Brand Ferrari 250 250 250 Lm 1964 Minicar f2b672

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Brand Ferrari 250 250 250 Lm 1964 Minicar f2b672
Corgi Toys 321 Morris Mini-Cooper Competition model perfect mint condition,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Corgi Toys 486, Kennel Service Wagon, Mint in Box ab1776,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS - AUSTIN ATLANTIC,.AUTOart Nissan Skyline GTR (R32) 18 89180,.Mercedes 170V 1939 BoS Models 1 18 BOS346 Model,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.BOS029 by BOS MODELS Mercedes-Benz C220 t-modell 1 18,.Brand F550 Ferrari 2004 1 43 Scale Car,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Norev 1 18 Scale 183467 - 1986 Mercedes Benz 300 SL - Metallic Red,.Lamborghini Murcielago R-GT FIA GT Winner Zhuahi 2007 1 43 Look Smart LS292..,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.DDA 1 18 ALLAN MOFFAT FORD BOSS 302 MUSTANG TRANS AM COCA COLA 1st RACE,.PORSCHE 911 934 RSR Kremer Plainbody Street white weiss SCHUCO 1 18 RAR,.Spark 1 43 Lancia LC2 Le Mans 1988 S0658, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 18 Mazda MXR-01 n°6 Le Mans 1992 1 18 • Spark 18S044,.Metal Ford Mustang Gt 1 18 Scale Car,.RARE ZIL 114 Limousine (Brezhnev) USSR Government DIP Models resin GON114 1 43,.1 18 GT Spirit Porsche 911 (991) Carrera 4S lightbluee,.

DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX REGULAR WHEELS 47-2 RARE MET blueE COMMER ICE CREAM VAN KBPW,.Porsche 911 RWB (964) in bluee 1 18 Scale by GT Spirit,.1 18 Die Cast 1970 Challenger R T Vanishing Point,.Rare Ford Fordor 1949 Sedan Israel Police BRK. ISR 05 Brooklin 1 43,.Minichamps Mercedes 200 Strich 8 bluee 1 43 Dealer EditionSuper Rare,.

Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 119A - Saab 92 Rally,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Vintage - MINX HILLMAN 1600 - 1 42 Triang Spot-On 287 MINT BOXED,.1969 Camion Mercedes LPS 1632 Dos Ejes bluee-Red 1 18 Road Kings 180022,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM7X - 1953 Ford Zephyr Six Monte Carlo Winner 1953,Porsche 754 T7 1960 - Autocult 1 43 03 333pcs in Box 36708,.PORSCHE 911 Carrera SC RS Rallye Tour de Corse 1985 Beguin Ro OTTO RAR 1 18,.

Original Land Rover Modellauto Defender 90 Heritage 1 18 51LDDC965GNW green,.Supercar Collectibles 1965 Plymouth AWB The Virginian Pee Wee Wallace 1 18 ERTL,.NOREV 181652 Citroën C4 Cactus W 2016 Üearl White & Dune Airbump 1 18 OVP,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

GT Autos 1 18 Scale Diecast - 11006MB Range Rover 2013 Candy Red,.

Roadace Replica (Great Britain) Red Ferrari GTO 1962 Plaster 1 100,. We agree in part.

TRON BEE BOP ALFA ROMEO GS GOCCIA 1961 - YELLOW 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 23,.TSM 1 43 Pagani Huayra Pacchetto Tempesta Die Cast Model,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Hot Wheels GULF HWC Porsche 993 GT2 In Acrylic RARE 6000 RLC TH STH,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes O 3500 Bus Red Cream 1 43 Minichamps-302 317 321 404,.Mclaren P1 Gtr 2015 Volcano orange AUTOART 1 18 AA81545 Model,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Carousel1 1 18 Scale Diecast - 4406 Watson Roadster 1964 Indianapolis 500 Winner,.1-18 1997 SUBARU IMPREZA WRC (RALLY MONTE CARLO) N.3 (McRAE greyT) AUTOart 89,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Siku ARAL PETROL TANKER - V288 boxed,; ACME 1968 FORD SHELBY MUSTANG GT 500 KR orange WT 5014 18New ,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Ferrari 458 Italia 2009 yellow Tristrato 1 43 BBR Limited BBRC22B VERY RARE ,.ACME GMP 1 18 Outlaw 1934 Blown Altered Coupe ACME Exclusive LTD 18900 New,Ferrari Laferrari Aperta red Corsa 322 BBR 1 43 BBRC187C2,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.225 Huge lot Hot Wheels Mixed Cars Muscle JDM Euro Cars Concept t Hunts,.

Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport 2017 grey diecast modelcar 151 GT-Spirit 1 18,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Dinky Toys 157 Jaguar XK120 Coupe red near mint in box very nice model,.1 43 1936 Renault VIVA GRAND SPORT ACX2 Cabriolet Racing car,.12 x Corgi Diecast Models, BNIB, Limited Edition, Joblot, Collection, Bundle,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, DC Direct BATMAN BATMOBILE Porcelain 1960's Edition Replica Serial 1500,; 1 18 Alfa Romeo 1750 Autoart,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Minichamps Audi Quattro S1 Pikes Peak 1987 1 43 Mini Champs Diecast Sport Quatro,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Brand Ferrari 250 250 250 Lm 1964 Minicar f2b672Brand Ferrari 250 250 250 Lm 1964 Minicar f2b672Brand Ferrari 250 250 250 Lm 1964 Minicar f2b672Brand Ferrari 250 250 250 Lm 1964 Minicar f2b672

Bmw M1 Hommage 2008 orange Met Norev 1 18 80432413752,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Fiat 1100T Ambulanza Croce green - Gilla Modelli Gilardoni 1 43 in Box 36738,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

GT SPIRIT 1 18 Porsche 964 Speed Star Red (GTS008ZM),

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

POLISTIL S 43 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE POLIZEI 1 25 - EXCELLENT CONDITION IN BOX,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Mercedes LPKO 311 Pullman TLF 16 pompiers allemagne 1965 1 43 Neo Scale 45735,.Vintage - BMW 2000 CS - 1 43 Solido 157 serie 100,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Porsche 911 (993) Carrera 1995 blue 1 18 Autoart 78133 neu & OVP,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Ferrari 206 Predotyp 1 43 ABC red Very Rare. n BBR,MR,.

CAT CATERPILLAR 993K WHEEL LOADER 1 50 DIECAST MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 85257,.Limited Edition The Beano Box Set 2005 Lledo BNIB Diecast Set Of 4 Highly Rare,.Isdera Commendatore 112i 1993 silver 1 18 CMF limited,.AUTOart 1 18 Mini Car 73234 Honda NSX NC1 2016 Nouvel bluee Pearl Finished JAPAN,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.NOREV 1994 Mercedes Benz S500 W140 Azurite bluee Dealer Edition 1 18New Item ,.

Schuco VW Beetle congreenible basket 1 43 450889500,.Hot Wheels 71 Datsun blueebird 510 Wagon Super Tressure Hunt Sth Rare Internation,.1 18 Ertl Mopar Champions Mopar Missile 1973 Plymouth Duster Rarity - Nip,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, (EB) triang spot on ERF 68G FLATBED - 109 2P,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.KYOSHO ORIGINAL 1 18 KSR18502CP LB WORKS Lamborghini Aventador Pink F S NEW,.Saab 900 with Toppola Camper DREAMTRIP - resin kit scale 1 43 by Griffin Models,.71261 AUTOart 1 18 Chevrolet Corvette (C7) Z06 (White),.Gmts - golden Oldies Linie 50 3910 Hanomag Ss 100 with Low Loader 1 50,.1 18 Film Model 1958 Plymouth Fury Christine with Front Light + Tinted Slices,.

AUTOART 1 18 - 89981 TOYOTA CgoldLLA WRC 1999 AURIOL GIRAUDET, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.CORGI 270 JAMES BOND 1968 ORIGINAL VERY GOOD CAR IN AGE WORN WINDOW TYPE BOX,.BBR Ferrari SF70-H GP Australia 2017 1 43 BBRC199A,. The PartridgeLansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM7C - 1954 Zephyr Zodiac - 2 Tone Grey & Green,.Kyosho Benz Clk Dtm Amg Red 1 18 Scale Car,.Ignition model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-R (PGC10) Semi-Works bluee IG0647,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, BBR METAL KIT 1996 McLaren Mercedes MP4 11 No. MET62, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale IPV02 - 1956 Ford Mainline Indiana State Police,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Brand 599 Gtb Fiorano 1 18 Scale Car,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - G9729 Renault R25 F1 Fernando Alonso,PartridgeGems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC21 - 1958 Jaguar XK150 Coupe - Red,.1 18 Honda Accord 10th Sedan Diecast Metal Car Model Toys Kids Boy Gift White,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 43 Porsche 911 Turbo-Beutler greymetallic Pit, no BBR,MR, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Looksmart Ferrari F430 Challenge 1 43 Scale Car,; Corgi Toys 230 Mercedes-Benz 220 SE Coupè VP unbespielt Rarität ,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Subaru Br-Z Coupe 2-Door 2012 bluee Autoart 1 18 Aa78691 Miniature, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, MAP autobus U23 au 1 43 vendu monté, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 18 2012 Tesla Model S (bluee) LS Collectibles LS028A,.

