Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Matchbox RW 42A Evening News Van Metallräder in langer B3 Box,.TOGI 8 72 ALFA ROMEO 2000 BERLINA - RED 1 23 RARE - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.Lamborghini Gallardo Lp570-4 Squadra Corse 2013 Looksmart 1 43 LS427E Model,.BRAND NEW MINICHAMPS 1 43 ALONSO 2005 RENAULT R25 LIMITED1008 AND WORLD CHAMPION,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Kyosho 1 18 NISSAN R35 GT-R Premium Edition LightHand Drive Ver. Red,.2010 Land Rover Defender 90 TDI Green-Whire 1 18 Kyosho 08901GGR,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Brand 599 Gtb Fiorano 1 18 Scale Car,.SKODA Octavia WRC EVO3 Rallye Barum Zlin 2002 Kresta Benzina Foxtoys 1 18,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Tamiya 1 10 Electric RC Car Series No.550 Aero Avante (DF-02 Chassis) Off Road,.Mint Mist Maisto 1 18 Diecast Car 1971 Datsun 240Z orange Rare,.Autoart 1 18 Lamborghini Counterk Lp400 orange 74647 New, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
BMW 1er 1M M E82 Coupe Weiss Safety Car MotoGP 2007-2013 1 18 Minichamps Model..,.70273 AUTOart 1 18 Aston Martin Vanquiche S 2017 Bronze,.79131 AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Aventador S Pearl White model car,.Vintage Corgi Toys 454 Commer (5 ton) Platform Lorry,.
SUN MOTOR COMPANY 1 48 - 148 - EAST YORKSHIRE SERVICE VEHICLE,.Conquest Models 1 43 Scale Nr.1 - 1954 Oldsmobile Starfire 98 FAULTY,.NEW 1 18 Minichamps 155836614 Porsche 956K, 1,000km Nürburgring 1983,,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK223 - 1965 Chevrolet Impala Conv Coupe,.Minichamps 1984 BMW 635CSi GR.A BRUN MOTORSPORT JAGERMEISTER DPM 1 18New ,.
Kings Models 1 43 1951 Ferrari 375 Alberto Ascari Italian GP,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.CORGI 210S CITROEN DS19 - NR MINT in original BOX,.FRENCH DINKY TOYS 558 CITROEN 2CV 1960 62 MIB 9 EN BOITE VERY NICE L@@K,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155736592 Porsche 917 10 Farewell In The Snow Nurburgring,Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 728511 - Ford Capri RS 2600 - 24H SPA 1972,.Jouef 1 18 Scale Diecast - 48824 Ford GT40 Le Mans 1969 Gulf,.
A RARE Western models Aston Martin DB7, , Boxed,.Lansdowne 1 43 Scale LDM29X - 1935 Triumph Vitesse Flow-Free - WMTC Turquoise,.Nissan Fairlady Z (S30) 1 18 Ignition Model IG0650,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
1 18 Revell - Exoto Porsche 959 Red,.
MINICHAMPS - MCLAREN FORD M23 TEXACO - D. HULME 1974 1 18 SCALE 530 741806,. We agree in part.
Ferrari Fxx 23 Red Frank Muller Limited Edition 1 18 Mattel,.Minichamps BMW BMW M1 BRUN MOTORSPORT 24H LE MANS 1983 18 Scale LE of 504,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.AUTOart - 1 18 - CHEVROLET CORVETTE C7 GRAND SPORT - 2017 - 71271,.CORGI TOYS 301 ISO GRIFO 7 LITRE 1 43 METALLIC blueE OVP,.Minichamps Tyrrell Ford 003 1971 1 18 François Cegreen (FRA) (AK),." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Autoart LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR S 2017 NEW yellow ORION PEARL YELLOW 1 18 New ,.Top speed 1 18 Mini Car TS0147 Chevrolet Corvette C7 ZR-1 High voltage tint,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Buses France - MAP 43 - 1955 FLOIRAT Y 55,; QUEENS 14 - DELAHAYE 145 V12 MILLION 1937 SLim. N° 076 150ex,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Minichamps 1 18 scale 150 111502 Citroen 2CV 1976 Green,.LOOKSMART LSLM079 Collectible Miniature Car Red,NIB 1 24 DIECAST JOHNNY WHITE LIGHTNING 1970 CHALLENGER T A WL RARE MUSCLE CAR,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.HOT WHEELS FLYING COLORS REDLINES POLICE CRUISER UNPUNCHED,.
