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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals GIRLS UND PANZER DER FILM PVC STATUE 1 12 MIHO NISHIZUMI SWIMSUIT 14 CM FIGURE F,.Nendgoldid Yuri Plisetsky Yuri on ICE GSC Authentic USA Figure,.Prefabricated Dragon Ball World Collectible Figure vol.6 Vegeta,.SH Figuarts Tamashi Stage Act Ring Corner Neutral 17cm,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Hatsune Miku [VOCALOID] Nendgoldid Petite Vocaloid ♯01 collection figures alone,.LINE CHARACTER Figure Collection Connie B Toy Japan Hobby Japanese Kids Gift,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.PINK & YELLOW RANGER 6.5 Power Rangers Zeo Legacy figure Megazord BAF Mmpr,.Dragon Ball Super Grandista Resolution of Soldiers Son Goku PVC Statue 28cm,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.DC Icons - Firestorm Action Figure - DC Comics Free Shipping ,.Studio Ghibli Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind fox squirrel stuffed Japan,.Hatsune Miku Nendgoldid Petit Christmas piano cake Ver. Japan NEW, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

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EVA-01 (Evangelion) Yamashita color LIMITED EDITION - Kaiyodo Revoltech 004,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Statuette GOOD SMILE RACING VOCALOID HATSUNE MIKU Racing 2011 -SEGA PM Figure,.FIGURA THE LEGEND OF ZELDA TWILIGHT PRINCESS ZANT FIGURE NUEVO MINT,.KAIYODO Kure Kure Takora Soft Vinyl Figure 170cm Japanese TV Character Figure,orange red Touken Ranbu Online Uguisumaru Nendgoldid Action Figure,.Bizarre Adventure. JoJo DX Collection JoJo figure vol.9 DIO Dio awakening ver JP,.

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I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

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POWER PITCHER Beer-Bong Premium Party Pitcher 2 Liter with handle hose ,. We agree in part.

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A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Nendgoldid Darling In The Frankis Zero Two Non-Scale ABS & PVC Painted Movable,.Wing Sexy Commando Gaiden Masaru Hananakajima figma Action Figure,.1 72 scale well Painted 10 British Infantry Waterloo AIRFIX Based Lying down,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Figma Remodeling Parts Imaizumi Kage Touhou Project Garage Kit Treasure Festa,.Dragonball Z DBZ Collection ss VEGETTO PVC figure 8 ,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Nendgoldid Avengers Infinity War Captain America Infinity Ed. Good Smile Company,; Good Smile orange red OR Nendgoldid Yuri on Ice Yuri Figure Yuri Katsuki JP,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

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DRAGON BALL GALS FIGURA BULMA 10 CM- ANIME FIGURE ENDING VER. IN BOX,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Naruto Shippuden Deva Path Pain PVC Action Figure Collectible Model Toy,.Batman The Animated Series - Commissioner Gordon Figure - DC Comics Free Shippi,.1989 VEGETTO DRAGON BALL Z ACTION ANIME SUPER SIZE 16 WARRIOR SERIES FIGURE,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 4 BOXES DISCONTINUED 1 72 REVELL NAPOLEONIC FRENCH CHASSEURS & PRUSSIAN INFANTRY,; Queen's Blade Alleyne Nendgoldid 176a FREEing originale,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Space Battleship Yamato 2202 Ai no Senshi color-coded Plastic Model Japan,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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TAITO PVC STATUE DOREAMON MOVIE BIRD OF JAPAN 2016 FIGURE 30 CM NEW,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

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COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

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This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Kaiyodo Revoltech Takeya 008 Gegege no Kitaro Rat Mouse Man Action Figure,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Dragon Ball Z super 30th anime anniversary SON GOKOU bluee hair figure,.Figma Virtua Fighter Sara Bryant Non Scale ABS & PVC Painted Movable Figure,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.STAR WARS BUSTE XL COLLECTION STORMTROOPER N°2 CERTIFICAT FRANCE 2018,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.SAEKANO HOW TO RAISE A BORING GIRLFRIEND - ERIRI SPENCER SAWAMURA FIGURE 12cm,.

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Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Magical Girl Lyrical StrikerS Teana Lanster (1 8 Scale PVC) Japan,.

