Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Never Use Coca-cola Volkswagen Beetle die-cast minicar official license product,.1 43 1948 Ford Sibert Long Ambulance Handmade,.MNC530133744 - Voiture de courses McLAREN F1 GTR des 24h du Mans de 1997 équipag,.12 x Corgi Diecast Models, BNIB, Limited Edition, Joblot, Collection, Bundle,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.1968 Hot Wheels Redline Silhouette LIGHT blueE YR1 SCARCE ALL ORIGINAL KEEPER SC,.WSI 02 1239 . 9AXLE HEAVY DRAWBAR TRAILER AND BOX LOAD. 1.50 OCEAN TRADERS,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Kings Models 1 43 1956 Ferrari D50 French Grand Prix Test Alfonso de Portago,.Minichamps 1 43 Porsche Cayman GT4 Clubsport 981 Japan Edition 33pcs Limited,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Magirus Deutz 150D10 Aerial DL30 Aachen 1959 1 43 Minichamps,.1 12 GT Spirit Porsche 911 Typ 993 RWB Limited Edition Nr. 167 in OVP,.FERRARI 250 LM SPYDER OLLON-VILLARS 1965 HEINI WALTER ANNECY MINIATURES 1 43, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
DDA ACME 1969 Ford Boss 302 Trans Am Mustang Alan Moffat Racing Coca Cola 1 18,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - G9729 Renault R25 F1 Fernando Alonso,.Classic Bus 1981 Ikarus-256.51 Bus Überlandbus white red USSR DDR 1 43 OVP,.Chrysler Newport Wagon 1962 BoS Models 1 18 BOS277,.
GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin - GT141 Ruf CTR-2 Sport (Porsche 911) Yellow,.Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-X Kgc10 Red Resin Model Ig0381 Japan,.Nacoral 3552 Fiat 500 Rally grey mint in box condition,.HOT WHEEL G7234 BATMOBILE CAMOUFLAGE TUMBLER BATMAN BEGINS SHOW CASE TUBE 1 18,.. SPARK S0778 JAGUAR XJ12C NO 2 TOURIST TROPHY 1977 MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN,.
FERRARI F430 GT3 SCUDERIA KESSEL YELLOW BBR LIM. 60 PCS BBRC18Y 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Vintage - Dinky Toys 515 - Ferrari 250 2+2 Gt Pininfarina Coupe - Mint Box,.DCP Western Distributing Kenworth W900 w Refrigerated Trailer 1 64,.Super Rare Yellow Maisto 1 18 1957 Chevrolet Corvette American Car Figure,CORGI 1 50 SCALE US51402 INTERNATIONAL TRANSTAR KING TRAILER & SUBMARINE TEXACO,.1968 BMW 2500 E3 gold Metallic 1 18 BoS-Models 349,.
TEKNO HOLLAND SCANIA 143M 420 - VAN RIJN TRANSPORT - 1 50 RARE - EXCELLENT IB,.Porsche 911 orange Tennis Grand Prix 2017 Lim.Edition 500 Spark 1 43 WAX02020026,.Brabus 600 Auf Basis Mercedes Benz Amg Gt S 2016 gold 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
BUDDY-L VW VOLKSWAGEN 23-WINDOW DELUXE SUNROOF SAMBA BUS ‘60s VINTAGE,.
Minichamps 1 35 Panzerkampfwagen V Panther Ausf. G Berlin spring 1945,. We agree in part.
Kyosho 80430394361 1 18 BMW E91 3-ER TOURING 2005 DARK blueE METALLIC,.French Dinky 33A Simca Cargo Van. orange-Yellow Green. Boxed. Original 1950's,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Durham classics DCJ02, 1938 Lincoln Zephyr coupe, 1 of 200. boxed,.TOP024E by TOP MARQUES LANCIA DELTA 1987 SAN REMO 18,.Kamaz 5490-C5, red, 1 43, Start Scale Models,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Ertl American Muscle 1971 Challenger R T Yellow 340 4Bbl ,1 18 , New,.Bussing 8000 S13 Bugler, brownschweig 1 43 Minichamps,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 18 Kyosho BMW M6 E63 Dealer Edition Red Carbon Fiber RARITÄT,; TEKNO 1 50 - 9650 W. SMITH SCANIA REFRIGERATED TRANSPORT 31 OF 150 PCS BO55 DWP,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Mclaren Mp4-12C (Vulcano Red) Peako 1 18 No MR No CMC No BBR No P1,.Fire Brigade Models 1 50 Scale FBM21 - Scania Essex Fire & Rescue Service,1955 MERCEDES BENZ 300B Pininfarina Beige Dark Brown by BoS Models 1 18 LE 1000,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.(V) MAKS Hong Kong Plastic friction drive MORRIS 1100,.
