81576 Nissan GT-R Nismo Nismo Nismo GT 3 weiss , 1 18 Autoart 7d39e6

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
81576 Nissan GT-R Nismo Nismo Nismo GT 3 weiss  ,  1 18 Autoart 7d39e6
Brooklin Video Volume 3 with Chevrolet El Camino 1959 BRK 46,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Ertl 1 18 Scale - 7459 1956 Austin Healey 100-Six bluee white,.Hot Wheels Ferrari Enzo 2004 1 18 Showcase Limited Edition H2759 Beauty Race Car,.Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale Model Car GC57B - 1961 Jaguar Mk10 - Dark bluee,.1 18 AUTOart PORSCHE 914 6 (LIGHT IVORY) 1970 zum Sonderpreis,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Minichamps 1979 BMW 3.0 CSL BMW Italia ETCC Zandvoort Grano Joosen 18New ,.1 18 Kyosho Nissan Fairlady Z (300ZX) Z32 Version R 2by2 (Yellow) Limited 700pcs,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Matchbox Lesney Kingsize K-22 Dodge Charger bluee Superb RARE,.Aston Martin V8 Volante 1978 bluee Metallic 1 18 Model CULT SCALE MODELS,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.MINI RACING 1 43 SCALE WHITE METAL MODEL No 85 PORSCHE 956 L FULL LIVERY LE MANS,.TOYOTA Celica 4WD Turbo Rallye San Remo 1994 Auriol DIRTY Top Marques 1 18,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - L7115 Ferrari F430 Challenge Team Shelton, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Red Line 1 43 Scale Resin - RL156 Ferrari 330 P3 Le Mans 1966,.For sale Vintage pioneer amplifier in good condition SA-6300 from 1976,.08935 Schuco Pro.R 1 43 Magirus Deutz O6500 Deutsche Bundespost,.Ebbro Calsonic Skyline 1996 Jgtc Fuji 14 Scale Car,.

OLD CARS FIAT ALLIS FL20 CRAWLER LOADER - MUSTARD 1 50 - VERY GOOD IN BOX,.Corgi Set 17 1960's Land Rover & Trailered Ferrari VG condition in Original Box,.Minichamps 1 18 CADILLAC LeMans DREAM CAR - 1953,.HPI RACING HPI8432 NISSAN FAIRLADY Z VIBRANT RED 1 43,.HOVER HONG KONG 870 LOTUS RACING CAR No 6 - BATTERY L38.0cm - GOOD IN BOX,.

Kings Models 1 43 1957 Ferrari 375 Dunedin Road Race Ron Roycroft,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.AUTOart 75808 2015 MASERATI QUATTROPORTE GTS 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR ALPI WHITE,.AUTOART 1 18 LEXUS LC500 METALIC WHITE 78846,.AUTOart McLaren P1 GTR 2015 Yellow 1 18 81544,AutoArt Citroën Xsara WRC 2004 1 18 Loeb Elena Rallye MC (JvdM) NR,.Action Juan Montoya Cart Racing Serie 1 18 Scale Car,.

Minichamps 1 43 Lotus 79 1978 M.Andretti World Champion,.Autoworld 1 18 Scale Diecast - AMM1011 1970 Chevy Chevelle SS Maroon White,.Lledo cgoldnation street full set,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Minichamps 1 18 Scale - 155 842504 BMW 635 CSi BMW Italia 24H Spa 1984,.

Very Rare BRANCHLINES AUSTIN 7 'RUBY' - 1 43 Scale Whitemetal Kit Unused,. We agree in part.

AUTOart 70218 1 18 ASTON MARTIN RAPIDE 2010 CONCOURS blueE,.Cadillac 341 B Congreenible Coupe' orange Brown 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.AUTOart 87177 Nissan Skyline GTR (KPGC-10) Japan GP 1971 Nr.18 1 18 NEU OVP,.1 18 Autoart Porsche 908 02 1970 S. McQueen Holtville A,.Johnny Lightning 1 64 Scale 26104 - Set Of 12 Models - James Bond 007 Release 1,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Ignition Model 1 43 Yhp Nissan R90Cp 24 1990 Jspc Resin Model Ig0285 New,.Top Speed JAGUAR F-TYPE R COUPE POLARIS WHITE 1 18 Scale New Release LE of 999,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, WAX02100006 Porsche 911 991 Carrera GTS Club Coupe 2015 GT Spirit 1 18 NEU,; Falk Ranch Tractor and Trailer,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Drake ZT09158 Maxitrans Skel B Double Trailer Combination Yellow 1 50,.WIKING Audi BMW und Andere PKW Konvolut 25 Stk 1 87,WOW EXTREMELY RARE Man F8 Pritschenwagen 1953 Grreen Munchen 1 43 Minichamps-860,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 43 Looksmart Bentley Continental Supersports in Magnetic Grey Leather Base,.

