Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Minichamps 110169933 1 18 RED BULL TAG HEUER RB7 MAX VERSTAPPEN SNOW DEMONSTRATI,.MINICHAMPS Red Bull Racing Tag-Heuer RB12 Daniil Kviat 2016 117160026,.Heco 1 43 Ferrari 348 Zagato Yellow,.ALEZAN MODELS . 1 43 . ALFA ROMEO SPORTUT . CONCEPT . BERTONE 1999 .,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18 DODGE CHALLENGER 1970 Vanishing Point ERTL SEE INFO,.Autoart 1 18 LOTUS ESPRIT TYPE 79 AUTOART 1 18 75301 RHD SELTEN NEU + OVP 007,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.MINICHAMPS MERCEDES SLS AMG blueE 1 18 (NEW EURO EDITION)New ,.Maserati Biturbo Coupe 1982 - dunkelblue met. - Minichamps - 1 18,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.McLaren Mp4-12C GT3 Street 2013 White AUTOart 1 18 AA81341,.1 12 SUNSTAR VOLKSWAGEN T1 - POLICE POLIZEI,.Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast 78643 Subaru New Age Impreza WRX STi white, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Rare Triumph Renown Saloon Lansdowne Models LDM. 8 1954 Brooklin 1 43,.Opel Admiral B 1971 BoS Models 1 18 BOS044 Model,.Lesney Matchbox 1982 Models of Yesteryear Y12C ARNOTT'S BISCUITS Variations MiB,.1 18 Minichamps Ferrari Benetton Renault B198 G.Berger,.
Looksmart LS464E LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP 580-2 RWD SPIDER blue CEPHEUS 1 43 Modell,.Burago 1 43 Ferrari SF71H Sebastian Vettel 2018 (with driver case) 18f1M,.MINICHAMPS SPIELWARENMESSE NURNBERG BMW M3 DTM SONDERMODELL BMW000003,.Minichamps 1 18 Diecast 155 836612 Porsche 956K Kremer Racing Rosberg Nurnberg,.1970 Opel Rekord C Caravan Beige 1 18 BoS-Models 034,.
1 43 BUGATTI T38 TOURER CH. 38195 vendu monté,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.HANOMAG R28 FARM TRACTOR 1953 orange Minichamps 109153072,.Minichamps 1 18 McLaren Ford M23 w engine detail - S African F1 GP 1976 - J Mass,.EXACT DETAIL - 1968 CHEVY CAMARO RS SS 396 - maroon vinyl top - 1 18 lim 504pcs,Samurai 1 18 Nissan Fairlady Z 2by 2 Twin Turbo Z 32 Yellow Item Finished JAPAN,.Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT247 Citroen CX25 TRD Turbo 2 1991 Metallic Grey,.
Volkswagen T6 Multivan Edition 30 Minibus 2017 White NZG 1 18 LX95420040 Model,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 722633 - BMW 2002 6H Nurburgring 1972,.BUGATTI VEYRON L´CENTENAIRE EDITION (Chrome bluee) 2009,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08707GPC BMW M6 Coupe Moto GP 2007 Safety Car,.
Set Garage of 6 mechanics Ferrari GP. San Marino 1982 Brumm 1.43 new,. We agree in part.
MILESTONE MINIATURES FIRE TENDER,.1966 Ford Mk II No.98 Winner Daytona 24H by Spark,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Model Car 155 069100 - 1990 Porsche 911 Turbo - Yellow,.Ford Taunus 17M - Tekno 826 Denmark in Box 36326,.Autobus de Colección - Routemaster OB Sunstar . escala 1 24 (V1832),." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1955 Mercedes-Benz 300B Pininfarina Beige-black 1 18 BoS-Models 124,.Chevrolet Bel Air Congreenible 1953 Motor City USA 1 43 Limit MC-8,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Greenlight 1 18 Scale 12983 - 1953 Ford F-100 & Shell Gas Pump - Yellow Red,; Conrad Ref. 61127 MAN 6 x 8 with Nooteboom Euro Lowbed Trailer Scale 1 50,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Citroen Visa Very Rare Front Lip Gti Chrono Mille C15 Romahome,.VAN X VW Volkswagen T4 Premium 2 x Side Window, 1 x Tailgate Curtain Van-X VAN-X,DINKY Meccano England original 1955 FODEN 14 Ton TANKER REGENT BOXED,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Starter (France) White bluee Red Porsche (Joest Porsche Mobil 1) Resin 1 43 NIB,.
