Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Minichamps 2015 Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS White 1 18 Scale LE of 222 New ,.1 VINTAGE ('70s) CORGI JUNIORS WHIZZWHEELS -NO.65 BERTONE CARABO -MINT ON CARD,.GT Spirit 1 18 Scale GT742 LB Performance Nissan GT-R R35 orange,.Greenlight 1 18 Scale 12983 - 1953 Ford F-100 & Shell Gas Pump - Yellow Red,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.CAP,hat,cappello,Ferrari Alonso-Massa signed RARE ,.Rare Kyosho 1 18 Model BMW M3 GTS (E92) orange 08739P,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Autoart 1 18 Scale - 71160 Chevrolet Corvette 1969 Daytona Yellow,.Tamiya 1 10 Electric Rc Car Series No. 647 M-07 Concept Chassis Kit On - Road,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Komatsu Micro Pala para Niños Conduciendo Juguete con Casco Pc01 Japón,.BMW M3 F80 LIGHT blueE METALLIC GT SPIRIT 1 18 GT855,.Mx554, Faller Mercedes Benz 200 8 Strich 8 W115 red 1 43 BOX 4371, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Vintage Wards Riverside 160 MPH Roaring Racer WORKING in Box Box Safety Club,.Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 72721 Saleen Mustang S351 Coupe White,.MOKO LESNEY MATCHBOX Rare 1957 RW32A Red JAGUAR XK140 Coupe GPW NearMint +PVCBox,.1 43 DIP Models Century Dragon russian soviet government limo ZIM GAZ 12 USSR,.
BMW M3 E30 Rallye Gr.A Tour de Corse 1990 Chatriot Bastos OT669 OTTO 1 18,.CORGI 335 4.2 LITRE JAGUAR 'E' TYPE 2 + 2, 99.9% MIB ,.1 43 BBR C76 Ferrari 599XX EVO Bologna Motor Show Red limited ex. no 101 200,.NOREV COLLECTORS 1 12 CITROEN DS19 1958 yellow JOQUILLE greyTRIENNALE MET. 121561,.AutoArt Toyota Cgoldlla WRC 1998 1 18 Auriol Giraudet Rally GB (AK),.
1 18 Minichamps Porsche 906 LH 24h Sebring 1967 - SquadraTartaruga,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.SUN MOTOR COMPANY 1 48 - 148 - EAST YORKSHIRE SERVICE VEHICLE,.Jaguar E-Type Roadster 1961 bluee 1 12 - GT219 GT SPIRIT,.CMR039 by CMR FERRARI DINO 206 COUPE 1966 18,Audi R8 Spyder V10,Dynamitred,1 18 5011618552,.Corgi M.G.B GT (17 ),.
AUTOart model car 1 18 Nissan Skyline GT-R KPGC10 Tuned version Red F S NEW,.Frontiart F003-18 1 43 LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR LP700-4 2011 orange RED,.1 18 AUTOART 72856 2004 FORD MUSTANG GT 40TH ANNIVERSARY CRIMSON RED NEW,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Norev 1 18 Scale Diecast - 183569 Mercedes Benz 280 SE 1968 Ivory,.
Ferrari Fxx 23 Red Frank Muller Limited Edition 1 18 Mattel,. We agree in part.
1 18 ERTL-SUPERCAR COLLECTIBLES-1970 PLYMOUTH SUPERBIRD - SOX & MARTIN ,.Rare 1924 Bugatti Type 35 B11XN62 New In box FM 1 24 bluee Diecast Franklin Mint,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Scania-Vabis L 110 low bed trailer Tieflader Akerman Kran Bagger Tekno 1 50 TOP,.French Dinky 553 404 Peugeot In Its Original Box - Near Mint Vintage Original,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Mustang GT 2003 Targa Siver 1 18 Minichamps-Auto Art RS,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 18 1976 Opel Kadett GTE Group 4 OTTO mobile OT195,.2011 Ferrari 458 Italia Spider black Mate 1 18 Hot Wheels Elite X5485,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Dinky by Mecano car bus lorry etc vgc loft find,; BMW M235i bluee metallic 1 18 GT-SPIRIT,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Ignition model 1 43 Nissan Cedric (Y32) Gran Turismo Ultima Red IG1269 EMS W T,.Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 Gt Touring Spider Cabrio Villa D'Este 1951 BBR 1 18 BLM1807B,Corgi Toys No. 486, Kennel Service Wagon with Four Dogs - Superb Very Near Mint,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Scania Vabis SUPERGASBRAS INFLAMAVEL - Arpra Supermini Brazil 1 50 36393,.
