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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
WAX02100006 Porsche 911 991 Carrera Carrera Carrera GTS Club Coupe 2015 GT Spirit 1 18 NEU 5d8aa7
Triumph TR7 Congreenible 1 18 Cult Scale RESIN Model,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Mint In Box Corgi Toys 322 Rover 2000 in Monte-Carlo Trim,.CMR 1 18 Scale CMR070 Ferrari 340 Berlinetta Mexico Carrera Mexicana 1952,.Porsche 911 RSR 2.1 Turbo T Practice 1000km Spa 1974 Müller, van Lennep 1 18,.Opel Kadett van Gama 461 Germany 1 20 in Box 12653,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1 43 IG model 0580 Diesel KIKI Skyline () 1989 JTC,.1 18 Mclaren MP4-12C, metallic orange MINICHAMPS 110133020,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Crossway Models 1 43 Scale CM22 -1936 Austin Ruby Mk II - Maroon,.Sunstar 1 18 Diecast - 04351 Subaru Impreza Wales Rally Prodrive inc Team Cap,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Spark 1 18 Scale Resin - A06MC1-18 Aston Martin AMR-One Gulf LM 2011,.Kyosho samurai 1 18 Lexus GS F bluee Resin Model KSR18017BL JP,.LOT DE 14 VOITURES DINKY TOYS JEEP AUSTIN SEVEN COUNTRYMAN UNIC ESTEREL C1617, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 18 Norev Mustang + Jet Ski Cesam by Paredech Concept - Rarity §,.Vintage Dinky toys - VOLKSWAGEN 1500 - 1 43 Dinky toys 144 MIB,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 766465 - Porsche 934 24Hr Le Mans 1976,.Old Cars 1 43 Nr. 56100 Fiat 642 NR2 Autotransporter Maserati OVP,.

Vintage Laurie Toy (Hong Kong) Plastic Friction Horse Transporter BOXED ,.Set of 8 Miniature Diecast Bicyles,.Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM14 - 1958 Riley 1.5 1 Of 600 bluee,.Ferrari 500 Mondial, RHD, No.516, Mille Miglia, 1 43, Art Model,.1 18 Highway 61 1968 Barracuda Mighty Miss Mopar,.

1 18 AUTOART 78056 1973 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RS 2.7 YELLOW NEW,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.MG MODEL 1 43 Ferrari 365 GTB 488 Ch.18095 24h Le Mans 1975 Art. BB43006,.Stadt im Modell 4004B U-Bahn DT4.5 188 Hamburger Hochbahn DC Gleichstrom,.TEKNO 64813 Scania R Highline, Kippauflieger 1 50,Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale CSV26 - 1937 Superior-Pontiac Provident Ambulance,.Miniabloc Jouets ADOR Poitiers Coffret Caravane ELECTRIQUE téléguidée CIJ rare,.

Infiniti Skyline Q50 resin 1 18 Kyosho KSR18005W,.PORSCHE 906E BP WORLD RECORD RUNS MONZA 1967 1 18 MODEL BY MINICHAMPS 100676100,.CORGI TOYS M.G.B ( MGB ) GT 1 43 OVP MINT,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

New Biante Ford XB Falcon Hardtop John Goss Special Apollo bluee Over White 1 18,.

1987 Volkswagen Passat Variant GT Syncro B2 bluee by BoS Models LE of 1000 1 18,. We agree in part.

Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM28818F - Triumph Herald - Falken 1 Of 50,.DINKY TOYS S.H.A.D.O UFO INTERCEPTOR CODE 3 MINT GERRY ANDERSON,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Mercedes W116 450 SEL 6,9 Servopumpe Pumpe Servo 1164601780,.1 18 Autoart Lmborghini Reventon,.Mazda Cosmo Sport Bianco Autoart 1 18 Aa75931 Modellino Auto Diecast,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Minichamps 1 18 scale 150 084100 Ford Escort Mk2 1.3 (LHD) 1975 orange,.Bmw M1 Hommage 2008 orange Met Norev 1 18 80432413752,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Autograph Sign Nür Lfa Lexus Ebbro 1 43,; CORGI TOYS 276 Oldsmobile Tgoldnado. Lime-gold version.Scarce. Excellent plus,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

BMW E30 M3 OTTO 1.18TH,.1953 Chrysler D Elegance red Oscuro 1 18 BoS-Models 265,La Mini mineria 1 18 Scale Diecast MMCBA Fiat 500 IL Bialbero Coast to Coast,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Road King Scania LBT 141 1976 ASG Green White Re 1 18 180012,.