1 18 scale model car 2006 Craig Lowndes Phillip Island Ford BA Falcon,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1 18 AUTOart NISSAN GT-R NISMO GT3 (WHITE) (COMPOSITE MODEL 2 OPENINGS),.RAE Models 1 43 Scale Model Car KE003C - 1930 MG M Type - Red,.Lamborghini Aventador LP750-4 SV (new yellow orion) 1 18 AUTOart 74558,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Dinky toys reserve wagon poubelle benne a ordure n978 1 43,; 1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Aventador J Geneva Motor Show 2012 orange Atlas,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Minichamps 1 18 Diecast 155 826610 Porsche 956K J.Mass Nurnberg 1982,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
HobbyJapan HJ1804BR 1 18 Honda Prelude Si BA5 1987 Phoenix Red,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
77865 Porsche 356 Speedster nr 23F weiss ,1 18 Autoart,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Minichamps 1 43 AUDI R8 LMS 2016 AAPE by A Bathing Ape Phoenix Racing Asia,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
IMC31-0012 - Camion 8x4 MERCEDES BENZ Actros2 Gigaspace et semi plateau NOOTEBOO,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.TOGI ALFA ROMEO ALFA 164 - RED 1 23 RARE - VERY GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.1 18 Williams Renault FW16 A.Senna 540941802 Minichamps,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.WIKING Audi BMW und Andere PKW Konvolut 25 Stk 1 87,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 Gt3 R 991 2016 Nurburgring 24H 21 M.Stursberg New,.
AMR 1 43 - Chevrolet Corvette C5R Daytona 2000 N°4,.BBR Ferrari 488 GT3 1 43 BBRC180RS - limited 24 pcs ,.Tekno LKW Scania R Highl. Aerop. 40ft. Kühl-Cont-SZ K & B Transport,.1979 Opel Admiral B Green Metallic by BoS Models LE of 500 1 18 Scale New,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Pininfarina Collection 1 43 2005 Maserati Birdcage 75th Item PFC00004,.
Corgi 1 18 Scale Metal Model Car 99595 - Morris Mini Cooper Saloon - BR Green,.Minichamps Mercedes-Benz O 3500 1 43 Two Tone bluee (JS),.Opel Kapitan 2.5L 1958 BoS Models 1 18 BOS074,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 43 Corgi 391 Ford Mustang Mach 1 James Bond 007 Diamonds Are Forever - Diecast,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Milestone Models No.17 Fowler Showmans Engine The Lion 1 58 Scale Ltd Ed.,.Alfa Romeo 1750GTV 1967- white rara guida a destra 1 18 Autoart no original box,.Ma Collection Résine 1 43 - Delage 3L Le Mans 1938 N°21,.New Drake Toll 1 50 Maxitrans Freighter B Double Flat Top Trailers ZT09166,.Mercedes-Benz Maybach Vision 6 Coupe red 1 18 Schuco,.
Matchbox RW 31B Ford Station Wagon in rarer Farbe yellow in Box, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.YD002 ESCI 1 24 maquette voiture 3067 Ferrari SWB Rally rare version,.Mint Mattel 1 18 Ferrari 248 F1 Massa 2006 Hotwheels,. The PartridgeKings Models 1 43 1954 Ferrari 166 Boa Vista Annuar de Góes Dacque,.Road King 1 18 Scania LBT 141 ASG 1976 green white,.F1 TYRRELL 012 Ford Cosworth V8 Monaco GP 1984 PR Bellof Maredo Minichamps 1 18,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Sunstar 1 12 Scale - 4782 1956 Morris Minor 1000 Saloon Grey, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.ELITE BATMAN VS SUPERMAN MOVIE BATMOBILE DAWN OF JUSTICE 1 18 HOTWHEELS CMC89,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Brookin Models 1 43 Scale - 1947 Dodge Series 21 - CTCS 25th Anniv - John Hall,.1 18 Autoart PORSCHE 356 Nummer 1 silver,PartridgeSomerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 503 - 1937 Ford 8-7Y - bluee,.1 18 ERTL LIMITED EDITION 1968 PLYMOUTH ROAD RUNNER RICHARD PETTY,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, HPI 1 43 Porsche 956LH Le Mans 24h Special Set  Finished product, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 18 GT SPIRIT GT075 PORSCHE 911 993 GT2 EVO WHITE NEW LIMITED EDITION OF 2500,; Durham 1 43 Scale DUR 2 - 1939 Ford Panel Delivery Van White,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes Atego Race ETRC 1999 DKV 1 43 Minichamps-Actros, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Kings Models 1 43 1950 Ferrari 125 Monaco GP Alberto Ascari, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMirage Toyota 2000 Gt Circuit Museum Specifications,.
