Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Norev Mercedes Benz AMG GT-R (C190) Coupe GTR Matte Green Model Car 1 18,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals ONE-OFF 1 18 HOT WHEELS ELITE KNIGHT RIDER KITT KNIGHT INDUSTRIES TWO THOUSAND,.MERCEDES-BENZ 300 SL W198 1954 white weiss 1 18 Minichamps 180039006,.HOTWHEELS FERRARI ELITE EDITION 458 ITALIA CHALLENGE RED 18Hot ,.Hot Wheels Redline Classic 1931 Ford gold color,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Audi Tts Roadster Cabriolet 2014 Vegas Yellow Neoscale 1 43 5011410513 Model,.2013 Mercedes-Benz G63 Amg 6x6 in Matt Whiter in 1 18 Scale by AUTOart 76303,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.BoS BOS233 1 18 DODGE RAMCHARGER 4X4 1979 RED WHITE,.Minichamps 1 43 - Bugatti 57C Coupé 1939 green collection Mullin,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 18 AUTOart LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR J (red J METALLIC RED,.Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM10 - 1964 Jensen 2CV8 1 Of 600 Green,.Bburago Special Edition Mercedes-Benz 300 SL 1 18 Air brushed Magic Dawn (JS), Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155 842507 BMW 635 CSi BMW Italia BRNO GP 1984,.Signature 1 18 Scale Diecast 18118 1934 Aston Martin Mark 2 Dark green Model Car,.Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 72721 Saleen Mustang S351 Coupe White,.NEW Corgi CC20401 - Fred Harris & Sons - Southdown Gallopers (Powered). CAROUSEL,.

(6) Franklin Mint Chevrolet Corvettes With Tags,.1 18 Autoart - 81541 Mclaren P1 GTR (Gloss White Red Stripes) 2015,.Ferrari F60 America Spider 2014 60Th Anniv. Usa red Corsa BBR 1 43 BBRC182F Mo,.AJ787 CIJ EUROPARC GROUPE PROJECTEUR ANTI AERIEN RENAULT 2,5T Réf 3 96 BON ETAT,.Vocaloid Hatsune Miku BMW Z4 2011 Series Champion Ver. (Good Smile Company),.

1 18 MOTORBOX EXOTO PORSCHE 959 DIECAST WHITE,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Jaguar F-type R Coupe’ Firesand Metallic Top Speed 1 18 Model,.Matchbox Superfast Nr. 11B Flying Bug redmetallic silverne Bodenplatte in Box,.Abingdon Classics 1 43 Scale AC1A - 1958 MGA 1500 Roadster - Red,Road Kings Scania LBT 141 ASG 1976 bluee yellow Neu & OVP 1 18,.Land Speed Record car Stanguellini COLIBRI' 1963 scala 1 43 ASSEMBLATO,.

French Dinky 512 Leskokart Midjet Kart. bluee Red. Near-Mint Boxed. 1960's,.Acme 1 18 Scale Diecast - A1801806 1968 Shelby GT350 Special order WT 6066,.1970 Mercedes-Benz C111-II orange-black 1 18 BoS-Models 168,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Minichamps 1 18 Scale Model Car 155 788601 - 1978 Ford Capri 3.0 - Yellow,.

LS Collectibles 1985 BMW ALPINA B7 White in 1 18 Scale New Release ,. We agree in part.

New Minichamps 1 43 Red Bull Racing TAG Heuer RB12 D.Ricciardo Russian GP 2016,.Porsche 911 Turbo S 3.6 Minichamps 1 43 Very rare (30 years 911),.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.SUBARU IMPREZA WRC (N.5 RALLY PORTUGAL 2001) - AUTOART 1 18,.TOYOTA Celica T18 4x4 Safari Rallye 1993 Winner Kankkunen D Top Marques 1 18,.(Gok ) 1 18 Autoart Porsche 917K Nip,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; MINICHAMPS 1 18 - 150 089002 FORD CAPRI 1969 - blueE METALLIC,.BMW M1 Procar BMW Motorsport Procar Series 1979 - 1 12 - Minichamps,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, New Blago 1 18 scale Ferrari 458 Special Red BR-18-16002 Model car Japan,; Minichamps Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse Krankenwagen 1991 1 43 Feuerwehr Aachen (JS),; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1 43 BBR 1952 Ferrari 212 Ibarra SM28C Carr Panam Handmade Model Car Box ,.CMR 1971 Porsche 917 LH h Le Mans Gulf 911 M3 1 18New Rare Find ,Brooklin CSV13 - 1934 Miller – La Salle Arte sizedo Entrenador Funeral,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Opel Rekord C Coupé 1966 - 1 18 - Minichamps,.