( GOL ) 1 18 Minichamps BMW M3 DTM 1991 A. Berg NEU OVP,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1 18 Exact Detail WCC212 Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 1968 Lmtd.1of1500 - RARITÄT §,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 811114 - Audi Quattro Winner Rallye Sanremo '81,.Bentley Continental GT 2016 RHD Verdant 1 16 Scale Paragon 92888R,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 18 2018 Ford GT Heritage Edition No Number by Acme,; ALFA ROMEO 159 -1951 - 1 20 built - Revival,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Kit Fiat 626 con telo - IV Model Factory kit 1 43,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Look Smart Lamborghini Veneno Roadster Red,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Spark Model S18270 ORECA 05 NISSAN N.44 DNF LM 2016 GRAVES-RAO-MERHI 1 18 Modell,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Norev 1 18 Scale 183421 - 2017 Mercedes Benz X-Class - Metallic bluee,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
1 18 Kyosho Bentley Bentayga Bright Bronze Nr. 08921BZ OVP,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.2015 MASERATI QUATTROPORTE GTS PASSION blueE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY AUTOART 75807,.LOLA Climax V8 F1 Chrome n°19,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Hot Wheels 2010 Blown Delivery RLC Exclusive Members Only VHTF 4000,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Pegaso Z-102 Berlinetta Touring Superleggera 1953 BoS Models 1 18 BOS171 Model,.
Porsche 911 Turbo 1977 greenmetallic 1 12 Minichamps 125066102 PMA G-Modell 1963,.1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Aventador S black Pegaso on Leather base,.Bentley Continental GT 2008 white, Modellauto 1 18 Minichamps,.DINKY TOYS. 164. VAUXHALL CRESTA. MINT. Model,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.CURSOR - WIKING 1 40 VW KOMBI TRANSPORTER MODELISME - MINT BOXED - RARE ,.
Ferrari 250 Gto Coupe 1964 Personal Car Michel Paul Cavalier MG 1 43 GTO43077 Mo,.AUTOart Lamborghini Gallardo LP570-4 Superlegge 1 18 74658,.MINICHAMPS SPIELWARENMESSE NURNBERG PORSCHE 911 GT3 RS SONDERMODELL POR000031,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Ferrari California T Spider Closed Roof 84Th Geneve Auto 2014 BBR 1 43 BBRC140B,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 PredOTYPE - M43 1067 - HORCH 853 A ERDMANN ROSSI - blueE,.DM CAT 85161 994F Wheel Loader Trcuk Model 1 50 Diecast Engineer Vehicles Toys,.Bmw 316 1978 Red 1 18 Model 107024100 MINICHAMPS,.1 18 Carousel Aar Eagle 1973 Indianapolis 500 Rarity §,.1 24 Le Mans Miniatures Audo R10 TDI Le Mans 2006 Winner,.
Kings Models 1 43 1951 Ferrari 166 Cunningham Mecox Trophy, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.AUTOart 79151 LAMBORGHINI HURACAN PERFORMANTE 1 18 BIANCO MONOCERUS SOLID WHITE,.NZG MODELLE 504 FAUN V12 - v. SEUMEREN blueE 1 50 PROMO - VERY GOOD CONDITION,. The Partridge2015 Toyota Land Cruiser V8 whiteo Kyosho KSR18008W,.Collection Tonka Poliestil solid 1 43 1 28 21 car modell,.2013 Mercedes-Benz G63 Amg 6x6 in Red by AUTOart in 1 18 Scale 76304,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1 18 AUTOART 70252 ASTON MARTIN V12 VANTAGE S YELLOW TANG NEW, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Mercedes Lpko 311 Pullman Tlf 16 Fire Brigade 1965 Red Model Car 1 43 Neo Scale,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.ELEGANCE RESIN MODEL 1 43 120 - 1950 CADILLAC SERIES 62 CONgreenIBLE - blueE,.AUTOART 1 18 CHEVROLET CORVETTE GRAND SPORT ADMIRAL blueE WHITE STRIPES 71275,Partridge1 18 AUTOart Lamborghini Huracan LP610-4 - grey Titans Matte Grey - 74606,.Corgi 339 1967 Monte-carlo Winner BMC Mini Cooper S Good Cond,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Tekno - 443 - Scooter Vespa et Side Car - 1 43e - Danemark, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, PORSCHE 924 CARRERA GT Lemans TSM resin in box SUPERB 1 18 SEE INFO,; 1 18 Alfa Romeo 1750 Autoart,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Corgi Toys 251 Hillman IMP bluee perfect mint in box SUPERB, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 18 Cadillac Deville Limousine año 2004 Sun Star 4231 black, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCorgi Toys 436, Citroen Safari ID 19, Mint in Box ab1641,.