Rare matrice résine CITROEN BX sport voiture 1 43 Heco modeles véhicule blue US,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1 43 BBR FERRARI 550 MARANELLO RED H LM 2006 TEAM RUSSIAN AGE RACING BG311,.LLEDO DG Full Set of 14 CANADIAN Series DG6 Model T Ford vans DG6074 to DG6086,.Samurai 1 18 Subaru BRZ Yellow Edition Completed,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, CORGI TOYS 201M AUSTIN CAMBRIDGE SALOON 1961 OVP MECHANICAL MOTOR,; WT-372001A - Waltersons German Medium Tank PzKpfw IV (Ausf. H) - 1 24,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Looksmart LS379 1 43 2010 Lamborghini Murcielago R-SV Handmade Resin Model Car,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

1979 Vintage Hot Wheels SUNAGON Volkswagen Van w BIKE Roof Open Hong Kong New,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1 43 Bugatti Type 41 Royale Roadster Esders 1930 IXO MUS004 MUS 004 VERY RARE ,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Mercedes-Amg Sl63 1 18 Mercedes 50years Gt Spirit B66965708 Sl 63 Mopf R231,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.2017 CHEVROLET CAMARO ZL1 COUPE RED 1 18 MODEL CAR BY GT SPIRIT FOR ACME US012,.HobbyJapan HJ1804BBL 1 18 Honda Prelude Si BA5 1987 Madison bluee Pearl,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Bmw M4 Gts 2016 Grey Metallic MINICHAMPS 1 18 110025222 Model,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Ferrari Ff (Ferrari Four) 2011 British Racing Green Looksmart 1 43 LS387F Model,.

NEW AUTOart 1 18 McLaren P1 GTR orange finished product genuine from JAPAN,.AUTOART 79108 LIBERTY WALK LB-WORKS LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR (RED) 1 18TH,.Autoart 1 18 Porsche 911 (997) Gt3rs 4.0 (white) From Japan,.Brand Ferrari Fxx 23 1 43 Scale Car,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Corgi Juniors Brazil (KIKO) No 13 Chevrolet Van Voe Varig Green Glass MIB RARE,.

3940 MIGHTY TONKA Claw Crane MR-970- Vintage Amazing Superb Condition for age,.Faenza 43 Models 1 43 1957 Ferrari 750 Monza SCCA Palm Springs Bob Drake,.( GOL ) 1 18 Minichamps BMW M3 DTM 1991 A. Berg NEU OVP,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, New Drake Skel B Double Trailer Combination Diecast Replica Model 1 50 Membrey,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.2010 BMW Serie 1 (F20) Crisom Red 1 18 Paragon Models 97004,.GT Spirit 1 18 Scale Resin - GT077 Bentley Continental GT V8S Metallic green,.Minichamps Audi A4 1 18 Scale Car,.AUTOart Porsche 911 991 GT3 RS 1 18 Lava orange 1 18 78168,.Kyosho Ferrari 250 Gto Le Man 1962 19Th Car 1 43 Scale,.

GM Futurliner Parade of Progress 1941 Green White,Model Car 1 43 Neo Scale, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Tekno LKW Scania CS20 HD Aerop. Kühl-KSZ Trio Trans 071369,.Durham 1 43 Scale DUR 30 - 1941 Chevrolet Panel Van Ltd. Edition 1 Of 300,. The Partridge1 18 Ferrari F1 M.Schumacher 510961891 Minichamps,.MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB 67A 1981 CADILLAC SEVILLE DOESKIN,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Citroen 2CV Roll Roof 1983 Pastel bluee1 18 Minichamps,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Corgi. Toys 513 Citroen Safari Alpine Rescue. Near. Mint, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Code 3 12753 Ventura County RE 40 American LaFrance,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Lexus Lc500 2016 Yellow Met AUTOART 1 18 AA78847,.AUTOart 74603 LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP610-4 1 18 DIECAST ARANCIO BOREALIS orange,PartridgeTOPO GIGIO Maria Perego 1985 Die Cast Car 1 43 on CARD made in silverina,.WESTERN MODELS DODGE ROYAL LANCER 1957 - blueE MET+WHITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 7,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 71261 AUTOart 1 18 Chevrolet Corvette (C7) Z06 (White), (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 18 Highway 61 1968 Barracuda Mighty Miss Mopar,; 1 18 Minichamps, Porsche 906 LH, 12H Sebring,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Minichamps MotoGP Ducati Desmocedici GP09 2009 C. Stoner 1 12 122090127, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Matchbox RW 24B Excavator greye Räder feines 36 Profil, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCorgi Toys 492 Volkswagen Käfer Beetle german Polizei green white MIB OVP,.

