Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Matchbox RW 27C Cadillac 60 Special purplemet. pink rare blacke Räder perfekt,.CORGI 233 HEINKEL ECONOMY CAR Metallic bluee near mint boxed,.Minichamps J.Button 2006 Honda Racing F1 Team Ra106 No.789,.Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale UK25B - 1960 61 Wolseley Mk2 1500 Saloon - Alamo Bige,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Scania R5 Topline 4×2 + Semi lowloader tri axle with ramps in 1 50 PARKER by WSI,.Mac One models, golden Rod land speed record car.... Boxed,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.BBR Models 1 43 Ferrari Portofino Spider yellow Modena Modellino,.Ferrari 488 LM GTE PRO 24 H Le Mans 2016 Team AF Corse 1 43 BBRC 188,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Lane Exact Detail 1 18 Scale 1966 Shelby GT350 Red White Diecast Model Car,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 (993) Carera RS Red from Japan,.MINICHAMPS - Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR, W 196 S und SLR McLaren - 1 43 - in OVP, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
TEKNO DENMARK 720-116 OPEL REKORD SEDAN 1958 RED NEAR-MINT SCALE 1 43,.Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC21LE - Jaguar XK150 Coupe - gold,.ACME – 1 18 Scale – 1967 Plymouth GTX in Limelight Green Diecast Model Replica,.RENAULT TRM 2000 DRAP PORTE BARRIERE GENDARMERIE FRANÇAISE PERFEX 707 1 43,.
MINIMARQUE 1 43 UK28A - 1959 FORD POPULAR TWO DOOR SALLON - YELLOW - WITH VISOR,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale - 100 110851 Bugatti Veyron Centenaire 2009 Chrome Red,.Antigua miniatura 1 43 Scale Carr PR042 Peugeot 806 de la Guardia Civil.,.Hot Wheels Ferrari 250 Gt 1 18 Scale Car,.Code 3 FDNY Aerialscope Tower Ladder -160 (12730-160),.
GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin - GT747 Mercedes Benz Brabus 900 GT White,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.DV6927 ELIGOR 1 43 MERCEDES ACTROS MP3 SEMI WANDT SPEDITION 115147 HORS COMMERCE,.TIN WIZARD 1 43 - M431061 MERCEDES BENZ 370S CABRIOLET 1931 - MANNHEIM - blueE,.2015 Toyota Land Cruiser V8 whiteo Kyosho KSR18008W,Hpi Racing HPI8342 FORD RS200 1984 blueE 1 43 Modellino,.Matchbox RW 59A Singer Van dunkelgreen silverne Plastikräder in MOKO Box,.
BROOKLIN BRK 147 CADILLAC 1953 SEDAN SERIE 62 RARE blackE COMME NEUF EN BOITE,.BIANTE 1.18 HOLDEN VL COMMODORE SS GROUP A BATHURST GRICE PERCY FAI,.Ferrari 250 GTO Targa Florio 1964,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Kyosho Samurai 1 18 Nissan GT-R R35 2017 White Pearl KSR18020W JP,.
LOOKSMART - 1 43 - FERRARI PORTOFINO CLOSED ROOF - 2017 - LS480D,. We agree in part.
ZC569 Provence Moulage K1903 Kit Vehicule 1 43 Hyundai WRC N°71 Monte Carlo 2004,.DIAPET YONEZAWA NISSAN FAIRLADY Z 432 POLICE CAR MINT IN BOX MIB JAPAN,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.2017 Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 Coupe by GT Spirit USA Dealer Exclusive in 1 18 Scale,.Porsche 991 GT3 997-2 - White- 1 43 - WAP0200000D - Dealer,.Schuco 450040100 Porsche Cayman GT4 black 1.18,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Ferrari J50 2016 red Tristrato 1 43 - BBRC208F BBR,.WSI 1 50 Weeda Transporte DAF XF 105 4x2 Solo Zgm. 05-0018,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, AUTOart McLaren 570S 2017 Green 1 18 76042,; FERRARI F575 GTC FIA GT ESTORIL 2003 Redline RL24005,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
REPLICAR KIT MOUNTED MASERATI 430 BITURBO QUATTROPORTE 1.43 NB,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 027030 - 2018 BMW i8 Roadster - Metallic Grey,Fiat 806 Grand Prix P.bordino 1927 Winner Monza Milano GP Plastic Kit 1 12,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.BMW M1 BAYERN Oberndorfer Minichamps NEW TOP 1 18 SEE INFO,.
