Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals (c) corgi whizwheels JAMES BOND 007 ASTON MARTIN DB5 - 270,.CMR 1 18 Scale - CMR045 Porsche 917 LH Le Mans 1971 Rodriguez, Oliver,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM7C - 1954 Zephyr Zodiac - 2 Tone Grey & Green,.Tekno LKW Scania R Topl. Aerop. Schubboden-SZ Transoord,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Ignition model 1 43 Mitsubishi Colt GALANT GTO 2000GSR (A57) bluee IG0644,.Audi TTS Coupé, 1 43 , Sepangblue, 5021500113,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.HobbyJapan HJ1801DWSA 1 18 Toyota Soarer 3.0GT Limited MZ21 1988 white,.Wiking Drahtachser Jeep Typ 2 in glasig - green Fahrer schmal,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08736GP BMW M3 Coupe Moto GP 2008 Safety Car,.Vintage - ALFA ROMEO GIULIA Super 1600 Ti - 1 43 Politoys-M523,.Hot Wheels 2006 New Models Datsun 240z White Yellow bluee Nissan Z, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Rare - CITROEN Type H Duport Paris - 1 43 Kado - Japan,.Ertl 1 18 Scale Diecast 32832 1968 Ford Mustang CJ 428 bluee John Force Series,.1 18 Die Cast Ertl 1966 CHEVROLET BISCAYNE 427 4-SPEED LIGHT blueE L. E.,.Renault 10 Phase II Limousine red 1965-1971 Nr 231 1 18 Otto Modell Auto mit o..,.
Autoart Honda NSX Japanese Police Car,.Jurassic World 2015 Mercedes-Benz G 63 AMG 6X6 Radio Control Walmart Vehical MIB,.Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-El C210 White Hayashi Wheel Ig0317,.Kings Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 500 F2 Ulster Trophy Dundrod Bobbie Baird,.1 18 Ferrari F1 M.Schumacher 510961891 Minichamps,.
1 18 Kyosho BMW 1er Coupe diecast Red Dealer Edition,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Ferrari F60 America Spider 2014 60Th Anniversary Usa BBR 1 43 BBRC182I Model,.MID1 1 43 built model 1989 Porsche 962c, Japanese Championship, Omron, Schuppon,.Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KT03 - Triumph Herald 13 60 1 Of 600 - Regal bluee,IG1528 ignition model 1 43 Nissan TOP SECRET GT-R VR32 bluee metallic,.Dinky Toys Trade Box Of 6 Austin-Healey ‘100’ Sports Car (109),.
Jaguar Xj 4.2C 1974 BoS Models 1 18 BOS299 Model,.GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin Sealed body - GT049 Porsche 911 991 Techart Turbo S,.KIT built RESIN ALFA ROMEO GTV JAGERMEISTER - orange 1 43 - VERY GOOD IN BOX,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
2015 Ferrari F70 LaFerrari black 1 18 Hot Wheels Elite BCT80,.
Dinky 236 Connaugt Racing Car,. We agree in part.
MILESTONE MODELS 1 58 WHITE METAL BURRELL SCENIC SHOWMANS ENGINE - THE DOLPHIN,.2018 Lexus LC500h Brillant White 1 18 Kyosho Samurai KSR18024W,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.AUTOart 1 18 McLaren P1 GTR yellow green PVC,.Porsche 911 Turbo Tipo 930 - 1977 - Indian Red - Minichamps 1 43,.08704BL KYOSHO BMW M6 Congreenible ( bluee ) - Rarität - 1 18,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; TEK73452 - Camion citerne Scania R09 Lowline aux colors du transporteur TRANS,.BOS MODEL BOS170 MASERATI QUATTROPORTE METALLIC blueE 1 18,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, BMW M1 PROCAR SERIES Zolder 1979 E.De Angelis 1 18 Minichamps 180792961,; Franklin Mint 1970 Plymouth Red Hemicuda Congreenible, 1 24 Scale, Factory Sealed,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
1 18 Minichamps McLaren MP4-12C 2011 redmetallic ltd. 750 pcs.,.Ignition Model IG0315 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 Turbo GT-ES (C211) Purple F S,1 18 Mercedes Benz AMG-GT R by Almost Real,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.BBR Models Concept 43 Ferrari LaFerrari red Corsa 322 Modellino,.
