1 43 43 43 CL38 JAGUAR 2.4 (Mk1) BY SMTS 5c389f

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1 43 43 43 CL38 JAGUAR 2.4 (Mk1)  BY SMTS 5c389f
Red Line Ferrari F2008 Firano Test 1 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals WIKING 113 VW KAFER GREY-WHITE 1 40 RARE SELTEN IN NEAR MINT CONDITION IN BOX,.DCP Western Distributing Kenworth W900 w Refrigerated Trailer 1 64,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 067022 Porsche 911 GT3 2017 orange,.Acme 1 18 Scale Diecast - A1801210 1972 Pontiac Le Mans GTO Red,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Minichamps 155161116 Collectible Miniature Car - Yellow bluee,.SPA18DA68 by SPARKMODEL porsche 907 winner Daytona 24H 1968 1 18,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Mint Jingshang Samurai 1 18 Nissan Cima Hybrid White,.Fiat 242 Assistenza Lancia 1985 1 18 Model LAUDO RACING,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Club Bialbero RG 354 DIORAMA PRESENTAZIONE GIULIETTA,.RARE Mercedes G Class W461 Zeppelin DRK Ambulance Vector Models Hand Made 1 43,.Matchbox 1971 Pontiac Firebird 2012 MC Gathering USA No Bonnet Logo, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

DV8029 ELIGOR 1 43 SEMI RENAULT PREMIUM 420 DCI FRIGO TRANSPORTS FRIGETRANS RARE,.DeLorean DMC-12 (satin finish) 1981 1 18 AUTOart 79916,.Woytnik Metall Modell Hansa-Lloyd 2t Elektrowagen Paketzustelldienst Reichspost,.Ferrari 1 18 458 Italia Hot Wheels Elite,.

Schuco Pro.R 09006 - Saurer 3C-H Omnibus Bachmann Baujahr 1951 white-green 1 43,.1 18 Kyosho BMW M3 Congreenible Not Autoart,.Dodge Cgoldnet Club Coupe 1952 BoS Models 1 18 BOS274 Model,.Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM10 - Austin Tourer - Light bluee,.Autoart 1 18 Toyota 2000 Gt White Composite Diecast Model 78753 ABS Sports Car,.

WIKING Audi BMW und Andere PKW Konvolut 25 Stk 1 87,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Autoart Lamborghini Gallardo Lp 560-4 0674110746860 1 18 Scale Car,.Autoart 1 18 Scale - 71160 Chevrolet Corvette 1969 Daytona Yellow,.1968 Shelby GT500KR orange 1 18 GMP 1801807,DINKY 358 U.S.S ENTERPRISE STAR TREK,.NEW Hobby Japan MARK43 1 43 Honda Civic Type R (FK2),.

TSM Acura NSX 2017 Red Resine Model Car 1 43 TSM164386 Genuine New Best Gift,.Porsche 991 R 2016 Yellow Green 1 18 Model S18259 SPARK MODEL,.Gasoline Models 1 43 2007 Ferrari F430 GT Sebring 12hrs Aguas Lopez Mediani,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.


Exoto 1 18 Scale Lotus Ford 49 Jo Siffert 1968 Spanish F1 Grand Prix 97004,. We agree in part.

Parade Militaire Armée 1 50 - Char Tank Jagdtiger SDKFZ 186 1944 Zimmerit,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK16 023B - 1935 Dodge Van Gems & Cobwebs,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Spark Model Porsche 901 (red) 1 18 18S126,.AUTOART 81342 1 18 MCLAREN 12C GT3 RED BULL S.LOEB A.PARENTE SUPERCAR,.Scania-Vabis L 110 low bed trailer Tieflader Akerman Kran Bagger Tekno 1 50 TOP,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 43 HUNGARIAN BUS IKARUS-256.75 1980 Made by Vector Models,.Maxwell Toys (India) 1 25 Eicher Goodearth Tractor No.599 1970s BOXED ,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Provence Moulding Kit Assembled 1 43 - Ferrari BB 512 LM 1980 bluee,; Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 530 133424 McLaren F1 Road Car 1993 White,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

BBR Models 1 43 Scale Resin - GAS10056 Ferrari 430 Challenge 2006,.AUTOart Jaguar XKRS 2011 Red 1 18 73642,CORGI 486 KENNEL SERVICE WAGON WITH FOUR ORIGINAL DOGS,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.TK.Company JAPAN-Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Cedric (Y 31) Gran Turismo SV,Traac ,.