ERTL 1 18 Diecast Model Car Fast & Furious Tokyo Drift - 2003 Nissan 350Z Green,.Dinky 151 - Triumph 1800 Saloon - Fawn - Boxed, Clarke's negligent act.Bmw 1800 Ti 1965 Red 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,.Acme 1 18 Scale Diecast - A1801806 1968 Shelby GT350 Special order WT 6066,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Mustang GT 1994 5.0L V8 Coupe Red 1 18 Jouef-Auto Art,.
MG REMEMBER 1 43 FERRARI 250LM CH5891 TOUR DE FRANCE 1969 REM43020,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 GT Spirit Porsche 911 (993) RWB bluee Limited Edition 504 pcs.,Ferrari 365 GTB 4 Daytona (1971) 1 12 GT Spirit ZM093,. In Noska,WOW EXTREMELY RARE Deutz-Fahr Agrostar 6.61 Tractor w Excavator 1 32 Siku,.Autoart 79916 DeLorean DMC 12 1 18 Model Car Satin Finish,.RAE Models 1 43 Scale Model Car KE003C - 1930 MG M Type - Red,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM7X - 1953 Ford Zephyr Six Monte Carlo Winner 1953, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.ACME 1968 Shelby GT350H Hertz Mustang 1 18 Green A1801825,.Car Model IG-Model Toyota Sprinter Trueno (AE86) 2-Door GT 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,.Hobby JAPAN 1 18 HONDA S660MUGEN RA Premium Star White Pearl HJ1808MRW EMS,.HOT WHEEL G7234 BATMOBILE CAMOUFLAGE TUMBLER BATMAN BEGINS SHOW CASE TUBE 1 18,. Id., p 923.
Minichamps 1 18 BMW M3 1987 DTM bluepunkt O.Manthley DIECAST CAR Model 1 18,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, CULT 1 18 Scale Model - ASTON MARTIN DB5 Shooting Brake by Radford - Green,McLAREN BMW GTR F1 24h Le Mans 1996 Gulf Bellm Weaver Lehto Minichamps 1 18,.1 18 Lexus Gs400 Aristo Minicar,.CORGI 463 COMMER AMBULANCE, RARE CREAM VERSION, 99% MIB ,.1972 Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2.7 in White in 1 18 Scale by Minichamps 107065020,.Mini Champs 1 18 Mclaren Mp4 13 1998 F1 Hakkinen,.Norev PORSCHE 917 K WINNER LE MANS 1970 Attwood Hermann 12 Scale New ,.1 18 Autoart 81358 Lamborghini Gallardo Gt3 Fl2 2013 (White),. The parties Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC18 - 1950 Ford Zephyr Congreenible - Green,.
Minichamps BMW M3 M Team Schnitzer 18 180872046,.Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast 80430145825 BMW 635 CSi European Touring Champs 1984,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, VW T1b Transporter Persil 1 18 Schuco neu & OVP 366,; Hot Wheels HWX5486 FERRARI 458 ITALIA CHALLENGE RED 1 18 Modellino, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Toyota 2000 GT 1970 Solar Red 1 43 HPI RACING 8331,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 166 Bruno Sterzi Circuit du Lac,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)AUTOART Lotus 72E Peterson 1973 (with driver figurine fitted) (composite mode,.Ferrari J50 Spider 2016 red Angelo Red Met BBR 1 43 BBRC208G Miniature,.Ignition model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-X (GC10) Red IG0634 Resin Model,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,CALSONIC SKYLINE GT-R JGTC FUJI --RESIN-- HPI 43,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Mercury Parklane Congreenible, red white, 1 43, Neo,.Auto World Plymouth Road Runner GTX 1974 RAW METAL 64112 1 64 SUPER CHASE,.1 18 2016 Mercedes Benz AMG GT S C190 White Laureus Dealer model Norev,.Minichamps Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse Krankenwagen 1991 1 43 Feuerwehr Aachen (JS),.Paragon 1 18 Scale PA-98221R Bentley Continental GT Congreenible 16 Burgundy,. The ScottsdaleBrands 1 43 Lb Works 458 Scale,Matchbox Superfast Nr.12A Land Rover Safari goldmetallic in rarer G Box,.AUTOart Nissan Skyline GTR (R32) 18 89279,. Id.,SPA18S324 by SPARKMODEL LIGIER JS P217 GIBSON LE MANS 17 1 18,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Franklin Mint Exclusive 1982 Corvette Limited Edition Coupe 1 24 