 - 1 18 - AUTOart - 75301 - yellow - OVP - RARITÄT ,.Hot Wheels 2006 New Models Datsun 240z White Yellow bluee Nissan Z,.
For example, in Partridge,Corgi 307 E Type Jaguar with Detachable Hardtop Boxed Excellent Condition,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 18 Apex - 2014 HSV VF Maloo R8 - Sting Red l.e. 528 made,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes AMG W07 Hybrid 2016 Constructor World Champ 2 Car Set,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Matchbox RW 02A Dumper red & green Metallräder mit rarer A Box,. That is the same situation in this case.LAMBORGHINI MURCIELAGO SV purple Autoart SUPERB 1 18 SEE INFO,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 18 Autoart Chevrolet Corvette 1953 (Polo White),. Detroit Edison, supra.
1 18 OTTO HONDA NSX Type-r Championship Die Cast Model,.Rolls Royce Camargue gold 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.Faenza 43 1 43 1953 Ferrari 735 S Dolomiti,.
BIANTE AUTOart 1.18 HOLDEN HJ SANDMAN PANEL VAN CONTESSA gold + SURF BOARDS,.