Minichamps Lotus 99T 99T 99T 1987 S. Nakajima 1 43 Scale Car 14496e

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Minichamps Lotus 99T 99T 99T 1987 S. Nakajima 1 43 Scale Car 14496e
Remember Model 1964 Ferrari 250 GTO Tour de France Dubois de Mantaigu,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Kyosho 1 18 Scale Model Car 08392A - Ferarri 575 GTC Evoluzione 2005,.Toyota 200 GT MF-12L Pegasus 1 43 HPI RACING 8820,.Bugatti T57 Sc Atlantic Metallic Light bluee 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.BUS Routemaster London Transport RM870 - WLT870 LUCOSADE 1958 SUN STAR 2908 1 24,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Ferrari Portofino Cabriolet Open 2017 Bianco Italia White LOOKSMART 1 43 LS480SC,.Mercedes Benz 280C Strich 8 Coupe' 1967 Green 1 18 Model 4586 SUN STAR,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Ferrari 812 Superfast 2017 yellow Modena Yellow BBR 1 43 CAR14 Model,.Minichamps 1 18 Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 Winner ABU DHABI GP 2014 110-140544,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Brand 1 24 Danbury Mint 1940 Ford Deluxe Coupe,.AutoArt 73012 2005 Ford Mustang GT (Auto Show Version) (red-fire) 1 18 OVP ,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM77 - 1957 Riley 1.5 Saloon - Damask Red, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Wiking 774 26 Control Man Lion Bb ´S City Bus 077426 1 87 H0 Rc,.Hot wheels since 68 top 40 Box Set,.Lamborghini Miura P 400 S 1969 red Modellauto 1 18 GT Spirit,.VINTAGE 40s CAPTAIN MARVEL TIN TOY RACE CAR LITHO WINDUP 1947 FAWCETT COMICS,.

Solido - 126 - Mercedes 220 SE blue métallisé - 1 43e - France,.1 18 KYOSHO MERCEDES CLK CABRIO SONDERMODELL LEDER ECHTES DACH NEU OVP,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 133020 Mclaren MP4-12C 2011 orange Metallic,.CAT Caterpillar 994F Wheel Loader with Operator Core Classics Series 1 50,.Matchbox No 16 Scammell Mountaineer Snow Plough grey plastic wheels GPW,.

DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE LEXUS LC500 WHITE KYOSHO KSR18024W 1 18 RESIN CAR,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1964 1 2 Mustang Congreenible White Rare 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 32400,.Mercedes-Benz G500 4x4² • 2016 • NEU • AUTOart • 1 18,.Mercedes-Benz 1 18 Model Car Gle 63 AMG Coupe C292 Limited to 1000 Piece,P DINKY TOYS 181 VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE KAFER RAF blueE SPUN MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN,.MARSH MODELS 1967 LOLA T73 ASTON MARTIN MM15 FACTORY BUILT MINT IN BOX,.

1982 Hot Wheels Fast Ones 's Firebird - Red (MOC),.Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 125 Czech GP Brno Franco Cortese,.Mercedes 600 Bestattungswagen Schuco 1 18,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

AUTOart 1 18 RWB 993 (Sky bluee Gun Metal wheel) finished product,.

AUTOart Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS 2016 White 1 18 78166,. We agree in part.

Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 180 049027 Opel GT 1970 White Red,.VW T1 Van - Nurnberger Nachrichten (bluee Yellow) 1 18 Schuco,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Tekno 1960's Rare Ford Taunus Van (Type 2) No 415 N MINT Superb,.Mercedes-Benz Strich 8 Coupé 1973 Ahornyellow 1 18,.ACME GMP 1 18, 1970 Chevelle 454 LS6 orange w Blk Stripes & vinyl Top ,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Samurai 1 18 Subaru BRZ Yellow Edition Completed,.SPA18DA68 by SPARKMODEL PORSCHE 907 WINNER DAYTONA 24H 1968 1 18,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, VW Polo GTi flashred 1500 diecast modelcar OT270 Otto 1 18,; Vintage - FERRARI 250 GT 2+2 - 1 43 Solido série 100 Ref.123 Mint,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Chrysler Town and Country 1948 1 24e Franklin Mint Précision,.Mercedes 1422 Metz DLK23-12 Fire Brigade 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,GT Spirit 1 18 FORD MUSTANG BOJIX 1000 PCS LIMITED,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Paragon 1 18 Scale PA-98221R Bentley Continental GT Congreenible 16 Burgundy,.