Euro Sports Bespoke Mini Champs 1 43 Scale BMW Sauber F1.07 S. Vettel 2007,.Busch BOS262 LANCIA AURELIA PF200 CABRIOLET MET.DARK GREEN 1 18 Modellino, Clarke's negligent act.Highway 61 1 18 Scale Diecast 50146 1963 Pontiac LeMans Coupe Turquoise,.1976 MERCEDES BENZ 450 SEL 6.9 blueE METALLIC 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY NOREV 183457,.Auto Union DKW F1000 L Van Ambulance - Rico Miniaturas 36348,.

NEW NOREV 1 43 scale minicar MAVIC Neutral car Peugeot 504,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, GREENLIGHT 2018 Will Power Indy 500 Winner Diecast 1 18 FIGURE EDITION,Last One Ferrari Burago 1 43 Shell V-Power,. In Noska,1939 Mercedes-Benz W 165 Diecast Model,.Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport 2017 grey diecast modelcar 151 GT-Spirit 1 18,.Honda Nsx Nouvelle bluee Pearl Top Speed TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TS0062 Miniat,.Mercedes 190e 2.0 Arctic White 1 43 Diecast Model Car Autoart Japan new, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Acura MDX 4x4 4WD 2014 1 43,.AUTOart Nissan Fairlady Z Z33 2005 Super GT Calsonic C9 1 18 Model Car,.1 18 AUTOart Ford Sierra RS Cosworth RS500 Group A Texaco Soper Ludwig 88711,.MASERATI MC12 FIA GT1 CHAMPIONSHIP 81036 AUTOART 1 18e,. Id., p 923.

Strenco - Metal Model - Hanomag Kurier - TRANSPORTER - 1 43,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Fire Brigade Models 1 50 Scale FBM21 - Scania Essex Fire & Rescue Service,Dinky VW BEETLE 1200 SWISS PTT POSTWAGEN - 262,.Ferrari F10 Fernando Alonso Felipe Massa 2010 Steering Wheel AMALGAM 1 4,.AUTOart Nissan Skyline GTR (R32) 18 89279,.Minichamps Mercedes-Benz W123 Cabriolet 1 43 bluee (very rare hand built) (JS),.BMW M3 F80 LIGHT blueE METALLIC GT SPIRIT 1 18 GT855,.Minichamps 1 43 2006 Audi A4 DTM Street London Toyfair,.Kings Models 1 43 1949 Ferrari 125 Monza GP Luigi Villoresi,. The parties DINKY 808 GMC DEPANNEUSE MILITAIRE LOT 7 COMME NEUF sans boite, tout d'origine,.

Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK7 001A - 1934 Chrysler Airflow Cream,.John Force Castrol Superman 1999 Mustang Funny Car Action 1 24 AUTOGRAPHED,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Norev 1 18 Scale Diecast - 183577 Mercedes Benz 200 1966 Green,; Frontiart AvanStyle 1 18 Aston Martin Vulan Red AS014-06, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Ignition model 1 43 Datsun blueebird Coupe (KP510) Red Resin IG0260 Model JAPAN,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, GMTS - goldEN OLDIES LINIE 50 4742 Scania S 0 4x2 mit Steintransporter 1 50,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Vintage - Dinky Toys 515 - Ferrari 250 2+2 Gt Pininfarina Coupe - Mint Box,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.108 MG MIDGET COMPETITION CAR,.Milestone Miniatures 1 43 Scale GC65B - Jaguar XK140 Roadster - bluee,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Mini-Champs Mercedes 1000 Limited Vodafone Mclaren Gp 2011,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.American Classics 1 43 Scale AA6TT - 1956 Oldsmobile Super 88 Top Up - Cream Red,.SIKU 3117 3119 - Mercedes 2232 Koffer-Sattelzug - MANN Möbel Werbemodell - LKW,.TAMIYA 3 Plastic Toy Car Model Kit set Miniature Military series 1 35 Scale M3,.VW T2a L - White bluee 1 18 Schuco,.Kyosho Samurai Lexus RX 200t F Sports White 1 18 Model Car,. The ScottsdaleDinky Jones Fleetmaster Cantilever Crane, Superb in Good Original Box,1 18 Kyosho Nissan Skyline GTR R32 Skaife Richards 1991 Bathurst Winner,.1 18 GT Spirit Porsche 911 3.2 Liter Speedster in Red GT130 Leather base,. Id.,1 64 DCP KW PPG Industries Dry Van Load,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 911 R (2017) 1 18 Spark 18S236,; AUTOart 79123 Car 1 18 Liberty Walk LB-WORKS Lamborghini Urakane Red Finished,Scratches In The Box Benetton Bmw B186 Berger 1986 Mini-Champs 1 18,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK108X - 1957 Ford Ranchero SFBBC 2005 V.Sattui Winery,. The ScottsdaleMatchbox Superfast No 29 Racing Mini Dark Org-Red IVORY Seats Rare Int LARGE 29,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1970 HEAVY CHEVY -HOT WHEELS-RARE-ORIGINAL LOOSE REDLINE-VHTF- blueESPOILERS,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 43 BMW M6 IAA-Sondermodell Frankfurt 2007 MINICHAMPS limitiert 500 pcs MINT ,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Danbury Mint MIB 1958 Ferrari 250 TR Pontoon Fender Scale 1 24,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1970 Opel Rekord C Caravan Beige 1 18 BoS-Models 034,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 18 Autoart BMW E30 3 series M3 Sport Evolution quite rare, Free UK shipping ,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Schuco Piccolo Beetle Cabriolet + PIN Christmas 2012 wooden crate Age, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Code 3 FDNY Aerialscope Tower Ladder -160 (12730-160), (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Dinky Toys 410 Bedford End Tipper Original MIB ,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 43 BBR C210A Ferrari FXXL EVP Final Worldchampion 2017 car no 70,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 18 AUTOWORLD 1949 MERCURY RAT ROD Sheriff Police Patrol,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheTEKNO 011090 Ac SCANIA 111 CURRIES OF DUMFRIES LTD EDITION 23 OF 100 suit wsi,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.V 1 87 REDLINE MODELS 87RL046 FERRARI 250 GTO ND LE MANS LM 1962 MIB RARE,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,YONEZAWA DIAPET FUSO T29 SEMI REMORQUE D&P 1 35 PROCHE DU NEUF MADE IN JAPAN,Matchbox RW 39A Ford Zodiac peach rare browne Einrichtung mit Box,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast 155 792504 - BMW 3.0 CSL - ETCC Zanvoort 1979,.Porsche 981 Cayman GT4 in 1 18 Scale by Spark,. The HuygheBBR Models 1 43 Ferrari 550 Maranello Alms 2002 Petit Le Mans U.S.A. Bg241,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheRare Colour Corgi Toys No. 241, Ghia L6.4 with Chrysler Engine, - Superb Mint.,.

Hot Wheel Schumacher Ferrari F2002 Marlbgold Specifications,.Minichamps HONDA RC211V–VALENTINO ROSSI– Mit Figur -1ST WIN MOTOGP 2002-1 12,.

Lamborghini Urus, metallic-white, 1 18, MCG,.AUTOart PORSCHE 911 993 CARRERA 1995 green 1 18 78134,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Mercedes Benz S Class Pullman Diecast Model Car 4111,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 18 Dealer Editon BENZ CLS 2018 Die Cast Model,.Alfa Romeo Alfasud Sprint red modelcar LM096 Laudoracing 1 18,.

For example, in Partridge,Rare GAZ Volga 24-02 A23 1 43 Aeroflot Escort,. In Jorgensen, supra,McLaren MP4-12C GT3 Goodwood Festival of Speed 2012 - 1 18 - TrueScale,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.New Blago 1 18 scale Ferrari LaFerrari BR-18-16001 Red Model car Rally Japan,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 18 Ertl - Ford Legends Don & Nicholson 1970 Mustang Lmtd Edition Rarity New,. That is the same situation in this case.2007 Hot Wheels Modern Classics OF 15 92 Ford Mustang -blueE & ANTIFREEZE ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 18 Autoart 79108 Liberty Walk LB-Works Lamborghini Aventador red,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Tin Wizard Mercedes-Benz 230 W153 1938 1 43 Beige (JS),.DIECAST MASTERS DM71016 1 50 INTERNATIONAL HX520 TANDEM TRACTOR WITH XL120,.Saurer 2DM 1 43 Militär Swiss Army LKW 4,9t Auto Cult Arwico ex. Swiss Line,.

Porsche 911 (991II) Gt3 Año Fabricación 2017 Grafito blue Metálico 1 18,.