Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1972 Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2.7 in White in 1 18 Scale by Minichamps 107065020,.RECOLLECTIONS 1 43 HILLMAN IMP CALIFORNIAN PredOTYPE RED,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 SCALE WMS98 - 1946 FORD ANGLIA - GREY,.Tekno LKW Scania R Highl. Aerop. Lebensm-Tank-SZ Intertank,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Ferrari Laferrari Aperta Spider 2016 red Corsa 322 Red BBR 1 43 BBRC187C1 Mode,.Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Turbo 2.1 Brands Hatch 1974 18 Autoart,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.AUTOart 1 18 Nissan GTR R32 GROUP Die Cast Model,.1934 Alfa Romeo Tipo B P3 Aerodinamica red 1 18 BoS-Models 066,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.IMBRIMA INBRIMA MATCHBOX FERRARI 308 GTB B081,.Vintage - ALFA ROMEO GIULIA Super 1300 - 1 43 Mebetoys A-3,.Ignition Model 1 43 Toyota Sprinter Trueno AE86 3Door GT Apex Resin Model IG0485, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Norev 1 18 Scale 183457 - 1976 Mercedes Benz 450 SEL 6.9 - Met Grey bluee,.Spark 1 43 Scale S4629 - F1 McLaren MP4-29 Qualifying British GP 2014,.Brand 2000 Mercedes Benz S600 1 18 Scale Car,.Ignition Model 1 43 Yhp Nissan R90Cp 24 1990 Jspc Resin Model Ig0285 New,.
MINIMARQUE 1 43 UK28A - 1959 FORD POPULAR TWO DOOR SALLON - YELLOW - WITH VISOR,.Signature Die Cast, Lot of 24 Model Cars,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Bentley Azure Cabriolet 6.8 Promo 2006 bluee m 1 43 Minichamps,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08736GP BMW M3 Coupe Moto GP 2008 Safety Car,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE BMW E21 318 Saloon 1975 D.bluee 1 43 Minichamps-323 E30 E36 M3,.
ERTL Precision Series The Allis-Chalmers Model WC No.2245 1 16 Scale Boxed,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast 530 951807 McLaren Mercedes MP4 10 Nigel Mansell,.DINKY 358 U.S.S ENTERPRISE STAR TREK,.Spark 1 43 Scale S4629 - F1 McLaren MP4-29 Qualifying British GP 2014,1 43 Make Up VM122D Porsche 911 964 Carrera RS 1992 White Miniwerks,.Kings Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 500 F2 Bordeaux GP Winner Alberto Ascari,.
Porsche Modellauto 911 (991 II) Turbo S Racingyellow 1 18 Limited Edition,.2013 Porsche 911 GT3 RSR Predon Competition No. 88 LM in 1 18 Scale by Spark,.Ferrari 488 Gte black Opaco Ruote gold Lim.Ed. 24 Pcs BBR 1 43 BBRC179MB,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
1966 Ford Mk II No.98 Winner Daytona 24H by Spark,.
1 18 Minichamps Porsche 906l - Porsche Team - 24 H le Mans 1966 ,. We agree in part.
Kimmeria UDSSR 1 43 KraZ 214 Planen LKW 6x6 Hand Built in Eigenbau - Box,.OTTO Models OT058 Alpine GT4 (orange) 1 18 OVP,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.2017 Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 Coupe by GT Spirit USA Dealer Exclusive in 1 18 Scale,.TEKNO (DENMARK) 910 MERCEDES BENZ LP 322 LORRY - NR MINT in original BOX,.Rig Warriors Collection Galoob 1997 Mega Rigs Mini Missile Rigs & Fighting Rigs,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Autoworld 1 18 Scale Diecast AMM1042 1969 Pontiac GTO Royal Bobcat Edition Green,.Spark Model Red Bull Tag Heuer RB12 18 18S241,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, ''1965''CHEVY IMPALA LOWRIDER 'HOT WHEELS' ''NEW,SEALED,MINT''CLASSIC CAR ADD 2,; Faenza 43 Models 1 43 1962 Ferrari Tec Mec Waimate 50 Rod Coppins,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Otto1 18 Toyota Celica GT Resin Model,.McLaren P1 GTR in YELLOW GREEN STRIPES in 1 18 Scale by AUTOart.,Schuco Volkswagen VW Kafer Jolly Green 1 18 450008000,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1967 Fiat Dino Coupe 2000 Red by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18 Scale Rare,.
