Model Road Replicas 1 43 43 43 Scale MRR1B - 1958 Austin FX3D Taxicab Christmas Theme 4f30af

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Model Road Replicas 1 43 43 43 Scale MRR1B - 1958 Austin FX3D Taxicab Christmas Theme 4f30af
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals VOLKSWAGEN NEW BEETLE DUNE yellow yellow 1 18 AUTOart 79711 voiture miniature,.AUTOART 1 18 LEXUS LC500 METALIC WHITE 78846,.Land Speed Record car Moto Guzzi NIBBIO II 1957 ASSEMBLATO scala 1 43,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM27X - 1937 Jensen Dual Cowl Phaeton - LCC Special,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1 43 KrAZ-255B Kung Spintires Handmade Conversion ,.Ferrari 488 GT3 red Scuderia 323 lim.ed. 24 pcs 1 43 BBRC180RS Bbr Models,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.RARE NICE 1960s Tonka Pressed Steel orange Allied Tractor Trailer Toy ZI-1,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK7 001A - 1934 Chrysler Airflow Cream,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Peako 1 43 Pagani Huayra BC Flash Pink 31107,.Norev 1977 Porsche 935 Vaillant DRM Zolder Wollek 18New Item ,.Minichamps BMW 3.0 CSL WINNER 24HR SPA 1976 18New , Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 50 GMTS golden Oldies Scania S 0 Koegel Kühlauflieger Polar Express 4721 NEU ,.Tecnomodel 1 18 TM1801H Aston Martin V12 Zagato limited 200 pcs,.BBR Models Ferrari Dino 246 GTS Nera Modellino,.EBBRO - MM P - 1 43 CALSONIC Skyline GT-R (1) 1995 JGTC Sugo,.

Mercury Parklane Congreenible, red white, 1 43, Neo,.BMW M6 - coupé - Kyosho 1 18,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - X5486 Ferrari 458 Challenge,.MG Model Plus 1 43 1967 Ferrari 330 P4 Brands Hatch,.Opel Rekord C Coupe' 1966 Grey 1 18 Model 107047022 MINICHAMPS,.

Dodge Viper GTS-R 1 18 Autoart n. 56 Le Mans 1998 modellini,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.New Minichamps 1 12 Valentino Rossi Figure motoGP Winner silverina GP 2015 Japan,.TSM 1 18 MCLAREN MP4-12C GT3 Nr.23 MACAU GP 2012 UNITED AUTOSPORTS - TSM131813R,.Corgi 334 Mini-Cooper 'Magnifique' Metalic Green Mint in Very Near Mint Box,1966 Cadillac S-S 48 High Top Ambulance Red and White 1 18 GreenLight Precision,.Schuco 1 18 Volkswagen T1b mit der ganzen Familie unterwegs 450037700,.

Frontiart AvanStyle 1 18 Aston Martin Vanquish S Red AS018-06,.Minichamps 1 18 - F1 McLaren Mercedes MP4-11 Coulthard Marlbgold,.AUTOart 1 18 Toyota 2000 GT in White - Item,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Audi R8 Lms Plain Body Version 2016 White AUTOART 1 18 AA81602 Model,.

AUTOART 81344 MCLAREN 12C GT3, AZURE blueE 1 18TH SCALE,. We agree in part.

Bos 1 18 Scale resin - 186684 Opel Senator A2 3.0 CD gold Model car,.GT Autos 1 18 Scale Diecast - 11006MB Range Rover 2013 Candy Red,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.2010 BMW Serie 1 (F20) Midnigt bluee 1 18 Paragon Models 97005,.1972 BMW Turbo en orange Metálico Resina Modelo en 1 18 Escala de Schuco,.Lotus 3-Eleven Composite Model Car 75393,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; CORGI MATCHBOX TOYS JOB LOT 40+,.1 18 AUTOart Porsche 924 CARRERA GT 1980 Die Cast Model,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Brands 1 43 Lb Works 458 Scale,; Gorgeous Collection 1 18 Scale Kyosho Die Car Series Shelby Cobra 427 S c,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

AUTOart - 1 18 - PORSCHE CARRERA GT - 78046,.Bentley Continental Gtc White Minichamps 1 18 100139032 Model Diecast,FERRARI F430 CHALLENGE 2006 BBR black 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Franklin mint 1910 Rolls Royce Balloon Roadster with paperwork, Boxed,,.


