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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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1 18 HONDA ACCORD 2018 Die Cast Model White,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1 18 DODGE CHALLENGER 1970 Vanishing Point ERTL SEE INFO,.GLM Mercedes Benz AMG W116 6.9 1 43 GLM206001,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08705GP BMW 645Ci Moto GP Safety Car,.Unic Izoard Fourgon Material Sabine Rancy Cirque Circus Perfex 1 43 PE102RA Mode,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Western Models 1 43 Scale WMS46 - Ford Galaxie Skyliner Congreenible - Red,.TOYOTA 1 30 scale Prius α mini car model car toy color sample dark bluee,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.IMC33-0003 - Camion SCANIA R Topline 8x4 avec semi 3 essieux KARNER surbaissée,.Shelby Cobra 427 S C 1 18,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.FERRARI GTO 330 TOUR DE CORSE 1963 N° 170 BBR135B SCALE 1 43,.ALBEDO RIETZE BREUER&WASEL Schwerlastlogistik in motion Limited Edition 1 87,.1 43 Looksmart Ferrari LaFerrari 2013 yellow Modena black DS Leather Base, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

OTTO 1 18 Scale Resin Model Car - OT699 Audi S8 White,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK108X - 1957 Ford Ranchero SFBBC 2005 V.Sattui Winery,.LOOKSMART LSLM077 Collectible Miniature Car Red,.MINICHAMPS 530133512- MCLAREN F1 GTR – ‚ADRENALINE PROGRAM‘ 1 18,.

CAT CATERPILLAR 993K WHEEL LOADER 1 50 DIECAST MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 85257,.Wiking 1 87 PMS Edition 2014 75 Jahre Adalbert Wandt brownschweig OVP,.Minichamps 1 18 Diecast 155 862665 BMW 325i Auto Budde Team Nurburgring 1986,.Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM23 - Austin Devon Estate - Red,.Kyosho Bmw X6 Xdriver 501 1 18 Scale Car,.

DINKY TOYS 665 HONEST JOHN MISSILE LAUNCHER 1 43 ORIGINAL OVP,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.DINKY 358 U.S.S ENTERPRISE STAR TREK,.MINICHAMPS Opel Commodore A Steinmetz MC-107704608,... TEKNO DENMARK 415 FORD TAUNUS TRANSIT AMSTEL BIER EXCELLENT CONDITION RARE,Porsche 911 (991 II) GT3 Anno di Costruzione 2017 Kreidegrey 1 18 Minichamps,.Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-el C211 White Ig0326 Finished Produ,.

1 18 Batman 1966 Tv Series Batmobile Hot wheels Elite L7130 Limited Edition New,.1 18 Scale Classic Carlectables Todd Kelly 2007 HRT VE Commodore 18292,.Mercedes Benz W154 1938 CMC 1 18,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Ma Collection Résine 1 43 - Delage 3L Le Mans 1938 N°21,.

FERRARI F40 RED ELITE 1 18,. We agree in part.

ALPINE A220 LE MANS 1969 Pristine Condition. MINT BNIB OTTO 1 18 OT-157,.Maxwell Mini (India) 564 Petrol Tanker IBP,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Super Rare Yellow Maisto 1 18 1957 Chevrolet Corvette American Car Figure,.Acme 1 18 Scale Diecast - A1801210 1972 Pontiac Le Mans GTO Red,.1 18 PORSCHE 911 (993) CARRERA CABRIOLET 22 ct gold PLATED MODEL by MAISTO,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Laurel 2000Sgx Hayashi Wheel White Ig0139 Finished Pr,.Tekno LKW Scania R Topl EuroCombi-KHZ Eurolink,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Spark 1 24 Scale Model Car LMS006 - Peugeot 905 EVO 1 Bis Winner LM 1992,; No Brand Dodge Viper Gts-R 1 18 Mini Car,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1 43 Spark Lotus 77 car Brazilian GP Mari Andretti S1779 with JPS decals,.1 43 165103 DIP MODELS PAZ-651 (1950-1960) bluee white and white stripe Limited,CORGI TOYS 73 MASSEY FERGUSON 165 TRACTOR WITH SAW ATTACHMENT VN MINT BOXED,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1956 Desoto Firedome 4-door Seville in 1 18 Scale by BoS Models,.