Tekno LKW DAF 106 XF SSC Aerop. Kühl-KSZ Wolter Koops,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.New Minichamps 1 12 Valentino Rossi Figure motoGP Winner silverina GP 2015 Japan,.Minichamps L. Hamilton Mercedes Amg Mclaren Mp4 8,.Kims Classics By Western 1 43 Scale No.1A - 1960 Chrysler 300F Congreenible - Red,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Ultra-Qualified Product Minichamps Williams F1 1 18,; BMW 323I E30 1982 BROWN METALLIC MINICHAMPS 155026004 1 18 brown METAL MARROON,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, NISSAN GTR LEMANS LMP1 2015 Spark SUPERB 1 18 SEE INFO,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Minichamps Lotus 99T 99T 99T 1987 S. Nakajima 1 43 Scale Car 14496eMinichamps Lotus 99T 99T 99T 1987 S. Nakajima 1 43 Scale Car 14496eMinichamps Lotus 99T 99T 99T 1987 S. Nakajima 1 43 Scale Car 14496eMinichamps Lotus 99T 99T 99T 1987 S. Nakajima 1 43 Scale Car 14496eMinichamps Lotus 99T 99T 99T 1987 S. Nakajima 1 43 Scale Car 14496eMinichamps Lotus 99T 99T 99T 1987 S. Nakajima 1 43 Scale Car 14496eMinichamps Lotus 99T 99T 99T 1987 S. Nakajima 1 43 Scale Car 14496eMinichamps Lotus 99T 99T 99T 1987 S. Nakajima 1 43 Scale Car 14496eMinichamps Lotus 99T 99T 99T 1987 S. Nakajima 1 43 Scale Car 14496eMinichamps Lotus 99T 99T 99T 1987 S. Nakajima 1 43 Scale Car 14496e

FERRARI 612 SCAGLIETTI 60ème ANNIVERSAIRE LOOKSMART LS296 1 43,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1987 Saab 900 S 16V Descapotable blue Metalizado 1 18 BoS-Models 165,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

WSI 01-2137 Sandstra Scania S Highline + Volume Trailer,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Corgi Toys No. 241, Ghia L6.4 with Chrysler Engine, - Superb Mint.,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Opel Kapitan 1958 BoS Models 1 18 BOS021 Model,.Ignition model 1 43 Datsun blueebird Coupe (KP510) Red Resin IG0260 Model JAPAN,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.FERRARI F430 GT3 SCUDERIA KESSEL YELLOW BBR LIM. 60 PCS BBRC18Y 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.79122 AUTOart 1 18 Liberty Walk LB-WORKS Lamborghini Huracan Metallic Sky bluee,.

GT Spirit Audi RS5 Coupe Quattro 2017 Navarra bluee Resin Model Car 1 18,.Ferrari LaFerrari Special Edition LIMITED EDITION 48 Pc. 1 43 BBR,.Lexus RX RX200t hybrid 1 18 model car,.Bentley Continental GT V8 S green 1 18,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.SPA18DA68 by SPARKMODEL porsche 907 winner Daytona 24H 1968 1 18,.

LS Collectibles 1 18 Scale - LS024D Aston Martin Lagonda 1974 Saloon Oil Green,.Franklin Mint 1957 Chevrolet Congreenible, Limited Edition, Rare Coral Pink color,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM27X - 1937 Jensen Dual Cowl Phaeton - LCC Special,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, PORSCHE 909 Bergspyder Mont Ventoux 1968 G. Mitter Resin Tecnomodel 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast - J2930 Ferrari F50 Yellow,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 SCALE WMS98 - 1946 FORD ANGLIA - GREY,.IFA W50 L A mit Wassertank, Handarbeit Kimmeria, 1 43,.Skoda Octavia III 2014 Grey Metallic 1 18 Model ABREX,.1 43 Ferrari Lusso Superleggera 2014 1 43 • TECNOMODEL T43-EX04C,.

Spark 1 43 Lancia LC2 Le Mans 1988 S0658, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.77865 Porsche 356 Speedster nr 23F weiss ,1 18 Autoart,.Minichamps 1 18 Diecast - 100 110851 Bugatti Veyron Centenaire 2009 Chrome Red,. The PartridgeAutoart 1 18 Scale 80506 Aston Martin DBR9 24H LeMans 2005 Enge Kox Lamy,.1 43 Schuco Neoplan FH 11 Porsche Renndienst 45 089 6600,.Spark 1 18 Red Bull Aston Martin TAG RB14 Australian F1 GP 2018 Verstappen,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 (997) GT3 RS 4.0 orange 100pcs Limited, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Hpi Mirage 1 43 Toyota 2000GT 1968 SCCA D. Jordan from Japan,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.AutoArt Land Rover Discovery 3 RHD 1 18,.AUTOart Porsche RWB 993 Green Gun Metal Wheel Composite Model Car 78151,PartridgeMr Models Mr159 Lamborghini Murcielago R-Gt,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 107 - Fordson 5CWT Van - Somerville Livery,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Aventador SV LP750-4 Baby bluee Italian Stripe & SV, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, VINTAGE MATCHBOX YAS-11 CODE 2 YESTERYEARYORKSHIRE STEAM LORRY LTD ED of 150,; Corgi Toys No 256 Volkswagen East Africa Safari Vg Used Condition Boxed 1965,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, AUTOart Nissan Fairlady Z432 1969 1 18 77437, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Fine Model Toyopet Crown Deluxe 1962, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 18 Minichamps Delahaye Type 145 v-12 Grand Prix 1937 107116100,.