Ferrari Laferrari Aperta Spider 2016 red Corsa 322 Red BBR 1 43 BBRC187C1 Mini,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Joy Ride 1 18 Scale 1974 Mt. PROSPECT POLICE DODGE MONACO SEDAN blueESMOBILE,.Scania R5 Topline 4×2 + Semi lowloader tri axle with ramps in 1 50 PARKER by WSI,.HOT WHEELS 2018 SUPER TREASURE HUNT VARIATIONS RED RIM & NO 50TH ON OTHER ,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, ALEZAN FERRARI 408 PredOTYPE 1 - 1987 - RED 1 43 RARE - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 8,; Norev 1 18 Diecast Metal Model Car 185265 - 1978 Renault 20 TS - Algues Green,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 2014 BMW i8 eDrive Predonic bluee Paragon Models 97084,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Honda Nsx Gt3 2017 Top Speed 1 18 Model TRUE SCALE MINIATURES,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
1 18 Scale Biante Brabham Muir 1978 Bathurst Holden LX Torana Sedan NEW ,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes O 6600 Bus Pastel bluee Ivory 1 43 Schuco-Minichamps,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Rare Chevrolet Congreenible 1941 Durham 1 43,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Brand Toyota Crown 2003 Police Department Traffic Execution Section Vehicles 1,.Top Speed TS0057 1 18 PORSCHE 911 (934) TEAM PORSCHE KREMER RACING N 58 7th 24h,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Ferrari 365 Gtb Daytona yellow 1 12,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.73233 AUTOart 1 18 Honda NSX NC1 2016 Valencia Red Pearl,.
PORSCHE 956 LEMANS SCHUPPAN 1983 Minichamps SUPERB 1 18 SEE INFO,.Kit 1 24 CITROEN DS3 RALLYE MONTE CARLO 2012 Profil24 k24081,.1 18 GREENLIGHT 1970 Dodge Challenger R T Fluchtpunkt San Francisco -neu in OVP,.Kamaz 5490-C5, red, 1 43, Start Scale Models,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1 18 Dealermodell B66961003 Mercedes Benz SLR Mc Laren Roadster RARITÄT §,.
Schuco VW Bus T1b Martini blue-black 1 18 limitiert 1 1000,.Fiat X1 9 Yellow 1974 MINICHAMPS 1 18 100121664 Model,.78045 Porsche Carrera GT (white) , 1 18 Autoart,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps Talbo Lago T 150-C-Ss Coupe,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.( eb) triang minic AUSTIN A40 VAN with key,.BBR Models 1 43 Ferrari Dino 246 Gts Spider 1969 Yellow L.E.70 pcs Art. BBRC54B,.Corgi Toys Volkswagen V&D Vroom & Dreesmann yellow interior very scarce model,.Kings Models 1 43 1948 Ferrari 166 SC Swiss GP Prince Igor Troubetskoy,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Model Car BRK87 002 - 1949 Desoto Station Wagon 1 Of 275,.
Maisto Mercedes-Benz 300 S 1955 1 18 Hidden Treasure (JS), the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Rolls Royce Camargue gold 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.DINKY 991 A.E.C TANKER SHELL CHEMICALS(BOXED).,. The PartridgeGems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale Model Car GC14GR - 1972 Jaguar XJ12 - Grey,.TSM Truescale 1 18 Mclaren F1 P1 GTR bluee,.AUT0181 by AUTOCULT MINI CLUBMAN ESTATE HL 1 18,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Huracan LP610-4 Pearl yellow model car, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 119A - Saab 92 Rally,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 50 DRAKE MAXITRANS SKEL BURGUNDY B DOUBLE COMBINATION NEW IN BOX ZT09159,.Autoart Porsche 997 Carrera S 1 18,PartridgeBOS 1 18 Scale Resin - BOS028 Ford Taunus 17M P7a White,.Schuco Studio 1050 Mercedes Benz Original silverpfeil 1936+Montagezubehör (80er),.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Nissan Lola T810, 1 43, Spark, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Hot Wheels Ferrari 458 Speciale Elite Edition 1 18 BLY33,; BBR Ferrari FXX 2005 red Factory Built by BBR,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Marklin no. 5524 4 Ford Taunus 15M Germany, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1956 Bentley S1 Continental Mulliner Sports Saloon Green 1 18 Bos-Models 230, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCARS 1969 CHEVROLET CAMARO 1 24 SCALE DIE CAST MODEL FROM BEWICTHED,.