Chevrolet Corvette C7 Grand Sport 2017 Grey Met AUTOART 1 18 AA71272 Model,.RENAULT TRM 2000 DRAP PORTE BARRIERE GENDARMERIE FRANÇAISE PERFEX 707 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.Land Rover Range Rover RHD 1970 yellow, Modellauto 1 18 Almost Real,.Spark Model Porsche 956 Test 1982 1 18 18S125,.Lada Niva 2121 + SKIF Anhänger - A20 - 1 43 - Novoexport - USSR UdSSR CCCP DDR,.

Danbury Mint 1 24 Scale - Aston Martin DB5 Metallic red,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Vintage Lumar Contractor toy excavator,TSM Truescale 1 18 Mclaren F1 P1 GTR bluee,. In Noska,EXACT DETAIL - 1968 CHEVY CAMARO RS SS 396 - maroon vinyl top - 1 18 lim 504pcs,.Lamborghini Gallardo LP570 Supertrofeo 2011 Monocerus White 1 18 74693 AUTOART,.RARE Porsche 911 GT3 R Nurenberg Toy Fair Show 2019 IXO 1 43 1 of 99,.Lledo Days Gone 150 Car Job Lot All Diecasts Loose & In Excellent Condition., necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1968 Chevrolet Nova SS 396 Bill Grumpy Jenkins Peach State 1 18 Scale,.Ferrari F40 Pocher 1 8,.One Model 1 43 Nissan GT-R R35 2017 Gun Metal from Japan,.DINKY TOYS No.279 AVELING-BARFORD MASTER PAVIOR DIESEL ROLLER RARE VERSION MIB,. Id., p 923.

Rare Ltd 1 43 BBRC115B BBR Ferrari LaFerrari Geneve Motor Show 2013 Yellow,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, AUTOart 89180 Car 1 18 Nissan Skyline (R32) GT-R ATCC 1991 Bathurst Victory,Audi R18 TDI - Fässler Lotterer Treluyer - 24h Le Mans 2011 - 1 43 Spark,.New Classic Carlectables Craig Lowndes Holden Commodore VF 2015 Bathurst Winner,.Kyosho Lamborg Hini Veneno 1 18 Scale Car,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale Diecast - 08511R BMW Z8 Roadster - Red Model car,.1 32 FRANKLIN MINT KENWORTH T600 ABROCAB 1997 WITH FRIDGE TRAILER IN CASE,.MERCEDES BENZ L3500 DL17 1950 POMPIERI FEUERWEHR BENSHEIM Minichamps 439350080,.1953 Lancia Aurelia PF200 C Spider Dark Red by BoS Models LE of 252 1 18 New ,. The parties Minichamps 155161116 Collectible Miniature Car - Yellow bluee,.

Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK4X - 1937 Chevrolet Coupe Toledo Toy Fair 1987 1 Of 100,.Knight rider Electronic Vehicule 1 15 Scale Diamond Select,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, American Classics 1 43 Scale Model AA6G - 1956 Oldsmobile Super 88 bluee White,; No Brand Dodge Viper Gts-R 1 18 Mini Car, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