CORGI SEALED BATMANS BATMOBILE 1940 ROADSTER 1 18 DC COMICS LIMITED EDITION,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.AUTOart 1 18 Nissan GT-R Nismo GT3 Aurora Flare bluee Pearl Diecast Model 81584,.Durham 1 43 Scale DUR 33 - 1941 Chevrolet Deluxe Top Down Dark bluee,.TRIANG SPOT ON JONES CRANE KL 10-10 VINTAGE RARE OLD ,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, BMW 3er M3 E30 DTM Weiss Cecotto Fina DTM 1992 1982-1994 89246 1 18 AutoArt Mo..,; Mercedes-Benz Strich 8 Saloon 1968 Dunkelolive 1 18,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, P DINKY TOYS 169 STUDEBAKER goldEN HAWK TURQUOISE CREAM MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Red Bull X2010 Predotype carbon look, Modellauto 1 18 Autoart,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Kit Fiat 615N IIa serie Servizio Corse Abarth 1961 - IV Model Factory 1 43,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Danbury Mint 1995 Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 (yellow) 1 24 (25),
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
KYOSHO BMW 1er Coupe CSL 1 18,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.TEK72227 - Camion 6x2 SCANIA R Highline et remorque porte container 3 essieux av,.Brand Chrysler Town Country Minicar,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast - T6250 Ferrari 410 Superamerica gold Red,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Porsche 911 Turbo 1977 greenmetallic 1 12 Minichamps 125066102 PMA G-Modell 1963,.
Corgi Toys 151 Lotus Mark Eleven Le Mans Racing Car very very near mint in box,.Minichamps 2012 BMW Z4 GT3 Street Version bluee LE of 504 1 18New ,.BMW M 235i AC Schnitzer ACL2 Coupe built in 2015 green 1 18 GT-SPIRIT,.VERY RARE VINTAGE SOVIET TOY - Fiat 850 coupe No 9 1 43 SIKHARULI TBILISI USSR,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Norev 1 18 Scale 183421 - 2017 Mercedes Benz X-Class - Metallic bluee,.
CORGI CC99140 The Scammell story box set.,.Norev 1 18 Scale Diecast - 183569 Mercedes Benz 280 SE 1968 Ivory,.PORSCHE 935 Turbo Winner Daytona 1979 Ongais Haywood Truescale TSM NEW 1 18,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, The Beaulieu Collection 1 43 Scale BM1G - 1935 Ford Y Tudor - Green,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.193 RAMBLER CROSS COUNTRY STATION WAGON VN MIB,.Spark 1 18 Lancia LC2 Lucio Cesario It.No. 18S161,.RECOLLECTIONS 1 43 HILLMAN IMP CALIFORNIAN 052 500 WHITE,.Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 166 Remparts GP Bruno Sterzi,.ERTL 1 18 - 36673 1976 FORD GRAN TORINO - DARK RED,.
Sun Star 1 24 Routemaster Bus Lucozade RM870 - Mint Boxed, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Mclaren 570S Volcano Yellow Top Speed TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TS0046 Model,.Franklin Mint 1 16 Scale diecast - B11KF10A 1913 Bugatti Royale Coupe De Ville,. The PartridgeRARE GAZ-24 RALLI-SPORT ORIGINAL VOLGA 24-02 S001,.Porsche 911 GT3 Cup, No.1, LKM, PCCA, 1 43, Spark,.RENAULT T520 HIGH SEMI CAMIONETA BRUNO ROBERT TRED UNION 1 43 eligor,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, UT Models 1 18 Scale Diecast - 39518 Porsche 911 RS Porsche cup VIP 1995 car, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Giocher LFP LANCIA FLAMINIA PRESIDENZIALE FESTA REPUBBLICA 1 43 Modellino,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 151 - Vauxhall Caleche - Cream,.Metal Ford Mustang Gt 1 18 Scale Car,PartridgeCITROEN AMI 6 BREAK SOLIDO SERIE 100 1 43,.Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KE5918S - Austin Devon - Beige 1 Of 600,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Spark Pescarolo C60-Judd N 17 2Nd Lm 1 18 Scale Car, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08734LBL BMW M3 E92 Laguna Seca bluee Model Car,; Autoart Porsche 997 Carrera S 1 18,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Ikarus 250.59 red white bus USSR 1 43 Classicbus very rare, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Tekno MERCEDES VERHOEK MIT CONTAINERAUFLIEGER 1 50 OVP, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMG Model 1 43 1967 Ferrari 330 P4 Le Mans,.