Minichamps 1 18 Scale 110 067120 Porsche 911 Turbo S 2016 orange,.Mint 1 18 Jaguar R5 Klien Ford, Clarke's negligent act.F AUTOART 1 18 MERCEDES-BENZ 500 SEC AMG 24 HRS SPA FRANCHORCHAMPS 1989 MIB RARE,.Very Rare Corgi Toys 1960's Shop Display Sign, - Superb Mint Condition.,.Matchbox Superfast No 8 is the model of the rare Mustang in orange red VNMB,.
( GO ) 1 18 Minichamps BMW M3 GTR NEU OVP,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, OTTO 1 18 Scale Resin Model Car - OT699 Audi S8 White,TEK69403 - DAF CF Benne Deposable Van Gansewinkel - 1 50,. In Noska,HOVER HONG KONG 870 LOTUS RACING CAR No 6 - BATTERY L38.0cm - GOOD IN BOX,.1 18 NZG VW T6 Edition 30 white 9542 40,.70224 AUTOart 1 18 Aston Martin V8 Vantage '85 green,.Ebbro Jenson Baton Mclaren Honda Mp4-30, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Milestone Miniatures 1 43 Scale GC65B - Jaguar XK140 Roadster - bluee,.Corgi Classics CC20401 Fairground Attractions The South Down Gallopers,.1 18 UH 1971 PORSCHE 917K MARTINI RACING TEAM 24H LE MANS RACE WINNER,.KYOSHO 1 18 AUDI R8 5.2 FSI QUATTRO DIECAST CAR MODE RED 09216RR,. Id., p 923.
Mercedes C-Class DTM, Imatra, 1 43, Minichamps,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 77865 Porsche 356 Speedster nr 23F weiss ,1 18 Autoart,OCCASION RARE MERCEDES C36 AMG 1 18 Classe C C36AMG,.BBR Models 1 43 Ferrari Dino 246 Gts Spider 1969 red Art. BBRC54A,.GT Spirit WAX02100011 Porsche 911 991 Targa 4S silvermetallic 1 18 Exclusive,.Corgi Toys no. 233 Heinkel Economy Car purple ovp,.Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2.1 - 24h Daytona 1977 - 1 of 1.000 - Norev - 1 18 - 187,.MG 1 43 1975 Ferrari 365 BB Daytona,.MINICHAMPS LONDON TOY FAIR MERCEDES-BENZ C-CLASS DTM 'STREET' 403083796,. The parties 1 43 1937 MERCEDES BENZ G5 Army Jeep Closed Sand Handmade,.
Vintage - TOYOTA CROWN Royal Saloon - 1 40 G-135 Diapet Yonezawa toys 01537,.Vintage - LAMBORGHINI MIURA P.400 - 1 43 Politoys-M552 Perfect,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 18 Autoart 70273 ASTON MARTIN VANQUISH S 2017 ( Kopi Bronze Yellow Accents),; WOW EXTREMELY RARE Lotus Elise S2 111S Targa RHD 2002 bluee 1 18 Revell-Auto Art, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Wonderful modelcar CITROEN CURRUS CH14 CAMPER FILCA 1965 -green white - 1 43,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1950 Ferrari 195 Inter Ghia red 1 18 BoS-Models 354,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)ABC BRIANZA 216 FERRARI 250 GT COLLINS 1957 - GREEN 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 7 8,.Tekno 70807 Scania 142+140 in Set 1 50,.Spark McLaren Honda MCL32 GP Australia 2017 Alonso 18 Scale New Release,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Clifford Toys Hong Kong Plastic FERRARI 250 LE MANS - ( friction ) 704 (2),
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.DINKY A.C. Aceca No. 167 (R),.AUTOART Lotus 72E Peterson 1973 (with driver figurine fitted) (composite mode,.Porsche 911 Turbo S 3.6 Minichamps 1 43 Very rare (30 years 911),.Honda Nsx Nouvelle bluee Pearl Top Speed TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TS0062 Miniat,.Tekno - 413 - Volkswagen VW Delivery Van Philips - 1 43e,. The Scottsdale1966 Maserati Sebring II Red Metallic 1 18 BoS-Models 085,Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 530 133512 McLaren F1 GTR Adrelaline Program,.Kyosho 80430427065 1 18 BMW E82 135I COUPE 2008 GREY blueE METALLIC,. Id.,MG EX 181 Land Speed Record Car in 1 18 Scale,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, FERRARI LAFERRARI F70 HYBRID ELITE RED 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR HOTWHEELS BCT79,; 771E Rare LBS Retro 6002 Willeme Bonifay 1 43,Corgi Toys 302 M.G.A. Sports Car red Spun hubs near mint in box what a