Diecast Masters 85558 Cat Radlader 966a 966 M 1 50,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1 18 Autoart 1980 Porsche 924 Carrera Gt Red - Red Cult,.AUTOART Subaru impreza 1 18 WRX Diecast Model Car,.FAW 1 18 Scale Diecast - FAW Toyota Land Cruiser White gold,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 43 MM13 Corvette Grand sport 1963 Nassau Speed week car Marsh Models,; Buses France - MAP 43 - 1955 FLOIRAT Y 55,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Matchbox 2001 Series 1 - 75 Full Set of Cars in the Box,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Minichamps 1 43 - Bugatti 57C Coupé 1939 green collection Mullin,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Vintage - Tracteur Panhard et Semi-Remorque S.N.C.F. Mint - Dinky Toys 32AB,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Schuco Volkswagen T1 Nrnberger 1 18 450027900,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Lamborghini Miura P 400 S 1969 red Modellauto 1 18 GT Spirit,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.COFFRET JUNIOR SÉRIE PRIVILEGE NUMÉredÉE DE 2010 J PAR DINKY TOYS ATLAS,.1951 MERCURY AMERICAN GRAFITI SIGNED BO HOPKINS CAR 1.18 SCALE ERTL,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Wiking 1 87 H0 77426 Stadtbus MAN Lion's City A78 - OVP NEU (K),. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM101X - 1957 Ford Zephyr Farnham Estate LCC 2013,.
1 43 Russian van UAZ-450 1958-1965 Handmade Sarlab,.Mercedes LP608 Portauto Martini 1 18 Model PREMIUM CLASSIXXS,.DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 977D TRAXCAVATOR 1955-60 963K 85559,.BMW X5 3.0d SERVICE MOBIL 1 18 KYOSHO 80430305646 voiture miniature d collection,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Bmw M1 Procar 1979 Yellow 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,.
WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes W120 180D Ponton 1955 Fire Br Hamburg 1 18 Revell-GT,.New Mercedes-Benz Official (Germany only) PMA 1 43 Scale Mercedes AMG Japan,.ERTL 1 18 Diecast Model Car Fast & Furious Tokyo Drift - 2003 Nissan 350Z Green,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, AUTOart McLaren 570S 2017 Green 1 18 76042,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Four Wheels FWAM-9 10, 1957 Aston Martin DB2-4 Mk 3 DHC, Boxed,.Ferrari Portofino red Scuderia Tetto black 1 43 - LS480G Looksmart,.Dinky Vanwall - Green Yellow Driver - B D,.Chevrolet Chevelle Malibu Ss Code L79 1965 White, Model Car 1 18 Acme,.DCP DHL International ProStar w Wabash Double Pup Trailers 1 64,.
CENTURY 1 43 11 PLYMOUTH GTX 1969 YELLOW, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Spark Model Porsche Macan Turbo 1 18 18S171,.Auto Art 1 18 Lamborghini Diablo 6.0,. The PartridgeDV6949 ELIGOR 1 43 MAN TGX EURO 6 TRANSPORTS MARMETH 115284 HORS COMMERCE,.KOVAP Modellauto Blechmodell London Bus Routemaster aufziehbar Federwerk 1 36,.Drake ZT09186 Maxitrans Skel B Double Trailer Combination Membreys1 50,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, CORGI TOYS 259 CITROEN LE DANDY COUPE DS 19 HENRI CHAPRON 1 43 MINT, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1929 Cadillac 341 B Congreenible Coupe by BoS Models LE of 504 1 18 Scale New ,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.NEW 1973 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RS 2.7 orange 1 18 CAR AUTOART 78057,.TEKNO DENMARK 804 MG MIDGET TD 1952 + BOX - VINTAGE ORIGINAL MODEL (S),PartridgeKings Models 1 43 1956 Ferrari D50 French Grand Prix Test Alfonso de Portago,.Tekno LKW DAF 106 XF SSC Aerop.Kühl-Cont-SZ M. Maas,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Spark 1 24 Scale Model Car LMS006 - Peugeot 905 EVO 1 Bis Winner LM 1992, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ignition model IG1165 Mini Car 1 43 Pandem Toyota 86 V3 White finished product,; Siku ARAL PETROL TANKER - V288 boxed,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 2004 Cadillac Deville Limousine black 1 18 Sun Star 4231, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Spark 1 43 Scale S4629 - F1 McLaren MP4-29 Qualifying British GP 2014, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeRevell 1 18 Scale diecast - 08818 Ford Taunus 17M bluee,.