TOGI 3 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA SPRINT RARE SELTEN IN EXCELLENT CONDITION IN BOX,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Spark 1 24 Scale Model Car LMS006 - Peugeot 905 EVO 1 Bis Winner LM 1992,.Lansdowne 1 43 Scale LDM29X - 1935 Triumph Vitesse Flow-Free - WMTC Turquoise,.1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Aventador S black Pegaso on Leather base,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Minichamps 2012 BMW Z4 GT3 Street Version bluee LE of 504 1 18New ,; 1 18 Jaguar XJ-S, XJS, Cabriolet Autoart,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Somerville Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 123 - Saab 95 Estate - bluee,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Aventador SV LP750-4 Baby bluee Italian Stripe & SV,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Autograph Sign NÃ¼r Lfa Lexus Ebbro 1 43,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Mercedes-Benz Lps 1632 Autoarticolato Anno di Costruzione 1969 blue red Scuro,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
DV6941 ELIGOR 1 43 RENAULT R340 TRANSPORTS TRANAFIS 110338 HORS COMMERCE,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.FERRARI 125 S Scala 1 18 Hot Wheels Super Elite Limited Edition,.Fire Brigade Models 1 50 Scale FBM21 - Scania Essex Fire & Rescue Service,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.UT Models 1 18 Scale Diecast - 22106 Ferrari F355 Spider Red Cream Interior,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.VOLKSWAGEN VW SHARAN brown 2010 1 18,.
TEK73452 - Camion citerne Scania R09 Lowline aux colors du transporteur TRANS,.Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale Model Car US11B - 1964 Studebaker Avanti II - White,.Ford GT 2004 1 18 AUTOart neu & OVP,.MINI RACING 1 43 SCALE WHITE METAL MODEL No 85 PORSCHE 956 L FULL LIVERY LE MANS,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS - Miami blue - Autoart - 1 18,.
Dinky 956 Turntable Fire Escape (Berliet Cab). Very Near-MINT Boxed. 1970's,.Mercedes W116 450 SEL 6,9 Servopumpe Pumpe Servo 1164601780,.PORSCHE 907 N.54 DAYTONA 1968 ELFORD-NEERPASCH-SIFFERT 1 18 SPARK S18DA68,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Matrix Lagonda V12 Lancefield Le Mans 1 43 MXLM01-1202,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Solido serie 100 - Rare - Citroen AMI 6 bicolor - 1 43 Mint,.ZC560 Provence Moulage K1606 Kit Vehicule 1 43 Peugeot 206 WRC Winner TDC 2000,.1 18 Minichamps 155766412 Porsche 934 Jägermeister Helmut Kelleners Drm 1976 ,.Paragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - PA-97086 BMW i8 Java Green,.1 43 Minichamps AMG Mercedes C DTM 94 Die Sieger ,.
2004 Cadillac Deville Limousine black 1 18 Sun Star 4231, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Vintage diecast CAR CASE With collectable diecast cars included,.RAI'S 1 43 Toyota Crown Athlete (GRS 214) 2017 Metropolitan Police,. The PartridgeAutoworld 1 18 Scale Diecast - AMM1039 1970 Ford Torino Cobra gold,.NZG 1 50 SCALE KORZ - MERCEDES-BENZ ACTROS GIGA SPACE SLT CAB BN 932-01,.1956 Maserati A6G 2000 Zagato blue Oscuro 1 18 BoS-Models 115,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC21 - 1958 Jaguar XK150 Coupe - Red, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.2017 Ford Mustang GT Red-Grey 1 18 y 1 64 Auto World AW245,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Jaguar XJ220 - green - 1 of 150 - Top Marques - 1 18 - TOP39A,.MINICHAMPS Duesenberg Model J Torpedo MC-107150431,PartridgeMatra DJET Monte Carlo 1967 Bizarre BZ323 Spark 1 43 Ultra Rare ,.Bristol L5G bus by Scale Link Ltd. SLBK01WD-A,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, MIB RARE 1979 RICHARD PETTY STP 442 PLATINUM ELITE OF 144 MADE RCCA 1 24, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ferrari California T Spider Open Roof 2014 BBR 1 43 BBRC139C Model,; Mercedes-Benz Strich 8 Saloon 1968 Sahara Yellow 1 18,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 (997 II) GT3 Red 97pcs Limited Dinslaken 2009, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Corgi 1 43 Scale Model Car 04203 Aston Martin DB5 goldfinger 50th Anniv Bond 007, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCorgi Bentley Continental - Two Tone Green - B A,.