SUPER RARE 1 43 Spark Citroen WTCC 3CAR set CITROEN TOTAL WTCC 2014 F S JAPAN,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.GT Spirit BMW M6 (F06) Grand Coupe San Marino bluee Resin Car Model 1 18,.1 18 GMP, 1966 Can-Am Champion John Surtees Team Surtees Lola T70 Spyder,.BMW e82 1er M-Coupe 2011 white modelcar 110020022 Minichamps 1 18,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Buessing Lu 11 16 Schenker Minichamps 1 43 499073924 Model,; 1 18 GT Spirit GT722 Mercedes CLA 45 AMG orangeArt Edition. Grey,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 32 bus No.25 Tokyo Metropolitan Transportation Authority,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Mercedes-AMG GT3 Presentation Car in Grey by AUTOart,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Matchbox Superking Big MX Set 5 Quarry Site & Traxvacator USA Version,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

RARE RED Paul's Model Art 1968-72 Mercedes-Benz 300 SEL 6.3 Minichamps NRFB ,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Autoart 1 18 BMW E 46 M3 Coupe red red ohne Box 510740,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.AUTOart 1 43 Lamborghini Aventador LP700-4 (yellow),.Motormax 1 12 Scale Diecast - 73001 Ford GT Concept Red White Stripes Model Car,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.EBBRO 1 43 REITO MOLA GT-R SUPER GT500 2013 No.1 finished product,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Lamborghini Gallardo Gt3 Fl2 2013 blue Autoart 1 18 AA81359 Model,.

1 18 Norev B66040545 Mercedes 280SE Cabriolet,.Land Speed Record car Stanguellini COLIBRI' 1963 scala 1 43 ASSEMBLATO,.PORSCHE 934 RSR JAGERMEISTER orange 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY SCHUCO 450033500,.WSI 01-2591 Kirscht Scania S Highline + Volume Trailer,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 180 049027 Opel GT 1970 White Red,.

Rai S 2005 Police Headquarters Detective Department Identification Dog,.CORGI MAJOR MODEL No.1117 BRISTOL BLOODHOUND LOADING TROLLEY MINT BOXED,.Revell Mercedes Benz 300 SLR 1 12,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Motor City Classics Ford Model Firemen Tudor Red Rarity §,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.2016 Bentley Continental GT Congreenible Sunburst gold 1 18 Paragon Models 98232,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.154 FORD TAUNUS 17M PERSPEX TOP BOX MIB,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale diecast 180 039008 Mercedes Benz 300SL 1954 Red,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80430148540 BMW M3 E30 DTM 1992 Franz Engstler,.Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80830 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 2007 Spengler,.

AA87181 by AUTOART PORSCHE 908 3 NURBURGRING 1971 18, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.439 FORD D800 SNOW PLOUGH MIB,.Brand Bond Selection Quantum Of Solace Mini-Champs,. The PartridgeDCP Paul Marcotte Farms Peterbilt 379 w Chemical Tanker Trailer 1 64,.Greenlight 1 18 Scale 12983 - 1953 Ford F-100 & Shell Gas Pump - Yellow Red,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale diecast 180 039009 Mercedes Benz 300SL 1954 Yellow,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Acme 1 18 Scale Diecast - A1801823 1966 Shelby GT350H Rent a Racer, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - G9729 Renault R25 F1 Fernando Alonso,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.AUTOART 1 18 PORSCHE 993 CARRERA 1995 RED 78132,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - CMC96 Batman Returns Batmobile,PartridgeGems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC21 - 1958 Jaguar XK150 Coupe - Red,.REI SCHUCO BRAZIL OPEL ADMIRAL 2800 E B913,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Autoart 1 18 Mclaren P1 Gtr Gloss White Red Stripes Composite Model 81541 F S, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Bentley Continental GT RHD 2016 - 1 18 - Paragon Models,; Tekno LKW DAF 106 XF SSC Aerop.Cont-KSZ Maritime 6x2,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Vintage Dinky 575 - Tracteur Panhard ET Semi-Remorque S.N.C.F. - bluee, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 18 2015 NISSAN JUKE-R (GLOSS RED) AUTOart 77457, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeNissan Fairlady Z (S30) 1 18 Ignition Model IG0652,.