BBR Models 1 43 Scale Resin GAS10030 Ferrari 550 SPA 2005 Car Labre Comp,.TOP MARQUES COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - MOSLER MT 900 - 2000 - TOP46B, Clarke's negligent act.RAE Models 1 43 Scale Model Car KE003C - 1930 MG M Type - Red,.Sunstar 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3202 Jaguar XK140 Drophead Coupe Maroon,.Brabus SLS AMG Roadster 2012 perl white 1 18 Minichamps neu & OVP 107032130,.
MG Models 1 43 1951 Ferrari 166 SC Portugal Emilio Romano,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, WOW EXTREMELY RARE Chevrolet Corvette 1957 Pink Wooden 1 18 B burago Executive,18 Scale Shelby Collectibles 65 Cobra Daytona Coupe,. In Noska,Minichamps 1 18 Scale diecast 180 039009 Mercedes Benz 300SL 1954 Yellow,.1975 Porsche 911 RSR No.55 Le Mans in 1 18 Scale by Spark 18S289,.Minichamps 1 12 Scale 122 111226 - Honda RC212V Dani Pedpink Aragon 2011,.AUTOART 1 18 JAGUAR XJ-S TWR RACING ETCC SPA-FRANCORCHAMPS1984 WINNER 88459, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Norev 2016 BMW M4 DTM Red Bull BMW Team RMG DTM Champion Wittman 18New ,.AUTOart Lamborghini Aventador Libery Walk LB-Wo 1 18 79106,.Schuco 1 43 Magirus-Deutz O6500 Travelling Bus 450893700,.AUTOart 1 18 Toyota 2000 GT White Composite Diecast Model 78753 Japan,. Id., p 923.
( GOR ) 1 18 AUTOart Ford Lincoln Navigator NEU OVP,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, SCHUCO 1 18 MERCEDES BENZ UNIMOG 401 cabine Westfalia BORDEAUX ref 450014300,Lamborghini Urus, metallic-white, 1 18, MCG,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM7C - 1954 Zephyr Zodiac - 2 Tone Grey & Green,.UT Models 1 18 Scale Diecast - 20423 BMW Z3 Coupe 2.8,.Paragon 1 18 Scale Diecast PA-97063 - BMW M6 Cabrio - Sakhir orange,.Vintage - ALFA ROMEO Giulia Canguro - 1 43 Politoys-M529 Mint box,.Hpi-racing 1 43 Nissan Pulsar GTI-R 1992 Monte Carlo T. Makinen S. Harjanne,.Mint Mattel 1 18 Ferrari F2002 Barrichello 2002 Hotwheels,. The parties TEK69465 - Camion 4x2 SCANIA 164 Topline et semi silo 3 essieux Mattersdorfer -,.
WSI 01-2448 LBC Malmo Scania R6 Highline Rigid,.1 18 Honda Accord 10th Sedan Diecast Metal Car Model Toys Kids Boy Gift bluee,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Tekno Denmark 415 Ford Taunus Transit V&D very scarce Dutch promotional,; Spark No.18 500 War Commemoration Warfare Jarno Trulli Lotus T127 N18, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Wards Riverside 160 MPH Roaring Racer in the Box ,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, SCHUCO REPLICA - Examico 4001 Weihnachten '95 - OVP.NX422X,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Singer Porsche 1 18 Legende Miniature Transkit TRK 911 Singer Bausatz,Neu,.RARE HTF MATCHBOX SET OF 2 MOTOR SHOW RED BMW 5 SERIES & WHITE 850i MOC,.1 43 Make Up VM096E Porsche 911 993 Carrera RS 1995 Midnight bluee Met. Miniwerks,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Hatsune Miku GT Project Good Smile Hatsune Miku AMG 2017 Series Winning Ver. 1 3,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Rolls Royce Camargue gold 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.Johnny Lightning White Lightning Chase 1979 FORD MUSTANG Rubber Tires W BLISTER,.Minichamps SAUBER BMW C24B F1 Villeneuve TEST VALENCIA 2006 1 18 New,.OPEL REKORD C COUPE 1966 red 1 18 MINICHAMPS 107047020 NEU,.Wyandotte marx pressed steel toy car zephyr made in USA toy wind up sedan racer,. The ScottsdaleTarmac works - Honda Civic Eg6 group A racing - plain white 1 18,HOT WHEELS FIRE RODS '80S CORVETTE 26 RED & WHITE W+,.NEW ignition model 1 43 Nissan Fairlady ZS30 Brown Resin Model IG0781 from Japan,. Id.,Nico Rosberg World Champion 2016 Mercedes F1 W Figurine by Minichamps in 1 18,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PORSCHE 