2017 Audi A4L TFSI Sline Red 1 18 Dealer Edition FAW1005R,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast L2972 Ferrari 250 GTO Candy Red,.Matchbox Lesney Moko Rare Apple Green Hillman Minx Diecast Car,.Ural 43202 (PM-102B) AC-40, red white, Likino-Dulevo, 1 43, Start Scale Models,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Porsche 754 T7 1960 - Autocult 1 43 03 333pcs in Box 36708,; Porsche 911 Turbo Set 40 Years Anniversary 1 43 MINICHAMPS WAP0200120E,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 18 AUTOart 78166 Porsche 911 (991) GT3 RS (white dark grey wheels) 2016,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Ixo model GT214 CHEVROLET CORVETTE C7 Z06 2017 ARCTIC WHITE 1 18 Modellino,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Autoart Lamborghini Gallardo LP550-2 Balboni White 74635,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Ferrari Testarossa 1 8 Pocher,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Minichamps 1 43 Scale - 439 360002 Mercedes Benz O 3500 Bus Deutsche Bundesbahn,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Hakotra Long Red Completed Product,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.108 MG MIDGET COMPETITION CAR,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 067022 Porsche 911 GT3 2017 orange,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.GMP Ford Mustang Shelby GT350 1965 Red 1 18 A1801802R,.

RAE Models 1 43 Scale Model Car KE003C - 1930 MG M Type - Red,.HOTWHEELS 1 18 - M0522 FERRARI F333 SP - DOYLE-RISI RACING 1999,.Emblem ,badge , Logo Ferrari,.1 18 TSM Truescale Model Honda NSX GT2 Lemans Winner 1995,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Kyosho 1 18 Scale - 08112B Morgan Plus 8 Super Sports bluee,.

1 18 AUTOart - MERCEDES BENZ AMG GT-S (DESIGNO DIAMOND WHITE BRIGHT),.Otto 1 18 Scale Resin Model OT195 - Opel Kadett GTE Monte Carlo Rally 1976,.Toyota 86 Gt Rhd Asian Version grey Autoart 1 18 Aa78772 Modellino Diecast,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, TRAX TRL1B Holden FJ Special Sedan - Satin Green with Trentham Green Roof,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Rare Mercedes O 317 K bus 1966 1 43 Minichamps 439033280,.Sun Star H2910 2910 1 24 London Transport Routemaster Opentop Bus Sightseeing NM,.HobbyJapan HJ1804BR 1 18 Honda Prelude Si BA5 1987 Phoenix Red,.NANNI BELT 95 38 VINTAGE BELT - SPECIAL EDITION - ITALY - EXTREMELY RARE .,.CORGI GS 38-321-322-323 MONTE CARLO ORIGINAL GOODLIGHT PLAYWORN CARS GOOD SET,.

Kit OM Leoncino Trasporto Ferrari GTO Targa Florio 1964 - IV Model Factory 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.MakeUp VISION VM116D 1 43 Porsche 911 993 GT2 Option equipment 1996 Signal Green,.1 24 Danbury Mint 1957 Chevy Pro Street Super Comp Dragster, Breathless,. The Partridge1 18 Minichamps 180862911 BMW M1 Procar - 24H Du Mans 1986,.1 18 AUTOART 80517 2005 SUPER GT ZENT CERUMO TOYOTA SUPRA NEW,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 792950 - BMW M1 Procar Series 1979 Walkinshaw,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Lamborghini Gallardo LP570 Supertrofeo 2011 Monocerus White 1 18 74693 AUTOART, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale diecast car - K8727 Ferrari 250 GTO Red Model Car,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Vintage Mercury 1 43 appx Diecast - Nr.50 Mercedes Benz 230SL Safari White,.1 18 Audi R8 n°4 Nurburgring 2014 1 18 • Spark 18SG009,PartridgeElite Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano Pininfarina 1 18 Model,.LONE STAR VAUXHALL FIRENZA ORIGINAL CLEAN EXAMPLE,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, TEK65800 - DAF XF 105 SSC 6x4 Avec remorque citerne 3 Essieux AVIA - 1 50, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, PEUGEOT 306 GTi PROCAR 24H DE SPA 1998 MINI RACING Kit Monté 1 43,; Goggomobil Ts250 Coupe 1957 Red Ivory Schuco 1 18 SH0082 Model,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, HYUNDAI H-100 1 37 DIECAST MODEL VINTAGE BUS DEALER WERBE MODELL RARE SELTEN , (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, NZG 1 50 SCALE MERCEDES-BENZ UNIMOG U 5000 MODEL BN 9113, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeTriple 9 1 18 Scale Resin - T9-1800108 Honda Civic E9 JACCS JICC 1991,.