GMP 1 18 - McLaren M8B Low Wing N°11 Lothar Brandnew in ovp RARE ,.Brand Brabham Bmw Bt52 Michelin, Clarke's negligent act.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM101X - 1957 Ford Zephyr Farnham Estate LCC 2013,.Redline Hotwheels Purple 1970 Heavy Chevy oc15922,.FERRARI 550 SPA 2005 BBR black 1 43,.
A & G Modelli Models 1 43 1971 Ferrari 512M Muller Herzog Nurburgring,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 143 - Austin Allegro 3 - Snapdragon,New AUTOart 1 18 Honda NSX Type R '92 (Indy Yellow Pearl) 73297,. In Noska,WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WRK34 - 1982 WILLIAMS FW07C F1 SAUDIA TAG,.PORSCHE 911 type 964 GT RSR LE MANS 1994 18 GT SPIRIT GT104 voiture mini.,.WSI 01-1574 Verbeek Scania R6 Topline Box Flower Combi,.BEATLES1997 Corgi Die cast Vehicle ToyMystery BusMIB, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 18 Biante - Holden HQ Sandman Panel Van - Chrome Yellow,.Replicarz 1 18 Gilmore Racing Coyote - Indy 500 Pole Winner 1974 - A. J. Foyt,.1 18 Kyosho - Shelby Cobra bluee with white Stripes - RARITÄT - neu OVP ,.Porsche 356 A in bluee Metallic Diecast Model in 1 18 Scale by Schuco 450031200,. Id., p 923.
Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM28818A - Austin Dorset - Dark Green,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC21 - 1958 Jaguar XK150 Coupe - Red,Ferrari 458 GT2 red 1 18 hot wheels elite new,.ACME GMP 1 18 Outlaw 1934 Blown Altered Coupe ACME Exclusive LTD 18900 New,.RENAULT T520 HIGH SEMI FURGONE BRUNO ROBERT TRED UNIONE 1 43 eligor,.Mercedes Benz W 124 E 60 AMG White Limited 1 18 New OVP,.2016 Bentley Continental GT Congreenible Sunburst gold 1 18 Paragon Models 98232,.ACME - 1 18 - FORD HOT ROD COUPE - 3 WINDOW DEUCES WILD - 1932 - 1805015,. F036-02 - FrontiArt Audi R8 GT Spyder - White - 1 43,. The parties Ferrari Laferrari Red Corsa 322 BBR 1 43 BBRC137RCW Miniature,.
Bespoke Model 1 43 1980 Ferrari 512 BB Le Mans,.FORD GT40 GT LM II Race Car 2005 white Gran Turismo GT Spec AUTOart 1 18,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, AUTOart 1 18 Porsche Speedster 1600 Super (Steve McQueen) 77866,; New Minichamps 1 43 Red Bull Racing Tag Heuer RB 13 M.Verstappen 2017 Australia, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
TootsieToy Fageol Bus USA 1927-1933 C9 Near Mint,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Lancia Delta S4 Grey 1 18 AUTOart,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Jada Homies Ho M '' 47 Chevy Chevrolet Fleet Line 1 24 Diecast Clasiic car NEW,.1990 Ferrari 348 TS red 1 18 Hot Wheels Elite X5480,.Corgi 334 Mini-Cooper 'Magnifique' Metalic Green Mint in Very Near Mint Box,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Lamborghini Gallardo LP570 Supertrofeo Stradale Grey 1 18 AUTOART,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 18 Elite Ferrari 250 Carlifornia Spider Die Cast Model,.Auto Art 6 1955 championship car 24 AUTOart 1 43 Jaguar D-Type Le Mans,.DINKY 808 GMC DEPANNEUSE MILITAIRE LOT 7 COMME NEUF sans boite, tout d'origine,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Car Ferrari F 2007 Kimi Raikkonen,.Minichamps 410066122 Porsche Cayman GT4 built in 2016 in acid green 1 43 NEW,. The ScottsdaleHOT WHEEL G7234 BATMOBILE CAMOUFLAGE TUMBLER BATMAN BEGINS SHOW CASE TUBE 1 18,1 43 Schuco Jubiläums-Edition 70 Jahre Porsche Limited Edition 700 in OVP,.Ferrari SF16-H, No.5, UPS, Formula 1, 1 18, Bburago,. Id.,Mitsubishi 3000 Gto 1992 White LS COLLECTIBLES 1 18 LS019C Model,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, DARK METALLIC blueE.1960s.Matchbox Lesney.65 Jaguar 3.4.GPW.MINT IN BOX.ORIGINAL,; Schuco 450035100 