1 10 ERTL Harley-Davidson sixteen Motorcycle Die Cast Model,.1972 BMW Turbo en orange Metálico Resina Modelo en 1 18 Escala de Schuco, Clarke's negligent act.Corgi CC15804 Mercedes-Benz Actros (MP4), Fridge Trailer, Dixon Intl. NEW,.Rare Wolseley 18 85 Series III 1948 Lansdowne Models LDM. 42 Brooklin 1 43,.Dinky Toys no. 24L - 2 CV Vespa 400 Boxed,.

Action Juan Montoya Cart Racing Serie 1 18 Scale Car,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Corgi Monte Carlo Cooper S - Red (Non picture box) - B A,Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC18 - 1950 Ford Zephyr Congreenible - Green,. In Noska,Bonus Wheels Hot 1 18 Batman,.BMW M1 E26 Le Mans 1983 Warsteiner Team Brun Von Bayern Wint Minichamps 1 18,.Carrera Servo 132 Porsche 936 Jägermeister 88430 NEW,.Corgi Toys No. 226, Morris Mini-Minor - Superb Mint, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Mercedes L3500, Circus Roncalli, 1 43, Premium ClassiXXs,.DINKY TOYS 549 - BORGWARD ISABELLA Coupè avec direction,.ESF-06437 NZG 1 50 Hydraulik-Bagger H 51 Demag Hafemeister,.1 43 1956 Ford Fierline Stretch Limousine Handmade,. Id., p 923.

Paragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80432244242 BMW 3 Series Touring Alpine White,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, RECOLLECTIONS 1 43 HILLMAN IMP CALIFORNIAN 052 500 WHITE,Dinky Toys 987 A.B.C TV Mobile Control Room Boxed,.771E Rare LBS Retro 6002 Willeme Bonifay 1 43,.1 18 Biante - Ford XY Falcon GTHO Phase III - Jewel Green,.Autoart Nissan Skyline GT R R32 Wangan Midnight Reina 1 18 77411 Grey Metallic,.1961 CHEVROLET CORVAIR Sedan in Green White 1 18 scale model by PREMIUM X,.Revell 08432 NSU 1000 Prinz TT Cup R. Podak mit Zertifikat, 1 18, OVP, K011,.IG0529 ignition model 1 43 Alpha Porsche 962C () 1990 Le Mans Japan NEW,. The parties 1 18 Kengfai Acura NSX bluee,.

(W) TELSALDA Hong Kong Plastic LOTUS ELAN S2 - 25100 MINT,.1 18 1996 Bentley Continental T Redmet Minichamps,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Tekno Denmark Mercedes Benz 280 SL Cabriolet white i.rarer Mercedes Promobox 60´s,; 1 18 Schuco 450031200 Porsche 356a Carrera Coupe 70 Years Porsche bluee, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

