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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Nendgoldid Touken Ranbu Online Shokudaikiri Mitsutada Good Smile Company JP New,.Robot Spirit Pacific Rim [SIDE JAEGER] Saber Athena Approximately 160 mm,.Star Wars C-3PO humanoid droid Sega 1 10 scale Premium Figure Figurine Japan,.The first lottery premium girls & panzer Shimada Arijyu Tank From japan,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.NEW Rider Eguzeido double loaded DX Gajah Konki Thrasher,.BDS Action Figure Marvel Comics Amazing Spider-Man Series Carnage Iron Studios,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Separately (the day of Sagittarius) melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya Petit 03 Har,.FATE STAY NIGHT SABER LILY 16 CM-FIGURE LINGERIE STYLE blueE VER 1 8 BOX 6 ,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Iguana Girl Vinyl Figure Japan Fewture Comic Character Series,.DRAGON BALL - RIGHT Figure Dramatic Showcase 3rd Vol. 1 Son Goku Super Saiyan,.Puella Magi Madoka Magica the Movie queue Posh Miki Sayaka NONScale PVC painted, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

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SEGA premium figure japan anime K-ON HTT cute girl WINDMILL HIRASAWA,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.DRAGON BALL 43 statuette personaggi ACTION FIGURE Sayan Goku lotto 43 DRAGONBALL,.NEW Cu-poche ORE NO IMOUTO GA KONNANI KAWAII WAKE GA NAI Kirino Kousaka Figure,.DRAGON BALL Z - SET 8 FIGURAS MAJIN BUU, PICCOLO, ETC 8 FIGURES SET 13-16cm,Good Smile Nendgoldid Petit Miku Dayo Character Vocal Series 01 Hatsune Miku,.PRINCESS OF DARKNESS 1 6 UNPAINTED UNASSEMBLED RESIN MODEL KIT,.

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I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

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A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Max Factory Kancolle Fubuki Figma Action Figure Animation Version OCT158833,.Nendgoldid Touken Ranbu - ONLINE - Yamato Mamoru stable non-scale ABS & PVC paint,.Garbage Pail Kids - Clark Can't Pop Vinyl - FunKo Free Shipping ,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Furyu Fluidigm 7 Inch Cardcaptor Sakura Kinomoto Fine Quality Figure,.NEW Ghost In The Shell Major Motoko Kusanagi Anime Manga Action Figure McFarlane,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, WORKING - Nendgoldid Spielset Wagnaria B set - Kitchen Phat Company,; Fist of the North Star 2000X KENSHIRO & RAOH Figures set Free Shipping,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

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A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.MCFARLANE FEAR THE WALKING DEAD COLOR TOPS MADISON,.Nendgoldid Saber Miyamoto Musashi Fate Series Good Smile Company,.MARVEL SELECT - CAPTAIN AMERICA,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Gutterhead-Adult Party Game Dirty Drawings.Funny Board Game Drinking Hen party,; GOOD SMILE - Nendgoldid 737 Kantai Collection Kancolle Nagato Figure,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, S.H. Figuarts Dragon Ball Kid Goku Action Figure,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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orange red Touken Ranbu Online Okanehira Nendgoldid Action Figure,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

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This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

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This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Action Figure Vampire Hunter Leila et sa moto Epoch,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.LAST EXILE - 1 72 Last Exile Tatiana's Vanship & Fam's Vespa Model Kit Hasegawa,.Dragon Ball Super In Flight Fighting Super Saiyan bluee Vegito PVC Figure,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.EVANGELION - REI AYANAMI - SEA SIDE VERSION FIGURINE - RESINE - Kotobukiya,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Dragon Ball Super Dragon Stars Super Saiyan future trunks Figure,.

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Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.The Amazing Spider-man ver.1 Spiderman Marvel Avengers Sega Prize,.

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The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Good Smile Company Nendgoldid 409 Fate stay night Rin Tosaka Rsale Figure NEW,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.TINKER BELL FESTIVAL FIGURE ATYPE 14 CM-ANIME FIGURE SEXY VOL. 2 NO BOX,.SHF S.H. Figuarts Anime Dragon Ball Z Figure Super Saiyan Majin Vegeta PVC Actio,.Tokyo Mew Mew Action Figure Pudding Fong Doll 8.7 Inch,.Robot Spirits SIDE MS New Gundam Japan,.Ghost in the shell figure Figure Motoko Kusanagi,.