1 18 Hobby Japan Nissan Skyline GT-R V-Spec 1999 BNR34 Bayside bluee HJ1809BL,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.AUTOART 1 18 PORSCHE 908 270 MCQUEEN HORUTOVIRU WINNING CAR,.FERRARI GTO 330 TOUR DE CORSE 1963 N° 170 BBR135B SCALE 1 43,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM13AA - 1965 Humber Sceptre Mk2 - Metallic Green,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, UT MODELS 1 18 Scale Diecast - 27832 PORSCHE 911 GT2 1997 - YELLOW,; Minichamps 2015 Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS Yellow in 1 18 Scale LE of 222 New,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Kamaz 5490-C5, red, 1 43, Start Scale Models,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

1 43 43 43 CL38 JAGUAR 2.4 (Mk1)  BY SMTS 5c389f1 43 43 43 CL38 JAGUAR 2.4 (Mk1)  BY SMTS 5c389f1 43 43 43 CL38 JAGUAR 2.4 (Mk1)  BY SMTS 5c389f1 43 43 43 CL38 JAGUAR 2.4 (Mk1)  BY SMTS 5c389f

Burago 1 43 Ferrari SF71H Sebastian Vettel 2018 (with driver case) 18f1M,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

French Dinky Toys 557 Citroen Ami ‘6’ Type 1,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Aston Martin Rapide - 1 18 - AUTOart,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Paragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - PA-97086 BMW i8 Java Green,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Maserati BiTurbo Spyder 1986 - 1 18 - Minichamps,.Tamiya 1 32 McDonnell Douglas F-15 C Eagle Plastic Model New From Japan 4V,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Code 3 FDNY Aerialscope Tower Ladder -160 (12730-160),. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.AUTOART 71274 1 18 CHEVROLET CORVETTE GRAND SPORT RED WHITE STRIPES,.

IG1251 ignition model 1 43 Nissan Cedric (Y31) Gran Turismo SV White,.CORGI 292 STARSKY & HUTCH ORIGINAL VERY GOOD ORIGINAL SET- BOX WORN AS SHOWN,.Dodge Viper SRT in white BBR Top Marques 1 18,.1 43 Mercedes Benz O302 Autobus 1965 Cream bluee 439035181 Minichamps,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Mint 1 18 Jaguar R5 Klien Ford,.

Kings Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 500 F2 Syracuse GP Luigi Villoresi,.Nissan Skyline R35 GTR Nismo Weiss Nr 160 1 18 GT Spirit Modell Auto mit oder ..,.CORGI HILLMAN HUSKY - 206M MECHANICAL,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Hpi-Racing 8829 Calsonic Skyline Gt-R 1,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.MIN510951826 by MINICHAMPS BENETTON B195 GP Europa 1995 18,.Eagle Collectibles 1 18 Premium Land Rover Serie III 109 Hard Top AA Rescue Van,.TEKNO IRISH HANLON DAF XF CURTAINSIDE 1 50 SCALE RARE,.Audi R8 FIA GT GT3 Plain Body white Modellauto 1 18 Autoart,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK140A - 1954 Hudson Hornet Congreenible Cgoldnation Cream,.

Otto Mobile Ford RS200 1 18 Droogmans Joosten 24h Ypres (JvdM), the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ignition model IG1602 Mini Car 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-R (KPGC10) White NEW,.Porsche Carrera GT by AUTOart in 1 18 Scale Diecast Model 78046,. The PartridgeAston Martin Vanquish 2013 White Autoart 1 18 AA70250 Model,.1950 Ferrari 195 Inter Ghia red 1 18 BoS-Models 354,.GT SPIRIT 1 18 SCALE MERCEDES-AMG GT-R FAB DESIGN AREION WHITE,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, PORSCHE 906E 906 E BP WORLD RECORD RUNS MONZA 1967 1 18 MINICHAMPS 100676100 NEU, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Rare Bentley 3 1 2 Litre 2 door saloon Western models WMS 4 1937 1 43,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Delage D8 S 1933 fermée Fernandez et Darrin (1 43, Evrat),.AUTOART 1 18 CHEVROLET CORVETTE 86 WHITE,PartridgeSpark 1 43 Porsche 956-5 Stefan Bellof Memorial Day 2011 White from Japan,.1 76 TRAX TR12 Pre Production 1939 LEYLAND TIGER TS8 BUS with certificate,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ignition model 1 43 Nissan Cedric Cima (Y31) Pearl White Resin Model IG1089, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 79131 AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Aventador S Pearl White model car,; TOYOTA CELICA GT-S 2000 yellow Yellow LHD au 1 18 AUTOart 78723 voiture miniature,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, SPARK MODEL S18260 PORSCHE CAYMAN GT4 CLUBSPORT 2017 WHITE 1 18, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, SAAB 96 V4 Rallye Schweden 1975 Blomqvist 2nd Bosch Castrol Tecnomodel 1 18, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeAUTOART 1 18 PORSCHE 991 GT3 RS GUARDS RED 78165,.