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The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, How to Raise a Boring suit PVC figure figures doll toy collection model new,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.DBZ Dragonball Dragon Ball Z Bola de card Japan manga anime B,.FIGURINE ACCEL WORLD INFINITE BURST KUROYUHINE SPECIAL FIGURE,.Kaiyodo Revoltech Fraulein Series 004 Sweet Dreams Pocco,.1st lottery One Piece Memories 2 E Award Sumo Ink Shanks Figure All 1,.STATUETTE EVANGELION MARI (Figurine de 20cm) SEGA EVA RACING Prize PM Figure,.

Kaiyodo TENJO-TENGE NO.4 NATSUME AYA BOME Special Painted, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.New Nendgoldid Super Sonico Tiger Hoodie Ver. Figure Japan F S J5994,.FAULT - FIGURA AI SAEKI SAEKI AI FIGURE 14cm (SEXY ADULT FIGURE),. The PartridgeKotobukiya Kancolle Inazuma Cu-poche Figure,.Popy Dynamic YAMATO Hero Collection Robot GETTER 1 Die Cast Chogokin Shogun,.Figure complex Star Wars Revoltech X-Wing X Wing about 150 mm ABS & PVC painted,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Vulcanlog 009 Yu-Gi-Oh REVO YUGI MUTO Action Figure Kaiyodo Japan, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.FW GUNDAM CONVERGE SELECTION LIMITED COLOR 8 pcs Candy Toys & gum,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.TURNING MECARD - MEGA DRAGON,.ONE PIECE - FIGURA MONKEY D LUFFY FIGHTING VER. MONKEY D LUFFY FIGURE 20cm,PartridgeCoffret N°7 Puzzle La basize des Planetes Tf1 Orli Jouet 1979 Vintage,.Dragon ball movie collection vegetto vegeto vegito figure figura bola de drac,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, NEW Nendgoldid 139 Magical Marine Pixel Maritan Army-san Figure Hobby F S, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Yuma Tonami Pink Maid Ver. 1 8 Scale PVC Figure Kotobukiya Shop Exclusive,; Louis Marx WW2 USSR Infantry 41 Figures,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, DBZ DRAGON BALL Z FIGURAS MR SATAN Y MASCOTA BEE JAKKS IRWIN, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, CREAMY MAMI ANGEL WALLET PORTAFOGLIO CARD PIERred COLLECTION NEW INCANTEVOLE, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeONE PIECE FIGURINE KING OF ARTIST CHARLOTTE KATAKURI,.

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The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Fate Grand Order SSS Servant figure Lancer Sukasaha third return,McFarlane Wallace et Gromit et la Malédiction du Lapin Garou Victor Quartermaine,. In Noska,FATE APOCRYPHA- FIGURA JUANA DE ARCO 22 CM-ANIME FIGURE RULER, JEANNE d'ARC BOX,.Dragonball Z Scultures Big Budokai Goku Colosseum Vol 5 Statue PVC,.Good Smile Company Nendgoldid 948 Comic Girls Kaoruko Moeta Figure New from Japan,.KEUMAYA HYPER NURSE Figura de Acción 20 cm, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.DRAGON BALL FIGURA SUPER SAIYAN 3 BROLY 17 CM- HYBRID GRADE 6,7 WITH BOX,.Legacy of Revoltech LR-021Queen's Blade Angel of Light Nanael Figure KAIYODO NEW,.Sega Evangelion Rei Ayanami & Asuka Shikinami Langley PVC Figure Limited Edition,.Figurine One Piece Sogeking en pvc 15 cm,. Id., p 923.

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In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, MOBILE SUIT GUNDAM WING GUNDAM-W GUNDAM WING - RELENA PEACECRAFT FIGURE 19cm,Gintama Gintoki Sakata & Scooter Limited Figure japan new,.He man Maitre D Armes Musclor MOTU MATTEL 1981 made in Taiwan,.Legacy of Revoltech LR-012 Mobile Police Patlabor the Movie Type X-0 Zero Figure,.MOTU Tung Lashor Masters Of The universe Complet,.Free Shipping from Japan Authentic Figma Sayaka Miki uniform Magi Madoka Magica,.One Piece Figure 18cm Vinsmoke Reiju Anime Sleeve Luffy Action Figure PVC,.Shinkansen deformation Robo Shinkarion Gacha figure Battle Hen [all thr... Japan,. The parties GO NAGAI ROBOT COLLECTION 40 GENERALE HARDIAS IL GRANDE MAZINGA Z FIGURE,.