Autoart 1 18 - Subaru Impreza WRC - 1999 Monte Carlo Burns Reid,.BOS models 1 18 scale Resin 197845 Lotus Eleven Coventry Climax Monza, Clarke's negligent act.1937 CORD 812 PHAETON COUPE BURGUNDY FRANKLIN MINT 1 24 DIECAST & DISPLAY CASE,.Lamborghini Countach Lp5000S 25Th Anniversary 1982 Autoart 1 18 AA74536 Model,.Majorette volkswagen Coccinelle N 203,.
Corgi Set 17 1960's Land Rover & Trailered Ferrari VG condition in Original Box,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, French Dinky Toy 24R Peugeot 203 first version in grey 1 43 scale VG+ scarce,Land Rover Defender 90 Heritage Grassmere Green Alaska White 1 18,. In Noska,@. MINICHAMPS BMW M1 PROCAR POOH JEANS MARC SURER 1980 MINT BOXED,.1 18 Autoart Nissan Gt-R Nismo Gt3 (White) (Composite Model 2 Openings,.2019 Hot Wheels 90 Honda Civic EF Lot Of 72,.1 18 AUTOart - PORSCHE 993 RWB (WHITE GUNGREY WHEELS), necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.FERRARI 308 GTB 1976 RED KYOSHO 1 18 NEUVE EN BOITE,.Chevrolet Corvette 1986 Bianco Autoart 1 18 Aa71243 Modellino Auto Diecast,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes O 3500 Bus Red Cream 1 43 Minichamps-302 317 321 404,.Minichamps 1 18 ROVER VITESSE 3.5 V8 1986 RED,. Id., p 923.
Autoart 1 18 Lamborghini Aventador New yellow Orion Pearl Yellow 79132,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Jouef 1 18 Scale Diecast - 48824 Ford GT40 Le Mans 1969 Gulf,MATCHBOX - MODELS OF YESTERYEAR FIRE ENGINE SERIES - SELECTION OF MODELS - BOXED,.New Mini Champs 1 43 Scale Brabham BMW BT 50 Nelson · Pique 1982 Rally Japan,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155 054020 VW Karmann Ghia Coupe 1970 orange,.Bos 1 18 Scale resin - 200860 Oldsmobile Vista Cruiser - red,.EBBRO 45602 1 43 TOYOTA C-HR Radiant green metallic RESIN from Japan F S,.FERRARI TESTAROSSA Mondial Foot Italia 90 1 18 d BURAGO 3019IT voiture miniature,.Aston Martin Vanquish S (2017) Composite Model Car 70271,. The parties BBR Models Ferrari Dino 246 GTS Nera Modellino,.
CALSONIC SKYLINE GT-R JGTC FUJI --RESIN-- HPI 43,.Dinky Toys 915 A.E.C. With Flat Trailer, Boxed, c.1973,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale diecast - L2980 Ferrari 365 GTB4 red Red,; AUTOart 87181 PORSCHE 908 03 model car Nurburgring 1971 Marko Van Lennep 1 18, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Opel Manta B400 Rally di San Remo 1983 Toivonen 1 18 Otto Mobile Ot761 Nuovo,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Maserati Quattroporte My17 Gransport grey Maratea BBR 1 43 BBRC193B Miniature,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)DV6977 ELIGOR 1 43 SCANIA SERIE R TRANSPORTS PORTMANN 114523 HORS COMMERCE,.AMG Models 1 43 1955 Ferrari 555 Italian GP Monza Umberto Maglioli,.Tekno LKW Scania R Topl. Aerop. Kühl-KSZ Boekema,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Kyosho Toyota Supra 3.0 Gt 1998,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Minichamps Audi R8 LMS Ultra Winner 24h Nuerburgring 2015 18 LE of 350 New,.TEKNO 67443 DAF Euro6 XF SSC mit Kuehlkoffer 1 50,.BBR Lancia Beta Montecarlo Turbo BBR-TOP21B,.Ural 43202 (PM-102B) AC-40, red white, Likino-Dulevo, 1 43, Start Scale Models,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale - WEST1 McLaren Mercedes MP4 D. Coulthard West,. The ScottsdaleTekno Shirleys Transport 172 Of 290,Corgi Toys No. 241, Ghia L6.4 with Chrysler Engine, - Superb Mint.,.Frontiart AvanStyle 1 18 Aston Martin Vulan Red AS014-06,. Id.,. SPARK S0778 JAGUAR XJ12C NO 2 TOURIST TROPHY 1977 MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK183X - 1955 Chrysler Windsor Congreenible Coupe,; Minichamps 107032520 Scale 1 18,Brabus 600 from Basis Mercedes New Original,Mitsubishi 3000 Gto 1992 White LS COLLECTIBLES 1 18 LS019C Model,.Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 (997 II) GT3 Red 97pcs Limited Dinslaken 2009,. The ScottsdaleGood Smile Company 1 43 Miku Hatsune AMG 2016 Super GT300 Season Opening Ver.,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, GAIETY TOYS MORGAN 3 WHEELER CHROME RACING CAR CASTLE ART PRODUCTS RARE A058,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Vintage - NISSAN CEDRIC SGL 2800cc. - 1 40 G-49 Diapet Yonezawa toys 01385,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 44404 1 43 TOYOTA MR-2 1984 WHITE,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Véhicule Miniature - Peugeot 205 GTI Griffe 1.9L 1990 - green - Echelle 1 18 NORE,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Heco N140 1 43 1988 Ferrari F40 with Engine Set Handmade Resin Model Car,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Tekno LKW Scania R Topl EuroCombi-KHZ Eurolink, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, IMC5530675 - Camion 6x2 SCANIA S Highline et remorque porte engins aux colors, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Minichamps 2012 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 24h Nuremberg 18New Item ,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeCorgi 275 Rover 2000 TC 'Take-Off Wheels'. VNMINT Boxed. Red Interior. 1970's,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 18 Autoart PORSCHE 356 Nummer 1 silver,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheKyosho Aston Martin Db 9 143 Scale Car,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Hot Wheels 2003 First Edition 42 Car Set With Bugatti Veyron & 6 Hot Wheels Pins,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,BMW M1 Procar Series 1979 N. Lauda Minichamps 1 12,TAMIYA 1 6 BIG SCALE HONDA CB750 FOUR STREET RACE - NEW KIT NEW BOX LATEST ISSUE,.Brand 2000 Mercedes Benz S600 1 18 Scale Car,.IG1202 ignition model 1 43 Schuppan Porsche 962C JSPC decal,. The HuygheMasterpiece Models 1 43 Scale Model Car MP01 - Hillman Husky - Grey,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheFerrari J50 Spider 2016 Liana White Met BBR 1 43 BBRC208A Model,.
Mercedes-Amg Gt R Solar Beam Yellow Metallic 1 18 Autoart,.KYOSHO 1 43 MAZDA RX-7 (FD3S) TYPE R YELLOW,.
1 18 Ferrari 458 ITALIA SPIDER año 2011 Hot Wheels X5485 black Mate,.JADA FORD F-150 SUPERCREW FIRST SHOT PredOTYPE FROM ROY NAKAMURA COLLECTION,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Lamborghini Aventador S Ad Personam 2016 grey Acheso LOOKSMART 1 43 LS468SE Mo,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMATCHBOX 900 TP-21 DATSUN 260Z REMORQUE MOTO MOTORCYCLE TRAILER MIB NEUF,.1 18 GT Spirit Ford GT 2017 in White with Red stripe GT097 on bluee leather base,.
For example, in Partridge,LS Collectibles 1 18 Scale - LS029B BMW Alpina B7 Green Metallic,. In Jorgensen, supra,Porsche 911 (991 II) GT3 Anno di Costruzione 2017 Kreidegrey 1 18 Minichamps,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Citroen DS19 congreenible grey 1961 diecast model car 181563 Norev 1 18,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1970 Chevrolet Camaro Z28 Metallic Green 1 18 Auto World AMM1095,. That is the same situation in this case.Ixo model GTS18503W LAMBORGHINI CENTENARIO WHITE 1 18 Modellino,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.BMW M3 DTM 2013 (E92) Wittmann Miniature 1 18 Ice Watch,. Detroit Edison, supra.
FINEWORK Chgold Q size TOYOTA SUPRA 70 and lots of 2TOYOTA Celica XX Resin Kit,.Corgi 349 Mini Minor (Pop Art), Superb Reproduction Example, Boxed,.Ebro Wedge Sport Advance Rcf,.
2010 BMW M3 GTS (E92) 25 Years M Power orange 1 18 Kyosho 08739PM,.