CMF Ferrari 330 TRI LM RHD 1962 (red) 212244,.Mercedes Benz C111-2D 1976 BoS Models 1 18 BOS168, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 Spark 2017 Porsche 911 R White Green Scale Model Car,.ERTL 1 16 SCALE JOHN DEERE 8400R TRACTOR MODEL BN 45567,.Mercedes C-Class DTM, Imatra, 1 43, Minichamps,.

Bmw M4 Gts 2016 Grey Metallic MINICHAMPS 1 18 110025222 Model,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, VROOM 128 CITROEN DS PredOTYPE S 1965 - ANTHRACITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT 13,1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Aventador LP 700-4 yellow Orion Leather Base LS384B,. In Noska,WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS 57TT '49 ROLLS ROYCE DAWN 2TONE,.Franklin Mint 1961 Lincoln Continental Congreenible Teal Boxed + Papers & HangTag,.One Model 1 43 Nissan GT-R R35 2017 Wine Red from Japan,.Ignition model IG1032 Car 1 43 Toyota Celica 2000GT LB (TA27) orange finished, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Opel Cd Concept 1969 BoS Models 1 18 BOS192 Model,.1 18 Autoart Lamborghini Gallardo Lp550-2 Vb Balboni Ed. White - Rarity,.Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC21 - 1958 Jaguar XK150 Coupe - Red,.Delage D8 S 1933 fermée Fernandez et Darrin (1 43, Evrat),. Id., p 923.

Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS (ultrapurple) 1 18 AUTOart 78169,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 Motor City Classics Ford Model Firemen Tudor Red Rarity §,BMW 1er 1M M E82 Coupe Weiss Safety Car MotoGP 2007-2013 1 18 Minichamps Model..,.AA88401 by AUTOART AUDI QUATTRO SAFARI RALLY 1984 H. MIKKOLA 1 18,.Siku 3714 Mercedes Lastzug (Werbemodell - Freitzeit Hobby Spiel) OVP - 0577-156,.AUTOart 81602 - 1 18 Audi R8 LMS Plain Body Version (white) (composite model),.1960s.matchbox.LESNEY.10.Tate&Lyle Sugar Container.GPW.Mint in box.CROWN on Rear,.1 18 Cadillac Deville Limousine año 2004 Sun Star 4231 black,.MERCEDES BENZ 280 SE AVEC SON VOILIER orange ET white MAJORETTE EN BOITE,. The parties Faenza 43 1 43 1953 Ferrari 735 S Dolomiti,.