A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 166 Bruno Sterzi Circuit du Lac,.Kyosho 1 18 Kyosho Original die-cast Lamborghini Countach LP500S WW (Red) 08...,.DINKY TOYS 32E BERLIET POMPIERS PREMIERS SECOURS + BOITE D'ORIGINE,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Franklin mint Scale model of a 1929 Bentley 4.5 litre blower Boxed,,; Look Smart Niki Lauda Monaco Ferrari 312 T 1975,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 18 Dealer Edition Cadillac ATS-L DIE CAST MODEL,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Model Road Replicas 1 43 43 43 Scale MRR1B - 1958 Austin FX3D Taxicab Christmas Theme 4f30afModel Road Replicas 1 43 43 43 Scale MRR1B - 1958 Austin FX3D Taxicab Christmas Theme 4f30afModel Road Replicas 1 43 43 43 Scale MRR1B - 1958 Austin FX3D Taxicab Christmas Theme 4f30afModel Road Replicas 1 43 43 43 Scale MRR1B - 1958 Austin FX3D Taxicab Christmas Theme 4f30af

LS COLLECTIBLES - ASTON MARTIN LAGONDA 1974 BURGUNDY 1 18 SCALE PRECISION MODEL,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Corgi Toys Wizzwheels 313 Ford Cortina GXL Grham Hill (FACTORY PRINT ERROR),


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Mercedes C123 280 CE doorkis modelcar OT627 Otto 1 18,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Maserati Quattroporte My17 Gransport grey Maratea BBR 1 43 BBRC193B Miniature,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.EBBRO 45131 1 43 TEAM MUGEN SF14 SUPER FORMULA 2014 No.2 from Japan Model Car,.1 18 AUTO ART XANAVI NISMO Z 2004 JGTC TEAM & DRIVERS STOSHI MOTOYAMA,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Herpa Tekno 071291 MAN TGS L Rundmulden-Sattelzug Geiger NEU in OVP 1 50,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Opel Rekord C Coupé 1966 - 1 18 - Minichamps,.

BMW 3.0 CSL yellow 1 18 Minichamps (BMW 80430137980),.IXO Models Sapgoldshez 965AE Jalta (light bluee) 1 18 PSM18002A,.Ferrari 812 Superfast Geneve Autoshow 2017 BBR 1 43 BBRC198A Model,.Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 125 Monza GP Luigi Villoresi,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale Model Van 6C - 1936 Ford V8 Sedan Delivery Van - Ford,.

Mercedes Benz Polizei Wagon 6 Batt Op Remote Control Mint in Box (1960s) ITB WH,.Aston Martin DB 5 James Bond Corgi 1981 comme neuve,.MINICHAMPS Duesenberg Model J Torpedo MC-107150431,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, MINICHAMPS 1 18 - 100 110832 BUGATTI VEYRON GRAND SPORT 2010 RED RED,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.TEK69403 - DAF CF Benne Deposable Van Gansewinkel - 1 50,.IMC 32 0010 Neeb Scania R6 Topline 8x4 Nooteboom 8 achs Auflieger 1 50 5322538,.AUTOART 1 18 ASTON MARTIN V8 VANTAGE 1985 GREEN 70224,.1947 DINKY E ARMSTRONG SIDDELEY COUPE. OLIVE HUBS CAT 375 VG+ EXC,.1 18 AUTOART Mercedes Benz 500SEC AMG Spa Ludwig,.

Norev 1 18 Scale - 188365 Audi A8 L 2017 bluee Metallic, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.SCHUCO 40 jaar Piccolo Art.-nr. 50123700,.Otto Mobile BMW E30 M3 Gr. A 1989 1 18 Duez Lopes Rallye MC (JvdM),. The PartridgeGems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC18 - 1950 Ford Zephyr Congreenible - Green,.Brand Nhra 50Years Racing Champions,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Model Car 155 017020 - 1998 Audi TT Coupe - Met Grey,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Spark 1 43 BMW M235i 2015 Nurburgring 24h from Japan, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS in Red in 1 18 Scale by AUTOart 78165,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Ferrari Portofino Cabriolet Closed 2017 Fuji White Pearl Met BBR 1 43 BBRC209C,.SCHUCO Auwarter Porsche Renndienst Bus 1 43 450896600,PartridgeAUTOart Volkswagen VW T3a Joker camper with 1 18 450038700,.Roadace Replica (Great Britain) Red Ferrari Daytona GT 1972 Plaster 1 100,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Otto 1 18 Scale resin - OT155 Volkswagen Beetle 1200 Oettinger Grey Model Car, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 911 997 GT3 RS 4.0 2011 bluee, 1 18 AUTOart 78145,; Spark Porsche 911 (991 II) GT3 2017 bluee Limited Ed. WAX02020063 Model CAR 1 43,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Brand Zil 111-V 143 Scale Car, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Hot Wheels REDLINE 1969 RED CLASSIC '36 FORD COUPE NEAR MINT MINUS CONDITION, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeAUTOart 1 18 McLaren MP4-30 Honda F1 GP 2015 with Fernando Alonso model car,.