Minichamps 1 18 Scale - 530 031816 McLaren Mercedes MP4-18 Testcar Raikkonen,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.ESF-06437 NZG 1 50 Hydraulik-Bagger H 51 Demag Hafemeister,.1 18 Lane Exact Detail, Shelby Mustang GT 350R, Fred Van Beuren,.GT Spirit 1 18 Porsche Gunther Werks 400R KJ028 504pcs Asian Edition PRE-ORDER ,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Cadillac Serie 62 Club 1941 BOS MODEL 1 18 BOS291 Miniature,; Tekno - 443 - Scooter Vespa et Side Car - 1 43e - Danemark,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, LOTTO MODELLINI 1 43 - FIAT 500 VITESSE,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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FORD ESCORT II RS 1800 RAC RALLY 1975 MAKINEN LIDDON 1 18 MINICHAMPS NEU,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Maserati Quattroporte My17 Gransport grey Maratea BBR 1 43 BBRC193B Miniature,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

MIN180832990 by MINICHAMPS BMW M1 BRUN DEPORTES DE MOTOR 1983 18,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

CMR 1971 Porsche 917 LH h Le Mans Gulf 911 M3 1 18New Rare Find ,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.BMW M1 h LE MANS 1986 WITM 18 MINICHAMPS 180862911 NEU,.1 18 (otra) THE ARKHAM KNIGHT BATMOBILE año 2015 Hot Wheels BLY23 Batman,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Otto 1 18 Scale resin - OT155 Volkswagen Beetle 1200 Oettinger Grey Model Car,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 18 2010 Fujitsu V8 Norton 360 BF Falcon Moffat B18302L Biante,.

AUTOART 1 18 PORSCHE 993 CARRERA 1995 RED 78132,.1956 Maserati A6G 2000 Zagato blue Oscuro 1 18 BoS-Models 115,.UT Models 1 18 1996 Porsche 911 GT1 Le Mans 1st in class Minichamps Auto Art,.MÄRKLIN MERCEDES BENZ 300 SL GULLWING 1 18 OVP,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Lion Car Made in the Netherlands D.K.W. 1 45 Scarce model red with windows NM,.

Conrad MAN TGS L Euro 5 2achs Siloauflieger Eqiom Neu OVP,.@. MINICHAMPS BMW M1 PROCAR POOH JEANS MARC SURER 1980 MINT BOXED,.Audi R8 Spyder V10,Dynamitred,1 18 5011618552,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, AUTOart 1 18 Porsche Speedster 1600 Super (Steve McQueen) 77866,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.AUTOart 78132 1 18 PORSCHE 911 (993) CARRERA COUPE 1995 RED,.Corgi 211S Studebaker golden Hawk bluee gold flash Very near mint boxed,.TEK67378 - Camion 6x4 SCANIA R09 Topline et semi plateau à ridelles 3 essieux éq,.Tarmac works - Honda Civic Eg6 Spoon Racing - 1 18,.2017 Nissan GT-R R35 White 1 18 Kyosho Samurai KSR18020W,.

1 18 Norev B66040545 Mercedes 280SE Cabriolet, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Mercedes 600 Bestattungswagen Schuco 1 18,.Porsche 356 A in bluee Metallic Diecast Model in 1 18 Scale by Schuco 450031200,. The PartridgeBrand Datsun blueebird Sss P510 Red 1 43 Scale Car,.DDA 2 Car Combo - 1 18 1970 Chrysler Valiant VG - White & 1970 VG Valiant - Red,.GMP Ford Mustang Shelby GT350 1965 Red 1 18 A1801802R,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Auto Art 1 18 Lamborghini Diablo 6.0, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.MakeUp VISION VM119B 1 43 Nissan Fairlady Z432 (PS30) 1969 Daytona Red,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155832601 BMW 635 CSi BMW Italia Grano Kelleners Cecotto,.Ebbro Dunlop N11 Ferrari 1 43 Scale Car,PartridgeMNC530133744 - Voiture de courses McLAREN F1 GTR des 24h du Mans de 1997 équipag,.Porsche 911 Carrera RSR th LM1973 MARTINI Lennep - Muller SPARK 18S060 1 18,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Hobby JAPAN MARK43 1 43 Daihatsu Copen Robe Pearl White III Resin Model PM4355W, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, UNIQUE COLOR GREEK MISTER P PORSCHE 910 & CRIS - CRAFT B O R C LITHO BOX MIB 70s,; 1 43 Porsche 911 Turbo-Beutler greymetallic Pit, no BBR,MR,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Minichamps 1 18 scale 150 084100 Ford Escort Mk2 1.3 (LHD) 1975 orange, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Autoart 75382 - 1 18 Lotus Exige S 2012 - Yellow - Neu, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMIN537831807 by MINICHAMPS MCLAREN Ford MP4 1C j. Watson 1983 1 18,.