909 Bergspyder Mont Ventoux 1968 G. Mitter Resin Tecnomodel 1 18,; ACME Models 1 18 Scale A1801811 - Mel Burns 1965 Drag Shelby GT350,Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 123 - Saab 95 Estate - Red,.Norev 1 18 Scale 183421 - 2017 Mercedes Benz X-Class - Metallic bluee,. The ScottsdaleBBR 1 43 Ferrari J50 red BBRC208,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 123 - Saab 95 Estate - Red,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Porsche 981 Cayman GT4 in 1 18 Scale by Spark,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1961 Opel Rekord P2 Light Green color by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 Scale New,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SIKU V253 MERCEDES 600 PULLMANN W100 OPALgreenMET. OVP,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Minichamps 1 18 Scale 151 131388 - Mclaren MP4-12C - Von Ryan Racing,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE - 1 18 36986 1971 DODGE CHALLENGER REDLINE OIL WHITE, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Transitional Matchbox Superfast No 59 Ford Galaxie Med Red Bonnet DECALS RARE, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08752W BMW X5 xDrive 4.8i White,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeBBR Models 1 43 Scale Resin CLA1 Ferrari 365 GTB4 24H Daytona 1975,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Sun Star Camaro Z28 1982 Chevrolet 1 18,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSunstar 1 18 Scale - 5411 - 1960 Plymouth Fury Closed Conv - White Aqua Mist,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Gts136 Gtspirit 118 Dodge Viper Gts bluee White Line Model Cars,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Wiking Drahtachser Jeep Typ 2 in glasig - green Fahrer schmal,MERCEDES-BENZ ZETROS 6X6 ECHELLE 23X7 CAMION PLATEAU ETAT NEUF BOITE PLEXI,.JADA HUMMER H2 ZAMAC CLEAR COATED PredOTYPE FROM ROY NAKAMURA COLLECTION,.Minichamps 1977 BMW 3.5 CSL WINNER HAVIROV INTERNATIONAL Manhalter 18New ,. The HuygheMinichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 180 792998 BMW M1 Procar Plain Body Yellow 1979,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheBOS models 1 18 scale Resin sealed model 194369 Iso Grifo 7 Litre (IR8) Red,.
Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes AMG W07 Hybrid 2016 Constructor World Champ 2 Car Set,.Minimarqu43 by GTA Model. MGTD Open 2 Seater Roadster. New Mint Boxed,.
Kyosho Ferrari 250 Gto Le Man 1962 19Th Car 1 43 Scale,.PORSCHE 924 CARRERA GT 1980 black 1 18 AUTOart 78001 voiture miniature collection,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Bentley Azure 2006 white Minichamps 1 18 100139502,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeOtto 1 18 Scale Resin body - OT640 BMW E12 Alpina B7 S Turbo,.AUTOart 1 18 Nissan GT-R NISMO GT3 White finished product,.
For example, in Partridge,Tiny Highlight Hong Kong Police Vehicle Three Set,. In Jorgensen, supra,Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155 828601 Ford Capri 3.0S Gilden Kolsch 1982,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 18 AUTOart Lancia Delta S4 1985 red,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Maserati Quattroporte My17 Gransport grey Maratea BBR 1 43 BBRC193B Model,. That is the same situation in this case.RARE Paz 651A Russian Bus Limited DIP MODELS 165103 1 43 USSR,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.MINI CAR FAN 1 43 HONDA NSX 3.2 1997 WHITE,. Detroit Edison, supra.
BOS194 by BOS MODELS PANHARD Y LEVASSOR DINÁMICO 1936 1 18,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155066200 - 1987 Porsche 959 - Red,.New Blago 1 18 scale Ferrari 458 Special Red BR-18-16002 Model car Japan,.
Lamborghini Gallardo GT3 FL2 2013 - 1 18 - AUTOart,.