LS COLLECTIBLES - LS001c RANGE ROVER SERIES 1 DARK BL 1 18 SCALE PRECISION RESIN,.BIANTE 1 18 HOLDEN LH L34 TORANA HDT BATHURST 4th BOND SKELTON, Clarke's negligent act.1966 Cadillac S-S 48 High Top Ambulance Red and White 1 18 GreenLight Precision,.AUTOart 81506 1 18 ASTON MARTIN V12 VANTAGE BATHURST 12 HOUR ENDURANCE RACE 2015,.1932 Ford cinq Fenêtre release n°1 citron Cosmic voiture gonflée ACME,.

Minichamps Audi R8 LMS Ultra Winner 24h Nuerburgring 2015 18 LE of 350 New,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Nissan GT-R LM Nismo Le Mans 2015 Matsuda Shulzhitskiy Ordonez Autoart 1 18,Matchbox Ford Transit Van Red Resin Model Pre-Production RARE Pre-pro,. In Noska,AUTOART Red Bull X2014 Fan Car AA-18116,.FERRARI 612 SCAGLIETTI 60ème ANNIVERSAIRE LOOKSMART LS296 1 43,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 (997II) GT3 CUP 2012 Japan Edition White Red Rim from JPN,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Car Ferrari F 2007 Kimi Raikkonen, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Nacoral 3552 Fiat 500 Rally grey mint in box condition,.Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC12 - 1954 Riley Pathfinder - Met Green,.GM Futurliner Red Chrome 1941 (NEO 1 43 46470),.CORGI TOYS MERCEDES BENZ MB 600 1 43 OVP CORGI CLUB LEAFLET,. Id., p 923.

Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - N2070 Ferrari 250 GTO 1963 Le Mans,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Corgi Toys Whizzwheels 375 Toyota 2000 GT Nr.1 OVP,CORGI 463 COMMER AMBULANCE, RARE CREAM VERSION, 99% MIB ,.Arena Kit to assemble 1 43 Chevrolet Corvette Greenwood Big One No.48 Mid Ohio,.1 18 AUTOART 71063 CHEVROLET CORVETTE 2001 C5 Z06 MILLENIUM YELLOW NEW,.1 18 McLaren 12C 2011 1 18 • Minichamps 110133020,.BBR Models 1 43 Scale Resin CLA1 Ferrari 365 GTB4 24H Daytona 1975,.1 18 Bentley Continetal GT 2008 Rare RED (MINICHAMPS) BNIB,.Autoworld 1 18 Scale Diecast - AMM1011 1970 Chevy Chevelle SS Maroon White,. The parties Schuco-Edition 00031 1 18 Mercedes-Benz 170V Reichspost Limited Blech OVP,.