Hot wheels rlc Spectraflame Datsun 240z,.POLISTIL S 43 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE POLIZEI 1 25 - EXCELLENT CONDITION IN BOX, Clarke's negligent act.1961 DINKY TRIUMPH 1800 SALOON, FAWN w GREEN HUBS nr-MINT w nr-MINT BOX,.Schuco Volkswagen T1 Nrnberger 1 18 450027900,.Kyosho 08164E 1 18 FERRARI 365 GTB4 COMPETIZIONE LE MANS ANDRUET BALLOT-LENA,.

Camion Remorque DAF XF MY 2017 Transports GRIMONPREZ ELIGOR - EL 116355 - 1 43,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, MADISON MODELS 1 43 Nr 1 - 1957 CHRYSLER 300C CONgreenIBLE - GREEN,1 43 HUNGARIAN BUS IKARUS-256.54 1980 Made by Vector Models,. In Noska,AUTOart 89790 SUBARU IMPREZA WRC 1997 RALLY OF MONTE CARLO 1 18 MODEL blueE,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK83A 1947 Ford V8 Station Wagon Parred Green Poly,.HUNTER CUB CT 100 C 105 H Hunter turnip EBBRO yellow Made in Japan,.Vintage Laurie Toy (Hong Kong) Plastic Friction Horse Transporter BOXED , necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.ULTRA-RARE Maisto G Ridez 1993 93 SVT Ford Mustang Cobra RARE GREEN 1 64 Scale,.MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB85E - 1957 AUSTIN A35 - MAROON,.Setra Kaessbohrer S 215 Hd White Green 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.SUBARU Impreza WRC S7 Monte Carlo 2002 Mäkinen Nightversion TopMarques 1 18,. Id., p 923.

MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB64D 1981 CADILLAC SEVILLE - gold,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Williams-Renault FW14B Nigel Mansell 1 18 Quartzo Champion 1992,Dinky 236 Connaugt Racing Car,.SunStar SS5184 PONTIAC BONNEVILLE OPEN CONgreenIBLE 1959 IVORY 1 18 Modellino,.1 18 AUTOart BMW M3 DTM 1992 FINA CECOTTO,.Fire Brigade Models 1 50 Scale FBM21 - Scania Essex Fire & Rescue Service,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale 09216RR Audi R8 5.2 FSI Quattro Brilliant Red,.MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB101D - 1967 AUSTIN HEALEY SPRITE - YELLOW - ROOF UP,.Fire Brigade Models 1 48 Scale FBM19 - Scania Dorset & Wiltshire Fire & Rescue,. The parties Corgi Monte Carlo Cooper S - Red (Window Box) - B A,.

Lamborghini Gallardo LP570 Supertrofeo Stradale grey Telesto 1 18 74692,.BBR Models 1 43 Scale Resin - BBR150B Ferrari Enzo 2002 Yellow,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, HOT WHEELS ELITE BATMAN BEGINS MOVIE BATMOBILE SEALED 1 8 SCALE,; AUTOART 74606 LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP610-4 MATT GREY 1 18 SCALE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