French Dinky 33A Simca Cargo Van. orange-Yellow Green. Boxed. Original 1950's,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Matchbox SF Nr.70B Dodge Dragster pink rare browne Bpl. auf rarer Blisterkarte,.Ferrari Fantuzzi spyder 1966 AMR no Le Phoenix , BBR , MR , Make up , Heco,.AUTOART 1 18 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RS 2.7 1973 WHITE WITH blueE STRIPES 78052,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GT 2011 grey Minichamps 1 18 SEE INFO IN BOX,; Ferrari California T Spider Closed Roof 84Th Geneve Auto 2014 BBR 1 43 BBRC140B,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Vintage Corgi Toys 405 - Bedford Utilecon AFS Tender,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Schuco Piccolo Porsche 356 Ferrari Barchetta Set Le Garage Japan ,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
MakeUp VISION VM116D 1 43 Porsche 911 993 GT2 Option equipment 1996 Signal Green,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Spark 1 18 Red Bull Aston Martin TAG RB14 Australian F1 GP 2018 Verstappen,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Minichamps 1 18 Diecast 155 862665 BMW 325i Auto Budde Team Nurburgring 1986,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.DINKY 194 198 150 ALL ORIGINALS LIGHTLY PLAYWORN VERY GOOD IN ORIGINAL BOXES.,.1 18 AUTOART - ALFA ROMEO TZ 2 1965 (RED) - ZUM SONDERPREIS ,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Rare matrice résine CITROEN BX sport voiture 1 43 Heco modeles véhicule blue US,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 776461 - Porsche 934 24hr Daytona 1977,.
Schuco Mercedes 170 V Pritsche Plane Aral 1 18,.TSM Acura NSX 2017 Red Resine Model Car 1 43 TSM164386 Genuine New Best Gift,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast 150 084070 Ford Sierra RS Cosworth RHD White 1988,.Ebbro Dunlop N10 Ferrari 1 43 Scale Car,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.HOT WHEELS HUGE LOT 22 RED LINES AND 5 REAL RIDERS NEW IN BOX AND MORE,.
Kenna Models 1 43 Scale Model Car KM10818 - Allard - Red 1 Of 600,.AUTOart BMW 320Si WTCC 2006 Team Germany 18 80647,.Spark 1 18 Porsche LMP1 Le Mans Winner 2017 - Bernhard Bamber Hartley,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, CORGI TOYS No 358 OLDSMOBILE H.Q. STAFF CAR (STUNNING) (MINT BOXED),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Rare Pre-production Corgi toys 155 Lotus Climax F1 Car Racing No.1,.1 43rd Scale Thornycroft BRS SWB Van Code 3,.1 43 Looksmart Ferrari Portofino open roof bluee TdF Leather Base LS480SD,.French Dinky 553 404 Peugeot In Its Original Box - Near Mint Vintage Original,.BENTLEY BENTAYGA SUPERB DIECAST MODEL GREAT DETAIL 1 18 SCALE VERY RARE KYOSHO,.
Franklin Mint 1 24 2005 Corvette Coupe, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Schuco 450004500 Mercedes-Benz 170V Werbewagen Schuco Studio 1 18 NEU OVP,.Range Rover (1970) 1 18 Almost Real ALM810102,. The PartridgeAudi Avantissimo Break 2001 Minichamps 440 013010 1 43,.Ignition model 1 43 Porsche 962C OMURON JSPC 1989 V. Schppan IG0512,.Dinky 110 Aston Martin DB3 Sports Car. Mid-Green. RN 22. VNMINT Boxed. 1950's,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, MODELLINO ALFA ROMEO GIULIA 1300 blue 1966 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Tekno LKW MB Actros 11 Giga K-SZ Bavaria Simon Loos,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Paragon 1 18 Scale PA-88101 Audi R8LMS - Presentation Car 'War Paint',.AUTOart 1 18 Alfa Romeo 4C Spider yellow finished product,Partridge1 18 AUTOart McLaren MP4-12C Coupe 2011 orange NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.1 18 FORD MUSTANG MACH 1 Gone in 60 seconds ERTL SEE INFO,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, AUTOart 1 18 Porsche Speedster 1600 Super (Steve McQueen) 77866, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, IG1202 ignition model 1 43 Schuppan Porsche 962C JSPC decal,; (EB) triang spot on ERF 68G FLATBED - 109 2P,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 74555 AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Aventador LP750-4 SV (Pearl White), (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, MINIMARQUE 1 43 - 1947 JAGUAR 3.5 LITRE DHC OPEN RHD - GREEN, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMercedes Saloon Racing Cars 1 18 Scale.,.
Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM28818F - Triumph Herald - Falken 1 Of 50,.1 18 Die Cast 1970 Challenger R T Vanishing Point, Clarke's negligent act.PORSCHE 911 GT3 Monnens Rally Ypres 2018 HI FI SPECIAL MODEL 1 43 SCALE,.Märklin 8000er Modellauto Nr.8031 Magirus Deutz Autokran 1960 mit OVP,.Corgi Toys 430, Bermuda Tax, Mint in Box ab1225,.
Ford Mustang Boss 302 1969 White 1 18 - A1801831 ACME,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, HOT WHEELS HWBCJ89 FERRARI 458 ITALIA SPIDER 2011 RED 1 18,2018 Bentley Continental GT in Sequin bluee by Looksmart,. In Noska,Kyosho Kenworth T700 Sleeper Cab 1 50 Scale,.VW Fridolin PTT yellow grey Modellauto 1 18 Schuco,.Bburago F40 1 18 Original Series,.Goggomobil Ts250 Coupe 1957 Light Green Ivory Schuco 1 18 SH0083 Model, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.FORD MOTOR COMPANY PRECISION 100 1913 MODEL T SPEEDSTER NEW ,.1969 Dodge Super Bee Hardtop Green-White 1 18 Auto World AMM1136,.Ferrari F60 America Spider 2014 60Th Anniversary Usa BBR 1 43 BBRC182E Model,.DINKY TOYS 618 AEC ARTIC TRANSPORTER + HELICOPTER - RARE SELTEN - GOOD IN BOX,. Id., p 923.
DARK METALLIC blueE.1960s.Matchbox Lesney.65 Jaguar 3.4.GPW.MINT IN BOX.ORIGINAL,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Hi Story 1 43 Nissan 180Sx Type X 1994 Super Red Painted Model Japan New,ALFAMODEL 43 AM 43 113 ALFA ROMEO 6C 2500 SPYDER COLLI 1947 STRADALE red 1 43,.LS MODEL LANCIA DELTA INTEGRALE EVO2 MARTINI 5 1983 L.E. 500 FREE SHIP. WORLD.,.Faller 161595 H0 Car System LKW Scania R 13 HL Koch Herpa,.Tekno 72537 Mercedes Bigspace with Container Trailer Maritime 1 50 Scale,.Ferrari Laferrari Aperta Spider 2016 red Corsa 322 Red BBR 1 43 BBRC187C1 Mode,.Minichamps 107047002 1 18 OPEL REKORD C SALOON 1966 LIGHT blueE,.Collection of 18 matchbox cars,all ford transit from mint to used condition,. The parties DINKY TOYS No 176 AUSTIN A105 (RARE GREY LATE VERSION),.
1 43 Minichamps AMG Mercedes C DTM 94 Die Sieger ,.Triumph TR6 Resin Model Car LUC002B,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Solid Alfa Romeo 33 3,; DINKY TOYS 549 - BORGWARD ISABELLA Coupè avec direction, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
TSM 1 43 1936 Cadillac V16 COUPE series 90 Resin Model,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, DINKY TOYS CIJ NOREV GMC PINDER AVEC REMORQUE CAGE ET FAUVES NEUF EN BOITE,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)GT Spirit 1 18 Porsche Gunther Werks 400R KJ028 504pcs Asian Edition PRE-ORDER ,.Taiseiyaco CHERRYCA PHENIX (Japan), 34 Hino Contessa Sprint, Cream with Green,.SPARK Mercedes F1 W05 L. Hamilton SPA-18S138,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,AUTOart 1 18 McLaren MP4-30 Honda F1 GP 2015 with Fernando Alonso model car,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast 155 836647 Porsche 956K Swap Shop Brands Hatch 83,.AUTOart 1 18 Jaguar XKR-S Italian Racing Red Diecast Model 73642,.AMG Models 1 43 1955 Ferrari 555 Italian GP Monza Umberto Maglioli,.Matchbox RW 69B Hatra Tractor Shovel yellow top in rarer E2 Box,.Opel Rekord C Coupé 1966 - 1 18 - Minichamps,. The ScottsdaleKims Classics By Western 1 43 Scale No.1A - 1960 Chrysler 300F Congreenible - Red,ERTL 1964 1 2 FORD MUSTANG 1 18 MAC TOOLS JOHN FORCE SUPER DETAILED ,.Minichamps 1 43 2006 Audi A4 DTM Street London Toyfair,. Id.,Pathfinder Vanguard 1 43 Scale VAN5 - Morris J Type Van 1 Of 100 Red Hull Mail,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps 1 18 - F1 McLaren Mercedes MP4-11 Coulthard Marlbgold,; Redline Hotwheels Red 1968 