Diecast Car NEW,; DANBURY MINT ASTON MARTIN DB5 1964 1 24 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,Drake ZT09184 AUSTRALIAN Drake 2x8 Dolly and 3x8 Swingwing Trailer Mactrans 1 50,.1956 Maserati A6G 2000 Zagato blue Oscuro 1 18 BoS-Models 115,. The ScottsdaleTransitional Matchbox Superfast No 64 MG. 1100 Med Met bluee UNUSUAL Lt Cream Int,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 166 SC Rome GP Roberto Vallone,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Ignition model 1 43 Nissan Cedric (Y32) Gran Turismo Ultima White IG1262 EMS W T,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, American Classics 1 43 Scale Model AA3 - 1951 Studebaker Commander Coupe - Green,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, USA Models USA-8 1940 Ford Army Staff Car 1 43 Die Cast car,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Porsche 935 81 MOMO 1 43 ANDRE M RUF Made in France,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Ferrari Dino 246 Gts Spider 1969 red Dino BBR 1 43 BBRC54E Model, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Dinky 960 Albion Lorry Mounted Concrete Mixer, Superb Condition in Original Box, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, DINKY TOYS FERRARI Sports Car 312B No2 gold colour 1970's,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMaserati Quattroporte Granlusso My17 2017 Champagne Met BBR 1 43 BBRC192B,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Spark Mercedes AMG GT3 Nurburgring 2016 Limited Ed. Model Car 1 43 Genuine,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 18 Top Marques TOP21A Lancia Beta Montecarlo 24h Le Mans 1981 BBR,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP109Z - 1983 ASTON MARTIN VOLANTE - MET. GREEN - OPEN TOP,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,LOOKSMART LSLM063 Miniature Car Collection, Red,TEKNO HOLLAND SCANIA 124L 400 TORPEDO - VAN BENTUM 1 50 RARE - EXCELLENT IB,.1 18 REVELL NSU TT CUP Racing S.Spiess - RARITÄT neu §,.ELIGOR LBS RENAULT POMPIERS GROUPE ELECTROGENE, ANCIEN CAMION PROCHE DU NEUF,. The HuygheGumpert Apollo S, black, 1 18, AUTOart,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1955 Fiat 1100 TV Trasformabile Red by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 Rare New,.
CORGI MAJOR MODEL No.1117 BRISTOL BLOODHOUND LOADING TROLLEY MINT BOXED,.AUTOart 70273 2017 ASTON MARTIN VANQUISH S 1 18 KOPI BRONZE SPEED YELLOW LIVERY,.
VINTAGE PRESSED STEEL 50's MG ROADSTER--FRICTION DRIVE--4 3 4'' LONG--VERY NICE,.Gt3 Porsche 911 991 2017 silver Negras Llantas 1 18 Minichamps Limitado,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155 054020 VW Karmann Ghia Coupe 1970 orange,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeDINKY TOYS MODEL No.36a ARMSTRONG SIDDELEY SALOON,.Tekno SB 1 43 - MG 1600 Red,.
For example, in Partridge,Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 100 726101 Porsche 917 10 Interserie 1972,. In Jorgensen, supra,AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Gallardo GT3 FL2 2013 bluee finished product,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Tekno LKW DAF 106 XF SSC Aerop.Kühl-Cont-SZ M. Maas,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Lamborghini Gallardo LP570 Supertrofeo Stradale grey Telesto 1 18 Model 74692,. That is the same situation in this case.Honda Prelude Coupe 1997 Green Met LS COLLECTIBLES 1 18 LS038D Model,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Minichamps 1 18 scale Diecast - 530 761811 McLaren Ford James Hunt 1976,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Kia Kx3 2015 White 1 18 Model PAUDI MODEL,.Red Line 1 43 Scale Resin - RL156 Ferrari 330 P3 Le Mans 1966,.1 18 E38 Charger Green Metallic Opal Valiant 1972 Classic Carlectables 18544,.
Berna (Saurer) 1 50 Typ 2VM Tankwagen Militär (ohne Box) N°705 olo swiss,.