Matchbox 1-75 Serie 12B Land Rover olivgreen gekniffene Achsen top in B Box,.1 18 GT SPIRT Koenig Countach turbo, Clarke's negligent act.TRIUMPH TR6 cabriolet green anglais 1 18,.1 18 AUTOart NISSAN 2004 JGTC GT500 CALSONIC IMPUL Z RARITÄT §,.Brand Accord Euro R 1 43 Scale Car,.


The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, SMTS 1 43 Scale Built Kit Model Car CL31 - Jaguar XJ6 Series 1 - Green,Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast Model Car - 1969 Triumph TR6 - Red,. In Noska,Minichamps 1974 Fiat X1 9 Yellow with Openings LE 504pcs 1 18NewSO HOT WHEW ,.GT SPIRIT 1 18 SCALE MERCEDES-AMG GT-R FAB DESIGN AREION WHITE,.PROVENCE TALBOT GRAND SPORT 1959 - blueE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - RARE - 23,.FRANKLIN MINT. Ford Mustang GTA 1967. 1 24. REF B11E016 NEW, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Century Dragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - 2012 Toyota GT86 - White,.RARO modellino HINO CONTESSA 1300 COUPE' DIAPET model car made japan YONEZAWA,.Matchbox SF Nr. 55D Ford Cortina red, Glow windows, browne Einrichtung in Box,.Bentley Continental GT 2016 RHD Verdant 1 16 Scale Paragon 92888R,. Id., p 923.

Porsche 935, No.8, Porsche Kremer, 24h Daytona, 1 43, Minichamps,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Ford Model T A Luftpumpe Messing 7000154 Dachbodenfund,Hpi-racing 1 43 Subaru Impreza WRC 2006 Toshi Arai Memorial Set Limited,.Aston Martin V8 Vantage Volante built 1977 bluee 1 18 GT-SPIRIT,.Microworld 2K04 DIORAMA SEPANG 2000 VITTORIA FERRARI,.Rolls Royce Camargue gold 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.( GOK ) 1 18 AUTOart Hennessey Venom GT NEU OVP,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK174 - 1954 Hudson Hornet Sedan Spring Pasture Green,.1 43 Minichamps AMG Mercedes C DTM 94 Die Sieger ,. The parties Siku V281 Magirus Deutz M250 D22 FK 6x4 LKW Boxed,.

Range Rover L405 TDV8 4.4 V8 White Vogue Detailed Diecast Model 1 18 Welly GT,.1964 Opel Diplomat A V8 Beige Metallic 1 18 BoS-Models 027,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, VINTAGE DINKY TOYS NO.264- FORD FAIRLANE R.C.M.P. PATROL CAR N.MINT IN BOX,; Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 Standard Version (1973) Diecast Model Car 78057, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]


Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, GT Spirit 1 18 Scale GT727 Porsche 911 993 RWB Evo purple Resin sealed Model Car,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 43 Toyota Land Cruiser 40 Series Century Dragon,.RARE ISRAEl police car bomb disposal unit SCALE1 32 savana MODEL toy Beste gif,.Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM25 - 1948 Morris Eight Series E 1 Of 600 -Maroon,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,SunStar SS5184 PONTIAC BONNEVILLE OPEN CONgreenIBLE 1959 IVORY 1 18 Modellino,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Lamborghini Huracan Lp580-2 Rwd Spider 2016 Cepheus bluee LOOKSMART 1 43 LS464E M,.Paragon 1 18 Scale diecast PA-98342 - Jaguar Lightweight E Type Sutcliffe,.Porsche 911 Turbo Tipo 930 - 1977 - Indian Red - Minichamps 1 43,.WSI 10057 Ocean Traders Liebherr LTM 1050-3.1 Mobile Wheel Crane 1 50,.Auto Art 1 18 Porsche 911 Gt3R,. The ScottsdaleMinimarque 43 1 43 Scale Model Car US11B - 1964 Studebaker Avanti II - White,PERFEX PERF216 RENAULT MASTER TDF 2013 VITTEL,.Alfa Romeo Duetto Giro D'Italia van Mebetoys A-65 1 43 30241,. Id.,Looksmart LS476C FERRARI 488 CHALLENGE red SCUDERIA 1 43 Modellino,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ertl 1 18 Scale - 7459 1956 Austin Healey 100-Six bluee white,; ACTION MODELS FORD FOCUS WRC 1999 McRAE greyT 18,Minichamps 1 18 Scale - 100 139461 Bentley Continental Flying Spur 2005 White,.TEKNO- MERCEDES ACTROS VAN DE STEEG - TEKNO- NEW,. The ScottsdaleMODELLINI SET TRIBUTE TO HEYER MERCEDES BENZ 300 SEL 6.8 AMG 1971 CON SLS GT3 20,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, FIAT ABARTH 1600 OT - 1964 1 18 RESIN MODEL LAUDORACING-MODELS LM105B41,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Ignition model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-X (KGC10) gold Resin Model IG0632,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM77 - 1957 Riley 1.5 Saloon - Damask Red,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 4x Schuco 7726 Unimog U1600 red Neu OVP 1 32 ideal für Wiederverkäufer & Diorama,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Lamborghini Aventador Liberty Walk 2015 Red AUTOART 1 18 AA79108 Model,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, MATCHBOX 1 75 American Football League (1990) Complete Set of 28 MB38 Ford Vans, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, KK Siku 3477 SSC Special Model MB Trac 1500 bluee Limited 1 3 2 2017, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, DINKY 500 011500 CITROEN 2CV AZA 1966 MIB 9 EN BOITE L@@K,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeIgnition Model Nismo R32 Ig0959 Nissan Skyline Gt-R,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, SUPER RARE 1 43 Spark Citroen WTCC 3CAR set CITROEN TOTAL WTCC 2014 F S JAPAN,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMini Champs Mercedes Fw 40 F. Massa 2017,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.NZG MODELLE 178 TELESCOP CRAN COLES HYDRA HUSKY 36 40TSC - YELLOW 1 60 - GCIB,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,AUTOart Auto Art outlets 1 18 Lamborghini Gallardo LP550-2 Valentino Baruboni,Club Bialbero JAG 365 COFANETTO JAGUAR E + 2 MECCANICS,.1954 Mercedes Benz 180 Universal bluee by BoS Models 1 18 Scale New LE of 1000,.TOGI 9527 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA 1300 SPIDER 1955 - RED 1 23 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,. The HuyghePlanex Collection Spark 1 43 Mini Moke Lotus 47 gold Leaf Japan,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 43 ignition model - IG1597 Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-R (PGC10) Red,.

WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS 46 1959 FORD GALAXIE SKYLINER RED,.Dinky Toys supertoys 985 Trailer for Car Carrier in its ORIGINAL BOX....,.

MINICHAMPS Scala 1 18 Porsche 904 GTS 1964´Nürburgring 1000Km,.Negotiation Ok Ferrari F50 1 18 Size Open,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Wsi scania liebherr LTF 1060.4.1 1 50 IN OVP,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMercury n°2 - FIAT 1800 berline - 1 43,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 836691 - Porsche 956K 200 Von Nurnberg 1983,.

For example, in Partridge,Plymouth Barracuda A1806108 mit Kunststoffhaube plastic bonnet GMP ACME 1 18 ,. In Jorgensen, supra,RECOLLECTIONS Hand-built Model - Hillman Imp California 313 500 1 43 BRITISH a3,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.AUTOart 1 18 Liberty Walk LB-WORKS Lamborghini Huracan White finished product,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Porsche 356 A in bluee Metallic Diecast Model in 1 18 Scale by Schuco 450031200,. That is the same situation in this case.CORGI 440 FORD CONSUL CORTINA SUPER ESTATE CAR-NICE EXAMPLE ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.FERRARI TESTAROSSA Mondial Foot Italia 90 1 18 d BURAGO 3019IT voiture miniature,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Tecnomodel 1 18 TM1801H Aston Martin V12 Zagato limited 200 pcs,.Ignition model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 GT-X (GC10) Red IG0634 Resin Model,.AUTOART 1 18 73571 JAGUAR XJ-S CABRIOLET WHITE,.

1 43 105181 DIP MODELS GAZ KI-51 Van Box Photocamera Limited edition,.