AUTOART 72642 FIAT ABARTH 1000 TCR, MATT GREY blueE STRIPES 1 18TH SCALE,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR S NEW yellow ORION PEARL YELLOW 1 18 CAR BY AUTOART 79132,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Vintage - ALFA ROMEO GIULIA Super 1600 Ti - 1 43 Politoys-M523,.Minichamps 1977 BMW 3.5 CSL WINNER HAVIROV INTERNATIONAL Manhalter 18New ,.PORSCHE 956 LEMANS SCHUPPAN 1983 Minichamps SUPERB 1 18 SEE INFO,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,2004 Cadillac Deville Limousine black 1 18 Sun Star 4231,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Minichamps Audi A4 1 18 Scale Car,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - G9729 Renault R25 F1 Fernando Alonso,.PORSCHE 924 CARRERA GT Lemans TSM resin in box SUPERB 1 18 SEE INFO,.1960s.matchbox.LESNEY.10.Tate&Lyle Sugar Container.GPW.Mint in box.CROWN on Rear,.TEK70139 - DAF Euro 6 XF Space Cab Flexitrailer 45 FT De Rijke - 1 50,. The ScottsdaleHobby JAPAN 1 18 Nissan Skyline GT-R V Specs 1999 BNR34 White HJ1809W,Tk.Company Ig0791 1 43 Nismo R34 Gt-R Z-Tune Bayside bluee,.Minichamps 1984 BMW 635CSi GR.A BRUN MOTORSPORT JAGERMEISTER DPM 1 18New ,. Id.,MODELLINO 1 18 PORSCHE CAYMAN 2012 GIALLA IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, AUTOart McLaren 570S 2017 Green 1 18 76042,; 1 18 Lexus Lc500 Metallic Yellow No.,FERRARI 250 GT CALIFORNIA SPIDER SWB cabriolet 1 18 HOT WHEELS P9897 voiture min,.Sunstar 1 18 Scale Diecast - 4450 Ford Escort RS1800 Rallye Monte Carlo 1980,. The ScottsdaleRARE VINTAGE ERTL EAGLE COAST TO COAST CAR HAULER PONTIAC FIREBIRD TRANSPORTER,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, VW T1 Transporter 1959 - 1963 Martini bluee, Model Car 1 18 Schuco,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Eagle Collectibles 1 18 Premium Land Rover Serie III 109 Hard Top AA Rescue Van,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale JW7 - 1968 Jaguar XJ6 Launch Car - bluee,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, YONEZAWA DIAPET FUSO T29 SEMI REMORQUE D&P 1 35 PROCHE DU NEUF MADE IN JAPAN,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Original FRENCH DINKY 547 PANHARD P.L. 17 - EXCELLENT in original BOX,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 18 Ford XA Falcon GT Hardtop Coupe (Summer gold) Auto Art 72725, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, AUTOart 89180 Car 1 18 Nissan Skyline (R32) GT-R ATCC 1991 Bathurst Victory, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, MIN510951826 by MINICHAMPS BENETTON B195 GP Europa 1995 18,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSIKU PZF MANAUS JAGUAR-E 2+2 B218,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Dinky Toys 454 'Cydrax' Trojan 15 cwt. Van. Green. Boxed. Original 1950's,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMINICHAMPS Red Bull Racing Tag-Heuer RB12 Daniil Kviat 2016 117160026,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 18 2015 PORSCHE 919 Hybrid n°19 Vainqueur N. Hulkenberg - E. Bamber - N. Tan,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Vintage Dinky 943 ESSO Leyland Octopus Tanker Great Original Meccano Ltd,Tekno LKW MB Actros 11 Giga Kühl-SZ Simon Loos,.Looksmart 1 43 Lamborghini Murcielago LP 670-4 Superveloce Limited Edition of 16,.Spark Model Red Bull Tag Heuer RB12 18 18S241,. The HuygheNew BBR 1 43 Ferrari GTC4 Lusso 2016 red Fuoco BBRC185D,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSignature 1 18 Scale Diecast - 18117 Cadillac V16 Fleetwood bluee,.

Schuco 450896500 Neoplan Shell Renndienst Bus,.MILESTONE MINIATURES 1 43 GC12 - RILEY PATHFINDER 1954 - POLICE CAR,.

AUTOART 1 18 PORSCHE 908 270 MCQUEEN HORUTOVIRU WINNING CAR,.AUTOart 1 18 77451 Nissan Fairlady Z S30 Wangan midnight Devil Z Japan EMS,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Durham classics DCJ02, 1938 Lincoln Zephyr coupe, 1 of 200. boxed,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeWSI 02 1147 SCANIA R5 TOPLINE AND CURTAINSIDER LENNON SUIT TEKNO 95 of 100,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK213 - 1962 Corvair Greenbrier Sport Wagon - Red,.

For example, in Partridge,DINKY 300 Massey Harris tractor and 319 WEEKS FARM TRAILER,. In Jorgensen, supra,Alfa Romeo Alfetta 1.8 Carabinieri 1973 1 18,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Schuco Piccolo Porsche 356 Ferrari Barchetta Set Le Garage Japan ,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,MINICHAMPS Brabus 600 Auf Basis Mercedes-Benz AMG GT S 2016 (gold) 107032522,. That is the same situation in this case.Hot Wheels Dream Halloween 2005 '56 Ford Panel 3D Glasses Rare Collector Edition,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Autoart LAMBORGHINI HURACAN PERFORMANTE 2017 blue CEPHEUS PEARL LIGHT blueE 1 18,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Ertl 1 21 Scale Diecast - 33538 Ghostbusters Ecto 1 Cadillac with Slimer Ghost,.Kyosho 1 18 Pma Bmw M3 Dtm Scale Car,.1968 Shelby GT500KR orange 1 18 GMP 1801807,.

PORSCHE 911 GT3 R NURNBURGRING Spark SUPERB 1 18 SEE INFO,.