Hobby JAPAN 1 18 Nissan Skyline GT-R V Specs 1999 BNR34 White HJ1809W,.1 18 Kyosho Bentley Bentayga Bright Bronze Nr. 08921BZ OVP, Clarke's negligent act.FORD MUSTANG SHELBY GT350 WIDEBODY blue Deep Impact 1 18,.Chevrolet Corvette C7 Z06 Coupe 2014 Red Autoart 1 18 AA71262,.ALEZAN MODELS . 1 43 . LAMBORGHINI JALPA DRAG .V8 LS1 .,.


The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Autoart 79916 DeLorean DMC 12 1 18 Model Car Satin Finish,MG Models 1 43 1951 Ferrari 166 SC Portugal Emilio Romano,. In Noska,VW Polo GTi flashred 1500 diecast modelcar OT270 Otto 1 18,.1 43 Looksmart Ferrari 458 Italia GT2 in Yellow on a Leather Base,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 123 - Saab 95 Estate - bluee,.2012 BMW Serie 6 Gran Coupe GT 650i Alpine White 1 18 Paragon Models 97032, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Norev 1 18 Scale 183421 - 2017 Mercedes Benz X-Class - Metallic bluee,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM101X - 1957 Ford Zephyr Farnham Estate LCC 2013,.New AUTOart 1 18 Honda City Turbo II White Motocompo Red F S S0567,.MINIMARQUE 1 43 UK28A - 1959 FORD POPULAR TWO DOOR SALOON RHD DARK blueE,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1969 Camion Mercedes LPS 1632 Dos Ejes bluee-Red 1 18 Road Kings 180022,Porsche 911 964 Carrera Rs 1992 Red Vm122F 1 43 Vision Finished Minicar New,.Spark Lotus 109 Belgium Gp 1994 1 43 Scale Car,.MINICHAMPS MODELLINO AUTO PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RSR 2.7 1972 BIANCO blue,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS No.103 BRONZE SPECTRUM PATROL CAR,.C2 Märklin  1952 MB 300 SL Hochglanz Version,,.BBR Models 1 43 Scale Resin - BBR150B Ferrari Enzo 2002 Yellow,.1959 Cadillac Ambulance Ecto-1 Ghostbusters Cazafantasmas 1 18 Auto World AWSS11,. The parties Mazda efini RX-7 FD Tuned Version 1991 vintage red 1 18 AutoArt 75969,.

1 18 FERRARI F248 F1 MONZA 2006 Hot Wheels,.1 43 1937 MERCEDES BENZ G5 Army Jeep open grey Handmade,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Lamborghini Aventador LP700-4 yellow 1 43 FrontiArt F003-08 1 43,; Ferrari 308 GTB, No.2, Olio Fiat, Valli Piacentine Rally, 1 43, Best, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