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Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Vocaloid 01 Miku Hatsune Figure 1 8 Good Smile Japan,; DRAGON BALL GOKU LOTE FIGURAS JUGUETES DE GOMA JOB LOT RUBBER DRAGON BALL TOYS, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

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Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Minecraft Steve Vinyl Figure 16 Cm. JINX,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Himouto Umaru-chan - Umaru Nendgoldid Action-Figur Good Smile Company,.Good Smile Company Nendgoldid 802 Your Name. Mitsuha Miyamizu Figure,.Good Smile Kantai Collection Kancolle Suzuya Nendgoldid Action Figure Japan,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,DRAGON BALL SHENRON FIGURE + 7 BOULES DE CRISTAL + EXHIBITOR,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Fleet collection Kankore spar premium figure Nagato Drying PVC New from Japan,.Rilakkuma Seasonal Terrarium BOX Item 1 BOX = 6 pieces, all 6 types New,.ONE PIECE FRUTTO DEL DIAVOLO RUFY ACE GUM-GUM FLAME-FLAME Foco Foco gom gom mare,.NEW figma 201 Hidamari Sketch x Honeycomb Sae Figure Max Factory F S,.Mobile Suit Gundam 0080 [SIDE MS] RX-78NT-1 Gundam NT-1 ver. A.N.I.M.E.,. The ScottsdaleJOJO - M. Abdur & des Magiers Red ArtFX Action Zahlen Set Kotobukiya,Sentinel Strange adventure resolution of Jojo Magnet holder or good,.NARUTO SHIPPUDEN - FIGURA NARUTO UZUMAKI UZUMAKI NARUTO FIGURE 24cm,. Id.,Wonder Woman Invisible Jet Dorbz Ride,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, FIGURINE DRAGON BALL Z super saiyan GOKU 18 cm,; Figma Osomatsu Mr. Matsuno Osomatsu Figure Japan Import Toy Hobby,Doctor Strange - Mr. Potato Head - PPW Toys Free Shipping ,.Macross SQ Figure Sheryl & Mirene,. The Scottsdale15cm Dragon Ball Z Figures Shenron Dragonball Set Esferas Del Dragon 7pcs 3.5cm,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Happinet FIGUAX Toriko vol.4 Gourmet Hunter Four Heavenly Kings Sunny,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Zoids Bio Crusher & Wind Dancer(PU-A for Sword Wolf,Rainbow Jerk,Murasame Liger),. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Deja Vu B award all one-Feirisu pussy lottery theater version Steins Gate load a,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, HGBD Gundam Build Divers Gundam Double O Sky HWS (Transam Infinity Mode),; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, LUPIN THE III LEGACY OF REVOLTECH DAISUKE JIGEN LR-026 LUPIN 4537807110237,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Good Smile Hatsune Miku Nendgoldid Action Figure Absolute HMO Edition, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, , US Marine corps set, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Figma Girls & Panzer West living uniform clothing ver. Non scale scale ABS & PVC,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeTHE super alloy GT-03 Getter 1,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Re Zero Starting Life In Another World Beatrice Nendgoldid Action Figure W T,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDiorama seat FREE space set,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Good Smile Company Nendgoldid Racing Miku 2018 Ver.,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Dragon Ball Z Rare Super Collection - Piccolo Daimaoh Vol 6,GANTZ GANTZ O - FIGURA ANZU YAMASAKI SAMURAI SWORD ANZU YAMASAKI FIGURE,.Figma ARCHETYPE - He - Flesh Colour Ver. Figma Action Figure Max Factory,.ONE PIECE FIGURA SANJI 22 CM-ANIME FIGURE SANJI AS BIG HORN FIGUARTS ZERO IN BOX,. The HuygheAuthentic Pokemon Red and Green Nendgoldid,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheLittle Armory LD015 shooting range B Plastic,.

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For example, in Partridge,Doctor Strange Collar Colgante Tiempo De Piedra Ojo de Agamotto LED Luz Y Caja,. In Jorgensen, supra,Cells first embodiment Ball Z prefabricated DX Dragon Creatures 1 Figures,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Shfiguarts Cure Moonlight Super Silhouette Heart Catch Pretty Soul Web Store,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Free Shipping from Japan Authentic Nendgoldid Kuma Persona 4 Good Smile Company,. That is the same situation in this case.Shikigami no Shiro Niigi G. bluee Figure 1 8 Good Smile,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Nendgoldid Haikyu HAIBA Rev & Yaku Morisuke Action Figure Set w Parts,. Detroit Edison, supra.

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