Mercedes-Benz 280 SL dunkelgrey 1 18 limited 1 750,Porsche Carrera GT (white) 1 18 AUTOart 78045,.Mercedes Benz G-Class G500 V8 Swb 1990 silver Autoart 1 18 Aa76112 Modellino,. The ScottsdaleLAND ROVER FREELANDER purple 1 18 ERTL Collectibles 7077 voiture miniature 4x4,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK4X - 1937 Chevrolet Coupe Toledo Toy Fair 1987 1 Of 100,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; MINICHAMPS ONLY 200 MADE DAVID COULTHARD 1 18 SIGNED ON CAR MP4 17D F1 2003,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Chevrolet Corvette 1986 black Autoart 1 18 Aa71242 Model Car Diecast,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Tarmac 1 18 Scale Resin - T11-MG Nissan GT-R R35 2017 Dark Metal Grey,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Four Wheel Models 1 43 Scale FWAM9 -1957 Aston Martin DB Mk3 D Head Open - Red,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 2015 Mazda 6 Sedan Atenza whiteo 1 18 Dorlop 1004W, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, RARE Mercedes G Class W461 Zeppelin DRK Ambulance Vector Models Hand Made 1 43, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1960's Tin Toy Ne-Kur Fire Engine in Very Nice Condition About 20 Cm Long Turkey,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMinichamps 125822931 BMW M1 GR.4 KURT KÖNIG Jägermeister 1982 1 12,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 18 GMP model of a Ferrari 330 P4 Car from 1967,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMIN186970003 by MINICHAMPS WILLIAMS renault FW19 1997 18,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Hot Wheels Gulf Ford GT40 RLC Real Riders,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Drivers Selection 1;18th Porsche 911 Turbo S in Racing Yellow – Limited Edition,GMC Futurliner 1939 Peter Pan - Parade of Progress 1 43 NEO 46471,.Schuco 1 43 - Bus Bus Car Mercedes O 6600 With characters 02743,.CARAVANE type AIRSTREAM ALU 1 18,. The HuygheHot Wheels Redline Car Purple Classic '36 Ford Coupe - New - 1969,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAUDI R 10 TDI TEST CAR 2006 1 18 Spark SP18009,.
Hot Wheels Bad Mudder No Roof Tampo - RARE,.Gumpert Apollo S 2011, L.e. 300 pcs. 1 43 FrontiArt F013-02,.
Kings Models 1 43 1954 Ferrari 500 F2 Syracuse Grand Prix Test Robert Manzon,.1 18 Minichamps Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Lungo Bj.1938 hellblue limited Ed,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1931 Dodge Height DG Congreenible red-black 1 18 BoS-Models 293,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMinichamps 1 18 Scale 155 722633 - BMW 2002 6H Nurburgring 1972,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast WILLMC Williams Renault Nigel Mansell Full Livery,.
For example, in Partridge,F AUTOART 1 18 MERCEDES-BENZ 500 SEC AMG 24 HRS SPA FRANCHORCHAMPS 1989 MIB RARE,. In Jorgensen, supra,Polistil S42 S 42 Volkswagen 1300L 99.9% mint in box 1 25 selten raro rare,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Ferrari 250 GTO Targa Florio 1964,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,DV6945 ELIGOR 1 43 MAN TGX EURO 6 CITERNE GROUPE ALAINE 115795 HORS COMMERCE,. That is the same situation in this case.RWB 993 1 12 GT SPIRIT GT167,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Taunus 17M Badewanne 1960 L.bluee 1 18 Revell-Auto Art MG,. Detroit Edison, supra.
NZG810 - Pelle LIEBHERR LH 80 sur Pneus - 1 50,.BMW Dealer Edition 80430141398 BMW 7er NEU & OVP 1 18,.1 18 HONDA ACCORD 2018 Die Cast Model White,.
Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 728511 - Ford Capri RS 2600 - 24H SPA 1972,.