Minichamps 155161116 Collectible Miniature Car - Yellow bluee,.HOTWHEELS 1 18 - M0522 FERRARI F333 SP - DOYLE-RISI RACING 1999, Clarke's negligent act.Look Smart 1 43 Scale LS06B - 1964 Alfa Romeo Giulia 1600 GTC - White,.Audi Avantissimo Break 2001 Minichamps 440 013010 1 43,.Schuco SH0097 GOGGOMOBIL 1955 RED W WHITE ROOF 1 18 Modellino,.
Dinky Jones Fleetmaster Cantilever Crane, Superb in Good Original Box,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CMF Ferrari 330 TRI LM O. Gendebien P. Hill SpA Ferrari SEFAC 24h Le Mans 196,BMC Garage 1 10 Scale Resin Model PC01 - J40 Pedal Car - Red,. In Noska,Lamborghini Murcielago R-GT FIA GT Winner Zhuahi 2007 1 43 Look Smart LS292..,.Rare Tekno 1 50 SCANIA 144 TOPLINE WM ARMSTRONG LTD,.Western Models 1 43 Scale WP101 - Triumph Stag Congreenilble Yellow,.OTTO 1 18 Scale Resin Model Car - OT699 Audi S8 White, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK9 021 - 1940 Ford Sedan Delivery MSMC 1 Of 150 White,.MINICHAMPS Porsche 911 S Kremer Racing Kremer Neuhaus Class Winners ADAC 100,.Aston Martin Rapide - 1 18 - AUTOart,.Acura Nsx Nouvelle bluee Pearl Top Speed TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TS0013,. Id., p 923.
Minichamps 80430148540 BMW M3 E30 DTM 1992 Franz Engstler, 1 18, OVP, K031,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 77411 AUTOart 1 18 Nissan Skyline GT-R (R32) Wangan Midnight Zena's GT-R,Pontiac Trans Am Firebird Jerry Titus, Acme A1805210 1 18th scale,.Volkswagen VW T1b Trasportatore Messerschmitt green 1 18 Schuco,.HPI 1 43 Porsche 956LH Le Mans 24h Special Set  Finished product,.1956 Lotus XI Club 1 18 Scale Model Car by Spark,.Sunstar 1 18 Scale Diecast - 4450 Ford Escort RS1800 Rallye Monte Carlo 1980,.RARE GENUINE HAMM H13I ROAD ROLLER COMPACTOR VINCI EUROVIA CONSTRUCTION 1 50 NZG,.Jouef 1 18 Scale Diecast - 48824 Ford GT40 Le Mans 1969 Gulf,. The parties Ignition Model 1 43 Porsche 962C No.19 1988 Le Mans Mini car From JAPAN,.
Corgi 859 Mr McHenry's Trike and Zebedee - box,.EBBRO 1 18 CALSONIC IMPUL GT-R SUPER GT500 2015 Rd.1 Okayama No.12,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, AUTOart 1 18 McLaren P1 GTR yellow green PVC,; Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM101X - 1957 Ford Zephyr Farnham Estate LCC 2013, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
UNIQUE GREEK PORSCHE CARRERA & CRIS - CRAFT B O R C LITHO BOX MIB BY A.P 70s,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Autoart 1 18 Mclaren P1 Gtr Gloss White Red Stripes Composite Model 81541 F S,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Tekno Denmark 831 Morris Marina 1100 perfect mint in box what a beauty,.Ford Model T A Luftpumpe Messing 7000154 Dachbodenfund,.DINKY TOYS 104 SPV SPECTRUM PURSUIT VEHICLE CAPTAIN SCARLETT OVP 1968,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,PORSCHE 917 20 917 20 Interserie Müller Martini Racing 1974 Minichamps 1 18,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Vintage - LAMBORGHINI MIURA P.400 - 1 43 Politoys-M552 Perfect,.Porsche 911 2.7 Rs Carrera Touring Año Fabricación 1973 Light- Jellow 1 12,.1 18 Minichamps McLaren MP4-12C 2011 redmetallic ltd. 750 pcs.,.1 43 ignition model - IG1091 Nissan Cedric Cima (Y31) Red,.Me-Mod 19 1 43 1993 Lexus ES300 3.0i V6 Resin Handmade Model Car,. The ScottsdaleHot Wheels Ferrari Enzo 2004 1 18 Showcase Limited Edition H2759 Beauty Race Car,RAI'S 1 43 Chevrolet Express ls3500 2008 Japan Police Guard H7430817 Vehicle JP,.Corgi Toys 223 Chevrolet State Patrol very near mint in box,. Id.,Minichamps 1 18 scale 150 084100 Ford Escort Mk2 1.3 (LHD) 1975 orange,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Norev 1 18 2014 BENZ C CLASS C-KLASS DIE CAST MODEL blueE,; LAMBORGHINI URRACO SIHLOUETTE 