Ignition model 1 43 Porsche 962C OMURON JSPC 1989 V. Schppan IG0512 japan,.2017 Chevy Camaro Coupe, Red - GT Spirit US012 - 1 18 scale Resin Model Toy Car,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, EXTREME RARE LION CAR - LION TOYS PEGASO TRONER TX360 + YELLOW - HOOD SPAIN,; 1 18 AUTOart Lancia Delta S4 1985 red, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Universal Studios Japan JAL Minion Jet Miniature Model EMBRAER 190 USJ 315,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Corgi 1 18 Scale 95106 - 1963 MG MGB Roadster Green - with wooden plinth,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Wiesmann GT Continental orange Sondermodell Mega-Rarität 1 18 Revell,.1 18 Biante Ford Fg Falcon - Courtney Luff B18303P,.Burago 1 18 Scale diecast - Standox Finish Porsche 911 Kyalami Flash,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 43 Looksmart Ferrari FF in blue America on a Leather Base LS387E,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.KYOSHO SAMURAI 1 18 Honda S660 a Yellow KSR18016Y Model car New from Japan,.Schuco 1 18 Scale Diecast - 45 003 9500 Porsche 911 Carerra GTS Cabriolet White,.CMF Ferrari 330 TRI LM O. Gendebien P. Hill SpA Ferrari SEFAC 24h Le Mans 196,.GMP 1970 Plymouth Roadrunner GTX 1 18 Scale,.Schuco Studio I Vivienne Westwood ,. The ScottsdalePE43 MODELLE 1 43 SCALE RESIN MODEL No.4 - 1951 GOLIATH GP 700 LIMOUSINE,1 18 AUTOart LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO GT3 FL2 2013 orange -Aktion Vitrine kostenlos ,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 842511 - BMW 635 CSi Winner 1984,. Id.,BOS MODEL BOS170 MASERATI QUATTROPORTE METALLIC blueE 1 18,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 911 991 GT3 RS 1 43 Ultrapurplet purple Minichamps NEU OVP Dealer Version,; Gmts - golden Oldies Linie 50 4724 Scania 140mit Hist. Refrigerated Semitrailers,Minichamps Porsche 904 Carrera GTS (1964) (red) 1 18 OVP,.1 43 ignition model - IG1091 Nissan Cedric Cima (Y31) Red,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps 1 18 diecast - 155736502 - Porsche 917 10 Bosch-Kausen Team 1973,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, IKARUS 630 1960 HUNGARY RESIN AUTO BUS - 1 43 IN NICE CONDITION RARE ,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; CORGI TOYS 315 FORD CONSUL CLASSIC UK GREAT BRITAIN DIECAST CAR EXC+ 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1959 CADILLAC AMBULANCE RED WHITE PRECISION COLLECTION 1 18 BY GREENLIGHT 18001,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast - B11TL09 1929 Bentley Racing Green,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Kings Models 1 43 1950 Ferrari 166 Alberto Ascari Reims,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, FERRARI SA APERTA 2010 black STELLATO BBR BBRC49D 1 43 LIMITED EDITION 160 PIECES, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Brabus 600 Auf Basis Mercedes Benz Amg Gt S 2016 Red MINICHAMPS 1 18 107032521 M, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, DC Justice League Ultimate Batmobile Vehicle 6 Inch Figure Batman RC Camera Toy,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeWSI Eigenbau Scania R Container Sattelzug KlOIBER 20ft. Hapag LIoyd 1 50,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 50 Caterpillar D11T CD Carrydozer Model Diecast Engineering Vehicle 85567,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheGoggomobil 1955 Light bluee W white Roof 1 18 Model 0096 SCHUCO,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 43 Looksmart Ferrari F12 Berlinetta British Racing Green Leather Base LS397F,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS 46 1959 FORD GALAXIE SKYLINER RED,Aston Martin Vanquish 2013 White Autoart 1 18 AA70250 Model,.VW Volkswagen Bus T3 a Westfalia Camper Camping Flachdach Joker Premium Cl 1 18,.BMW e82 1er M-Coupe 2011 white modelcar 110020022 Minichamps 1 18,. The HuygheGT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin - GT076 Bentley Continental GTV8S Cabrio bluee,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 18 Classic Carlectables Jamie Whincup 2011 Team Vodafone VE Commodore,.

1953 Lancia Aurelia PF200 C Spider Dark Red by BoS Models LE of 252 1 18 New,.WSI 01-2693 Sauerbaum Mercedes Benz Actros MP4 Streamspace + Tipper Trailer,.

LookSmart 1 43 - Ferrari 599 SA Aperta 2011 black mat,.1 200 BOEING 777-328ER SKY TEAM AIR FRANCE F-GZNN JF7773002,. Nonetheless, on the facts of TOP SPEED 1 18 Pagani Zonda red Dubai Red Resin Model TS0098,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 18 Neo BMW 3200 Cs Bertone Rarity §,.WSI 01-2714 1 50 PETER ROFF SCANIA 3 4X2 UNIT & 3AXLE CURTAIN SIDE TRAILER,.

For example, in Partridge,New Biante 1 18 HDT Holden LH Torana L34 O'Brien 1976 Hardie Ferodo 4th Place,. In Jorgensen, supra,Matchbox Kingsize K-20A Tractor Transporter mit 3 Traktoren in Box,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Schuco Volkswagen T1 Nrnberger 1 18 450027900,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,VOLKSWAGEN CC ( ARTEON ) 2018 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.1 18 Kyosho Mini Cooper Die Cast Model White,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1967 Shelby GT-500 2+2 bluee 1 18 Auto World AMM1111,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Hotwheels Ferrari Elite 250 LUSSO Eric Clapton 1 18 Mattel RARE HTF HW T6254,.Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Laurel 2000 Sgx C130 White Resin Model Ig1019 New,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes O 6600 Bus Pastel bluee Ivory 1 43 Schuco-Minichamps,.

Porsche 550 a Spyder White Model Car 1 18 Schuco,.