1 43 REPLICARS SMTS 1954 MASERATI A6GCS COUPE PININFARINA - MEGA RARE HANDMADE,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 180 862951 BMW M1 Procar ADAC 1000Km 1986,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 11 Free Wheel Construction Excavator - CASE OF 8,; Mercedes L3500, Circus Roncalli, 1 43, Premium ClassiXXs, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Mclaren 570S Volcano Yellow Top Speed TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TS0046,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, TSM 1 43 1936 Cadillac V16 COUPE series 90 Resin Model,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 18 Lane Exact Detail, Shelby Mustang GT 350R, Fred Van Beuren,.Volkswagen Beetle Saloon 1949 - 1 18 - Minichamps,.Tecnomodel TMDMI52AN ASTON MARTIN V12 ZAGATO 2012 GLOSS orange W CARBON ED.LIM.P,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,2018 Hot Wheels 32nd Annual Collectors Convention ‘55 Chevy Bel Air Gasser,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.110170077 MINICHAMPS 1 18 Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 W08 EQ 2017,.MINICHAMPS 1 18 - 100 037131 MERCEDES BENZ SLR MCLAREN ROADSTER 2007 GREY MET,.Provence Moulding Kit Assembled 1 43 - Ferrari BB 512 LM 1980 bluee,.Ebbro Autobacs Super Gt 2018 Series,.Ros RS60232 BOTTE LIQUAMI SAMSON PGII 35-36 BOOM 1 32 Modellino,. The ScottsdaleFRANKLIN MINT VOLKSWAGEN MICROBUS 1962 1 24 B11UK01,Conrad 1 43 Mercedes-Benz Renntransporter The bluee Wonder CRD01034,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO46471 GM FUTURELINER 1941 WHITE DARK GREEN 1 43,. Id.,Trax 1 43 TSS20 1954 Ford Mercury Sedan Grey Ghost in It's original boxes.,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mclaren 650S Gt3 2017 Volcano orange AUTOART 1 18 AA81642 Model,; AUTOart 1 18 Porsche Speedster 1600 Super (Steve McQueen) 77866,Porsche 754 T7 1960 - Autocult 1 43 03 333pcs in Box 36708,.Tekno Shirleys Transport 172 Of 290,. The ScottsdaleHobby JAPAN 1 18 HONDA S660MUGEN RA Premium Star White Pearl HJ1808MRW EMS,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Jaguar E-Type Roadster 1961 bluee 1 12 - GT219 GT SPIRIT,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Bentley Continental GT RHD 2016 - 1 18 - Paragon Models,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, James Bond 007 Johnny Lighting COMPLETE SET of 30 die-cast cars series II 1998,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Pontiac Bonneville Special Dreamcar 1954 BoS Models 1 18 BOS082,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, UT Models 1 18 Scale Diecast - 27811 Porsche 911 Turbo 993 Arena Red,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1956 Desoto Firedom 4-Door Seville bluee by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 Scale New, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC21LE - Jaguar XK150 Coupe - gold, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, HARTSMITH 1 48 WHITE METAL GKN SANKEY 105 SAXON - MINT BOXED - L@@K ,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeDINKY TOYS 980 HORSE VAN IN ORIGINAL BOX,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, SA003-06 - FrontiArt SophiArt Fenyr Supersport (W Motors) - Red - 1 18,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheTekno LKW Scania R Highl. Aerop. Lebensm-Tank-SZ Intertank,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Paragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - PA-97087 BMW i8 Speed Yellow,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,PROVENCE MOULAGE ASTON MARTIN DB1 ROADSTER 1949 - ANTHRACITE 1 43 -EXCELLENT -12,Collection of 18 matchbox cars,all ford transit from mint to used condition,.ERTL 1 18 - 33772 1970 MONTE CARLO SS 454 - DARK RED,.1 30 German PzkpfwIII M (DAK version) with One Crew - Desert Scheme,. The HuygheSchuco SH0068 BMW 850i CABRIO RED 1 18,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAutoart Barcode Change Box May Have Been Changed Aston Martin Dbr9 24H 2005,.

MCLAREN HONDA MP4-30 F1 2015 GP SPAIN F. ALONSO 1 18 AUTOART,.AUTOart 78057 Car 1 18 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 '73 (orange) Finished product,.

Lamborghini HURACAN Liberty Walk black Mat AUTOart 1 18 Model Car 79121 ,.Dinky Toys 987 A.B.C TV Mobile Control Room Boxed,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Four Wheel Models 1 43 Scale FWLG19 -1953 Lagonda 3Ltr 2Dr D Head Open - Red,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1971 Pontiac GTO Congreenible GREEN 1 18 GMP 1801223,.Corgi Car Transporter ( As seen in Corgi gift Set 41 & 48 ),.

For example, in Partridge,Franklin Mint 1 24 2000 Corvette Platinum Power Independent Retailer LE 500,. In Jorgensen, supra,MATTEL HOT WHEELS - FERRARI - F1 F248 N 5 66 POLE POSITION - ALL TIME POLE 66 6,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 18 GT-SPIRIT BENTLEY GTV8S RESIN MODEL GREEN,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,BOS MODEL BOS297 BUGATTI T57 SC ATLANTIC MET.LIGHT blueE 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.Marque One Models 1 43 Scale 191118 - 1949 Chrysler Town & Country,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Autoart 79916 DeLorean DMC 12 1 18 Model Car Satin Finish,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Bburago Fiat Ritmo Abarth 1979 Modellino Auto Die Cast 1 43 Made in 4168,.RACING CHAMPIONS MM2713 MATCO TOOLS AUTHENTICS 1971 DODGE SUPER BEE 1 18 YELLOW,.Not sold in stores R30 Skyline Silhouette Victory Commemorative toy, hobby, toy,.

Rare matrice moule résine CITROEN BX sport voiture 1 43 Heco master véhicule UO,.