ABC176 JAGUAR XK150 BERTONE 1958 - GREEN blueE METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 15,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Minichamps 107123501 1 18 MASERATI BITURBO COUPE 1982 RED,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 18 Minichamps 1977 BMW 320i Warsteiner N°4 DRM Jorg Obermoser Perfetta Scatola,.SUN MOTOR COMPANY 1 48 - 148 - EAST YORKSHIRE SERVICE VEHICLE,.CAT CATERPILLAR 24 MOTOR GRADER W OPERATOR 1 50 MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 85552,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,BOS MODEL BOS124 MERCEDES 300B PININFARINA 1955 BEIGE DARK BROWN 1 18,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Peugeot 404 Diesel Record Car 1 18 Spark S18037 Miniature,.ALPINE A220 LE MANS 1969 Pristine Condition. MINT BNIB OTTO 1 18 OT-157,.Matchbox RW 31B Ford Station Wagon in rarer Farbe yellow in Box,.Gems & Cobwebs 1 43 Scale GC6 - 1958-61 Jaguar Mark IX - Dark bluee,.Corgi 336 Toys James Bond 007 Toyota 2000 GT n mint original box plinth working,. The Scottsdale1968 BMW 2500 E3 gold Metallic 1 18 BoS-Models 349,Hot Wheels TH ‘55 Chevy Bel Air Gasser bluee RARE,.TAMIYA 3 Plastic Toy Car Model Kit set Miniature Military series 1 35 Scale M3,. Id.,Audi Avantissimo Break 2001 Minichamps 440 013010 1 43,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Fujimi Model 1 24 inch Up Series No.99 Subaru Impreza Sti Version IV VI ID-99,; Corgi Monte Carlo Cooper S - Red (Window Box) - B A,2014 BMW i8 eDrive Predonic bluee Paragon Models 97084,. MINIMARQUE '43 AUSTIN ATLANTIC CONgreenIBLE INDIANAPOLIS RECORD MINT BOXED,. The ScottsdaleToyota 86 Gt Rhd Asian Version grey Autoart 1 18 Aa78772 Modellino Diecast,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Carousel 1 1 18 Scale Diecast - 4406 1964 Indianapolis Watson Roadster A.J Foyt,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM13AA - 1965 Humber Sceptre Mk2 - Metallic Green,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PORSCHE 356 AMERICA ROADSTER 1952 WHITE LOOKSMART WAP02000318 1 43 whiteHE,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 AUTOART PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RS 2.7 1973 , orange , NEW , 78054,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Spark 1 43 Lancia LC2 Le Mans 1988 S0658,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Lesney Matchbox Long Haul Peterbilt Kodak Yellow Rare Pre-Pro Convoy, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Vintage - FIAT Abarth 1000 bialbero - 1 43 Mercury Art. 41, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, AUTOart Nissan Skyline GTR (KPGC10) 1 18 87176,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeCARAVANE type AIRSTREAM ALU 1 18,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Kyosho 1 18 Renault Alpine A110 1600S,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheAutoart LAMBORGHINI HURACAN PERFORMANTE 2017 blue CEPHEUS PEARL LIGHT blueE 1 18,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KM23 - Austin Devon Estate - Red,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,AUT0181 by AUTOCULT MINI CLUBMAN ESTATE HL 1 18,Brand Ap-1050 Asphalt Paver Caterpillar 1 50 Scale,.Kings Models 1 43 1948 Ferrari 166 SC Gabriele Besana GP San Martin,.Kyosho Original 1 18 Toyota Crown Hybrid Athlete S bluee Resin Model KSR18001BL,. The Huyghe1968 Chevrolet Nova SS 396 Bill Grumpy Jenkins Peach State 1 18 Scale,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheNorev 1 18 Scale Diecast - 187401 Porsche 962 IMSA Winner Riverside 1985,.

BMW M3 Class Winners Calder WTC 1987 - 1 18 - Minichamps,.78771 Toyota 86 limited Asien Version orange ,1 18 Autoart,.

MILESTONE MINIATURES FIRE TENDER,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 155 841103 Audi Quattro Blomqvist New Zealand 84,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1963 CORGI GS-24 CONSTRUCTOR SET (3 4 TON CHASSIS) VG+ EXC W VG+ EXC BOX,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeKimmeria UDSSR 1 43 KraZ 214 Planen LKW 6x6 Hand Built in Eigenbau - Box,.Ferrari 195 Inter Ghia Red 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,.

For example, in Partridge,OCCASION RARE MERCEDES C36 AMG 1 18 Classe C C36AMG,. In Jorgensen, supra,Porsche 991 GT3 997-2 - White- 1 43 - WAP0200000D - Dealer,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 18 Spark Porsche 918 Spyder Weissach 2014,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Hispano Suiza H6A Victoria Town Car Yellow 1923 (closed) (GLM 1 43 43215001),. That is the same situation in this case.Mercedes Arocs StreamSpace mit 4achs goldhofer Semitieflader Scholpp Neu OVP,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Siku Plastik V66 Borgward 1800 blue mit ski V Serie,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Signature 1 18 Scale Diecast - 18117 Cadillac V16 Fleetwood bluee,.TOYOTA 1 30 scale Prius α mini car model car toy color sample dark bluee,.Tekno Scania 143 Stuart McMurchy 1 50 scale,.

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