Deora oc14385,Autoart 78165 - 1 18 Porsche 911 (991) Gt3 Rs (2016) - Red - Neu,.SPARK - 1 18 - PORSCHE 911 R - 2017 - 18S236,. The ScottsdaleVolkswagen VW T2A 50 Anniversary Ed VW T2 1967-2017 Kastenwagen Pastel bluee 1 18,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, CMR039 by CMR FERRARI DINO 206 COUPE 1966 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; FORD Capri Zakspeed DRM Gr.5 Turbo 1979 Ertl Sachs RAR Minichamps 1 18,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MILESTONE MODELS 1 43 BURRELL SCENIC SHOWMANS ENGINE 25 GREAT DORSET STEAM FAIR,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps - Nicola Larini - Ferrari - 412T1 - 1994 - 1 18 - Very Rare,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 24 GMP Pontiac GTO 1970 The Judge Congreenible,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Williams Ford FW07B Carlos Reutemann 1980 1 18, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, La Salle Series 50 Coupe, dark red, 1 43, Neo, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, MIN100676100 by MINICHAMPS porsche 906E 1967 1 18,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeLOOKSMART 315 LAMBORGHINI ESTOQUE 2008 -1 43 - EXCELLENT - SUPER RARE - 24+25,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1966 Cadillac S&S 48 High Top Ambulance Red and White Precision Collection,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBoS-Models Mercedes Benz 540K Autobahn-Kurier 1 18 BOS003,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.ZIL 157KV Russische Militär LKW 115703 & TZM PR11B Rakete C60112 Dip Models 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Rondeau M 379 nd Le Mans 1981 1 18 Model S18033 SPARK MODEL,1 43 RUSSIAN LSR Moskvich-G2-405 LAND SPEED RECORD,.Dinky Supertoys 581 'British Railways' Express Horse Box. Maroon. Boxed. 1950's,.Autoart 77436 1 18 Nissan Fairlady Z432 orange Diecast Car From Japan,. The HuygheNew Bburago 1 18 1954 MERCEDES BENZ 300 SL Made in ,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheHot Wheels F2008 1 18 Scale Car,.
Matchbox Convoy Daf Container P and O Pre-Pro,.Spark Model Porsche 911 No.3 J.P. Nicolas Winner 1 18 18S095,.
HOT WHEELS LEO INDIA SPEED FLEET CHEVY MONZA 2+2,.Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80830 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 2007 Spengler,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 2016 RLC Hot Wheels Redline Club 55 CHEVY BEL AIR GASSER & button Red 4650,.
Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 43 1970 Cadillac Superior High Top Ambulance white Matrix Rare,.NEW AUTOart composite model 1 18 Aston Martin Vanquish 2015 (White),.
For example, in Partridge,Mercedes MB 2628 WAWE 9000, Wasserwerfer Polizei Berlin, einmalig in 1 43,. In Jorgensen, supra,DINKY TOYS 110 ASTON MARTIN DB3S MADE IN ENGLAND 1956 MAGNIFIQUE, COMME NEUF,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Lincoln Town Car Limousine 2003 White SUNSTAR 1 18 SS4201,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Miniminiera T74307 FIAT 600 MULTIPLA TAXI CAPRI 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.(gol) 1 18 Autoart Callaway C12 NIP,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.BOS models 1 18 scale Resin 197845 Lotus Eleven Coventry Climax Monza,. Detroit Edison, supra.
DV8236 ELIGOR 1 43 RENAULT T460 SEMI TAUTLINER TPS XPO LOGISTICS 115592,.Ebbro Calsonic Skyline 1996 Jgtc Fuji 14 Scale Car,.CAT Caterpillar 993F Wheel Loader with Operator High Line Series 1 50,.
Rare Kyosho 1 18 Diecast Model Lamborghini Urraco P250 (gold) 08441GL,.