1976 WHITE LOOKSMART LIM. 1 49 LS040D 1 43,Hpi Japan 8358 Nissan Skyline Gt-R V-Spec â ¡,.DRAKE 1 50 SCALE DRAKE - MAXITRANS FREIGHTER B DOUBLE FLAT TOP ZT09131,. The ScottsdaleCorgi Toys No. 233, Heinkel I, Economy, - Superb,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 1 18 scale Diecast - 530 761811 McLaren Ford James Hunt 1976,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Neo 1 43 - Monteverdi 375 L 1969 black,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 133020 Mclaren MP4-12C 2011 orange Metallic,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1975 Nurburgring Porsche 911 RSR No. 6 by Spark,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Autoart 1 18 - Subaru Impreza WRC - 1999 Monte Carlo Burns Reid,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Franklin Mint 1 10 Harley Davidson 2005 V-ROD B11989 PEWTER B11989 NEW MIB A, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Lamborghini Countach Lp500S Walter Wolf Edition red Autoart 1 18 Aa74651, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, IG1262 ignition model 1 43 Nissan Cedric Y32 Gran Turismo Ultima White,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeROAD KINGS - 1 18 - SCANIA LBT 141 - 1976 - RK180013BL,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, FRENCH DINKY TOYS 508 DAF 33 MIB 9 EN BOITE VERY NICE L@@K,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheVintage Dinky 575 - Tracteur Panhard ET Semi-Remorque S.N.C.F. - bluee,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Bos 1 18 Scale resin - 186684 Opel Senator A2 3.0 CD gold Model car,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB96B - 1970 MG MIDGET - orange,Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4 14 1999 1 18 Mika Hakkinen (FIN) (JS) FB,.Ferrari 488 Spider 2015 Met. Red lim.ed.99 pcs 1 43 BBRC173C BBRMODELS,.VERY RARE- NISSAN HARDBODY - blueE CARD-HOT WHEELS-RARE-ORIGINAL-VHTF,. The HuygheLS MODEL LANCIA DELTA INTEGRALE EVO2 MARTINI 5 1983 L.E. 500 FREE SHIP. WORLD.,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVéhicule Miniature - Peugeot 205 GTI Griffe 1.9L 1990 - green - Echelle 1 18 NORE,.
Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Laurel 2000Sgx Hayashi Wheel White Ig0139 Finished Pr,.Tarmac 1 18 Scale Resin - T11-MG Nissan GT-R R35 2017 Dark Metal Grey,.
Fiat 242 Assistenza Lancia 1985 1 18 Model LAUDO RACING,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM27X - 1937 Jensen Dual Cowl Phaeton - LCC Special,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Ferrari FXX LS159F 1 43 Solar Direct orange,.
Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge MINIMARQUE '43 AUSTIN ATLANTIC CONgreenIBLE INDIANAPOLIS RECORD MINT BOXED,.DORLOP 181OGY, LAND ROVER DEFENDER 110, RHD, ORKNEY GREY, 1 18 SCALE,.
For example, in Partridge,1 43 BBR 226W Ferrari 250 GT Cabriolet Serie II 1960 white only 45 pcs,. In Jorgensen, supra,Maserati BiTurbo Coupe 1982 - 1 18 - Minichamps,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Chevrolet Corvette (1958) Diecast Model Car 71147,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,DINKY 300 Massey Harris tractor and 319 WEEKS FARM TRAILER,. That is the same situation in this case.AutoArt Ford Crown Victoria Police Patrol Auto Art Diecast Car 1 18,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.MINICHAMPS Porsche 911 S Ecurie Jean Sage Waldegard Cheneviere 24h Le Mans 1,. Detroit Edison, supra.
1970 Opel Rekord C Caravan Beige 1 18 BoS-Models 034,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12007 - Man King Trailer & Reel Load - Morris Leslie,.Tamiya 1 32 McDonnell Douglas F-15 C Eagle Plastic Model New From Japan 4V,.
Minichamps 1 18 Diecast 155 811102 Audi Quattro Mikkola Winners Swedish Rally 81,.