AUTOart 1 18 Nissan GTR R32 GROUP Die Cast Model,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, BBR C126 FERRARI 458 Italia GT2 AF Corse n°61 Le Mans 2013 1.43,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 30 German PzkpfwIII M (DAK version) with One Crew - Desert Scheme,.Triumph TR6 Resin Model Car LUC002B,.1936 FORD DELUXE CABRIOLET RED CONgreenIBLE LE FRANKLIN MINT 1 24 DIECAST & DISP,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,PORSCHE 911 997 GT3 RSR 2007 MATMUT WINNER GT2 LE MANS o 1 18 AUTOart 80771,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 836633 - Porsche 956K 1000Km Spa 1983,.1 18 Dealer Edition Cadillac ATS-L DIE CAST MODEL,.Dinky Toys 915 A.E.C. With Flat Trailer, Boxed, c.1973,.Auto World Plymouth Road Runner GTX 1974 RAW METAL 64112 1 64 SUPER CHASE,.2004 Cadillac Deville Limousine whiteo 1 18 Sun Star 4232,. The Scottsdale1 18 AUTOart PORSCHE 911 (997) GT3 RS 4.0 (GREEN) 2011,MIN510951826 by MINICHAMPS BENETTON B195 GP EUROPE 1995 18,.Dinky VW BEETLE 1200 SWISS PTT POSTWAGEN - 262,. Id.,Porsche 911 997-2 Gt3Rs 4.0 Coupe 2011 Bianco Autoart 1 18 AA78147,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Bmw 850i Cabrio Red 1 18 Model 0068 SCHUCO,; WOW EXTREMELY RARE Setra S8 Bus Panorama 1953 Kroiss Travel 1 43 Minichamps-MAN,1 18 Holden FC Special De-Luxe Red Cabs Carlectables 18566,.CORGI TOYS 342 Lamborghini,Miura P400 complete with Fighting Bull Scarce ,. The ScottsdaleKings Models 1 43 1948 Ferrari 166 SC Montlhery Ferdinando Righetti,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Aston Martin V8 Vantage Coupe 1985 blue Autoart 1 18 AA70223 Model,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; TS03 Brumm Maserati 642 RN Bartoletti + Fiat 250F GP Deutschland 1957 - 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 AUTOart - PORSCHE 993 RWB (blueE GUNGREY WHEELS),; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Model DieCast 1 18 Plymouth Fury DIRTY Version CHRISTINE S. King AUTOWORLD New,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Busch BL843 BENTLEY MULSANNE 2010 BRODAGAR GREY MINICHAMPS 1 18 Modellino,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, AUTOART 87328 LOTUS 72E 1973 EMERSON FITTIPALDI (W DRIVER) 1 18TH SCALE, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Mercedes-AMG GT3 Presentation Car in Grey by AUTOart, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Mitsubishi Pajero th Paris Ddakar 1983 Cowan Malkin 1 43 8877 HPI RACING,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSchuco Volkswagen T1b KASTENWAGEN Ferrari Transporter FRANCORCHAMPS 1 18 New ,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 2015 Toyota Land Cruiser V8 black 1 18 Kyosho Samurai KSR18008BK,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheEvrat Bugatti T57S Atalante 1937 43 EVR200 EVR203,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.RENAULT MIDLUM REFUELLER GENDARMERIE FRANZÖSISCHE PERFEX 700 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,AUTOART 1 18 MERCEDES MAYBACH S-KLASSE (S600) gold 76294,Tarmac Works 1 18 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution V EVO 5 GSR Metallic Yellow T03-YL,.CMR 1 18 Scale - CMR045 Porsche 917 LH Le Mans 1971 Rodriguez, Oliver,.Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 166 Alberto Ascari Test Lausanne Grand Prix,. The Huyghe450037000 Schuco 1 18 Volkswagen VW T1 Pritsche mit Plane,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheBrooklin Models 1 43 Scale IPV25 - 1956 Ford Mainline - R.C.M.P.,.

Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 133020 Mclaren MP4-12C 2011 orange Metallic,.MAKE UP EIDOLON 1 43 - Ferrari 250 GTO, no BBR,.

Porsche 911 991 GT3 RS 1 43 Ultrapurplet purple Minichamps NEU OVP Dealer Version,.ERTL 1 18 Diecast Model Car Fast & Furious Tokyo Drift - 2003 Nissan 350Z Green,. Nonetheless, on the facts of AUTOart 70978 Bugatti EB110 GT 1991,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBugatti T57 Sc Atlantic Metallic Light bluee 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.1 18 Classics - Ford XY Falcon Phase III GT-HO - Vermillion Fire,.

For example, in Partridge,McLaren F1 Short Tail Diecast Model Car 56002,. In Jorgensen, supra,Tekno Scania R Longline Stuart Nicol Transport SNT,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.New 1 43 Ignition Model Honda Civic N1 0453,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 43 Set of two DIP Models GAZ-12 ZIM & ZIS-110 TAXI Super sale ,. That is the same situation in this case.1 43 BBR C215A Ferrari SF71-H winner Canadian GP 2018 S.Vettel,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Renault 10 Phase II Limousine red 1965-1971 Nr 231 1 18 Otto Modell Auto mit o..,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Volkswagen Polo I Series (Type 86) 1975 BoS Models 1 18 BOS017 Model,.GT Spirit Jaguar XJS Lynx Eventer Racing Green 1 18 Resin GT216,.1 43 1957 Pontiac Bonneville top up WMS 66 Western Models handmade,.

Rolls Royce Camargue gold 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.