beauty,.BBR Ferrari 488 GTE 1 43 BBRC179MB - limited 24 pcs ,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps 1 43 AUDI R8 LMS 2016 AAPE by A Bathing Ape Phoenix Racing Asia,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Corgi Toys 344 Ferrari 206 Dino Sport red perfect mint in GERMAN VERY SCARCE BOX,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Trasco Mercedes Benz - 1 43 - 500 SEL Limousine limited Edition N M BOXED,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM18 - 1952 Jowett Jupiter 1 Of 600 Cream,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1971 Pontiac GTO Congreenible GREEN 1 18 GMP 1801223,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Rare Model Die Ferrari F 308 GTS 1 43 Heco Models Car F308 Sn,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, TRACTOR AGRICULTURAL HANOMAG R35 FARM WITH ROOF 1955 Minichamps 109153071, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, MidgeToy Salesman Sample Lot MIB Concept Car Indy 500 More , (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Russian Porsche 924 Made in USSR Agat Tantal Radon (Schuco licensed) 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeKyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08734LBL BMW M3 E92 Laguna Seca bluee Model Car,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Ferrari GTC4 Lusso Nuovo Bianco Italia 1 43 - BBRC185B BBR,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheVintage - Fiat 600 D - 1 43 Politoys -m511 Perfect,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 18 Kyosho Bentley Bentayga Bright Bronze Nr. 08921BZ OVP,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Aventador J Geneva Motor Show 2012 orange Atlas,Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM63B - 1938 AC 16 80 Sports Roadster Open - Green,.Autoart Plain Body 2004 Red 1 18 Viper Competition Car,.1 18 ACME RAR18002 Ford Mustang Boss 302 - Trans Am 1969,. The HuygheHonda Nsx Gt3 2017 Top Speed TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TS0158 Miniature,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheLamborghini Huracan Lp610-4 Spider Aftermarket 2015 LOOKSMART 1 43 LS470D Model,.
Will Davison 1 18 VE Holden Commodore 2009 HRT Signed 18381 Classic Carlectable,.1959 Cadillac Ambulance Ecto-1 Ghostbusters Cazafantasmas 1 18 Auto World AWSS11,.
BBR Models 1 43 Ferrari 458 GT2 GTE PRO h Le Mans 2012 Art.BBRC98,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 133020 Mclaren MP4-12C 2011 orange Metallic,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 18 Kyosho Dealermodel Mercedes - Benz CLK Cabriolet bluee B66962173 Rarity §,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeCorgi Toys Giftset 25 Volkswagen with trailer and Cooper near mint condition,.Oreca 03-Nissan, No.25, ADR-Delta, 24h Le Mans, 1 43, Spark,.
For example, in Partridge,WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes 1850S Tractor+Box Trailer Chrome 1 43 NZG-Minichamps,. In Jorgensen, supra,Corgi 264 The Incredible Hulk Mazda - Mint in Excellent Box,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Rare modele matrice résine moule SEAT MALAGA 1 43 Heco modeles voiture car FJ,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 18 HONDA FIT 2018 Die Cast Model,. That is the same situation in this case.WSI 01-1634 Neeb Scania R Topline + 5 as Ballast Trailer,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Skoda Fabia Ii Fl S2000 Gravel Configuration 2010 White ABREX 1 18 118XAB-604EG,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Hot Wheels Redline 1968 Chevy Corvette Green,.Minichamps - Nicola Larini - Ferrari - 412T1 - 1994 - 1 18 - Very Rare,.Rare Moskvitch 433 A5 1 43 Novoexport May 1978,.
LS Collectibles LS025D Jaguar XJ6 Limousine Baujahr 1982 silvermetal. 1 18,.