New 1 43 Ignition Model Honda Civic N1 0453,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, VW Volkswagen T2B Curry Wurst with Yearbook 2016 1 43 Autocult 99116d New 1-165,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)NZG VW Bus T6 Multivan Edition 30 weiss 1 18 9542 40,.LOTUS TEAM ELICOPTER 1962 Spark 1 43 SP0271,.Chevrolet Corvette C7 Grand Sport 2017 - watkins glen grey - AUTOart - 1 18 - 71,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155 026005 BMW 323i 1982 White,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Burago 1 18 Scale Metal Model 18-16601 - Ferrari F40 - red Red,.Ferrari F60 America Spider 2014 60Th Anniv. Usa red Corsa BBR 1 43 BBRC182F Mo,.Politoys Fiat 850 Coupe. Extra rare model. New Incredible offer. Made in ,.Lexus LC 500 Sonic Titanium Metallic Dark pink Interior 1 18 By AUTOart 78871,.MATCHBOX SUPERFAST No.61 blueE SHARK 'SCORPION LABEL' MIB,. The ScottsdaleRARE Lamborghini Aventador J Nurenberg Toy Fair Show 2015 IXO 1 43 1 of 99,New 1 18 Kyosho Car Model Land Rover Defender 90 Green 08901G,.Mercedes 600 (W100) Pullman, bluee, 1 43, TrueScale Miniatures,. Id.,AUTOart 74603 LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP610-4 1 18 DIECAST ARANCIO BOREALIS orange,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB85E - 1957 AUSTIN A35 - MAROON,; Minichamps MCLAREN TAG MP4 3B TEST CAR 1987 Senna in 1 18 Scale New Release ,Bmw 3.0 Csl E9 Coupe 1972 Yellow With Stripes Minichamps 1 18 180029028 Model,.F1 McLAREN Ford V8 Cosworth M23 South Africa 1976 Mass Minichamps 1 18,. The ScottsdaleJaguar F-Type 2015 R Coupe Firesand Metallic orange 1 18 AUTOart,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, CIJ 3 82 Camion Pelle - RARE,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1953 Opel Olympia Rekord Turquoise White by BoS Models LE of 504 1 18 Scale New,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM14 - 1963 Singer Gazelle - Green,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 911 S nd Place Rallye Monte Carlo 1972 - 1 18 - Minichamps,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 43 SRC40 1966 LOTUS 43 H16 CLARK WITH DETACHABLE NOSE CONE BY SMTS,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Schuco 1 43 Reisebus Magirus Deutz O6500 DP 450893500, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Original Mercedes-Maybach S650 Congreenible Designo Zirkonred 1 18 Norev, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, AUTOart 81343 MCLAREN 12C GT3 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR GULF LIVERY,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgePorsche 911 3,2L Carrera 1974 File Green Car Miniature 1 18 Collection Gts740,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1970 Dodge Charger R-T SE yellow-brown 1 18 Auto World AMM1036,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheGems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC12 - 1954 Riley Pathfinder - Met Green,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Matchbox RW 45A Vauxhall Victor yellow silverne Plastikräder top in D Box,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS - Miami blue - Autoart - 1 18,WSI 01-2547 Scania Wiklunds Akeri Ab Schweden,.Siku Super 1031 VW Bus (Typ T2b), sieper werke siku SPIELZEUGMODELLE,.RAI'S 1 43 Chevrolet Express ls3500 2008 Japan Police Guard H7430817 Vehicle JP,. The HuygheLotus 72E 1973 Peterson ohne Fahrer-Figur Autoart 1 18 NEU OVP,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheBrooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK220 - 1955 Studebaker Champion 4-Door Sedan,.

4x Schuco 7726 Unimog U1600 red Neu OVP 1 32 ideal für Wiederverkäufer & Diorama,.MIN537831807 by MINICHAMPS MCLAREN Ford MP4 1C j. Watson 1983 1 18,.

Faenza 43 1 43 1956 Ferrari 750 Monza Nogeira Porto GP,.1 50 Caterpillar D11T CD Carrydozer Model Diecast Engineering Vehicle 85567,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Dodge Cgoldnet Club Coupe 1952 BoS Models 1 18 BOS274,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeTEKNO DENMARK 405 VW VOLKSWAGEN T1 LEEUWENZEGEL 1 43 EXTREMELY RARE - GOOD,.2019 Hot Wheels Kmart Exclusive White ‘16 Camaro SS Lot Of 68,.

For example, in Partridge,Siku Plastik V13 VW Kaefer Volkswagen Käfer Pastellblue V Serie,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 43 CL77 1999 TVR TUSCAN Chameleon orange by SMTS,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Conrad 77224 MAN TGS LX Euro 6 5achs mit Ladekran Palfinger PK200002L SH 1 50,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1933 Ford Lincoln KB Top Down Kewanee Green 1 18 Sun Star 6165,. That is the same situation in this case.PEUGEOT D4A Cycles PEUGEOT 1956 1 18 Lyon,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Minichamps 180953304 Mercedes C-Class DTM 95 J. Magnussen 1 18 MIB,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Corgi Toys 316 N.S.U. Sport - Prinz Metallic RED SCARCE colour VNMIB Superb,.Matchbox K16 Dodge Tractor With Twin Tipper Train MIB,.Vocaloid Hatsune Miku BMW Z4 2011 Series Champion Ver. (Good Smile Company),.

Rover Vitesse 3.5 V8 Red 1986 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,.