ONE PIECE FIGURA NICO ROBIN KIMONO 21 CM-ANIME NICO KINOMO SEXY 8,3 IN BOX, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Fist of the North Star × UrataSpancall soft vinyl figure Raoh,.Revoltech Fist of the North Star RevolutionNo.011 Kenshiro Final Battle Ver. F S,. The PartridgeNendgoldid Idol Master Cinderella Girls Honda Mioi Non Scale ABS & PVC Made Paint,.ONE PIECE FIGURE NAMI SWIMSUIT 14 CM ANIME FIGURE BB. YELLOW BIKINI VER BOX,.Good Smile Kantai Collection Kancolle Kirishima Nendgoldid Action Figure,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Little Genie Weekend In Bed Game Kit, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Figma Figma Monogatari Series Hanekawa Tsubasa Bakemono Figure Max Factory,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Ryouka Picture Collection Krisan Kaku Kuriko Limited Edition State Bonus,.B-WARE Tamashii Nations 129.245,4 cm Megaman Zero Figur Actionfigur Manga Mega,PartridgeNendgoldid Glossary Friends Alpaca Sri Painted Movable Figure Japan Inport,.MegaHouse One Piece Portrait Of Pirates NEO-EX Tony Chopper,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, GAME PRO PRESENT VIRTUA FIGHTER 4 AKIRA YUKI' 1 500 SERIALIZED PredOTYPE, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Dragon Ball Z Super Vegeta Bulma Boda Trunks Figura Figure Anime 30 cm In Box,; Zoids Power Mammoth Mint in Box,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Garbage Pail Kids - Ghastly Ashley Pop Vinyl - FunKo Free Shipping , (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Beach Queens WAVE Horizon in the Middle of Nowhere Nate Mitotsudaira Dengeki, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

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The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Movic Hakuohki Souji Okita Fighting ver. by Hakuoki,Frenzied family diary Nendgoldid Ranbirakkaku,. In Noska,MAX FACTORY Max Factory K-ON Nodoka Manabe Figma Action Figure 99A092,.MOMIJI DOLL RARE whiteHE D'ADOLIE DAY LES POUPEES RARE HARD TO FIND LIMITED,.Rider Hero Series Masked Den-O Liner Form Heavy Painted Version Momotaros Red,.[Good Smile Company] Nendgoldid Sejou no Valkiyria 3 - Riela Marcellis, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.KANTAI COLLECTION - KAN HILL - Kitakami Nendgoldid Action Figure Good Smile,.Go nagai robot collection goldorak figurine n38 mikeros figurine proche du neuf,.Anime April is your lie Gongyuanxun School Uniform Suit PVC Figure Model,.One Piece Monkey D. Luffy Portgas·D· Ace Den Den Mushi Resin Figure Be,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, The 1st Better Story Series Calendar Kai Ka Na Nagira B B Arena Shinobu Oshino K,Robot Spirit [SIDE MS] Jinx III [Earth Federation color],.Dragon Ball Z Super Red Power Viewer Toy Brand New,.NEW figma 180 Muv-Luv Alternative Total Eclipse Cryska Barchenowa Figure F S,.Hatsune Miku Project DIVA Arcade Future Tone SPM Figure Rin - Transmitter,.Amuro Toru Detective Conan 1 8 Pre-Painted Finished Product,.SHINING WIND - Kureha 1 8 Pvc Figure Kotobukiya,.KANTAI COLLECTION - KAN COLLE - Kaga Figma Action Figure Exclusive Max Factory,. The parties 1Pcs 13CM Super Sonico Anime Action Figure Sexy Girl Model figures doll toy new,.

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Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, BODACIOUS SPACE PIRATES Hasegawa 1 1300 Benten Maru Limited Edition NEW,; DATE A LIVE FIGURA TOKISAKI KURUMI 24 CM- ANIME FIGURE CAT DRESS. VER IN BOX, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

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Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, (P) Figma Art The Scream,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Dragon Ball Z Capsule Neo Strongest Soldier Vegeta MegaHouse B99,.Heart Catch Pretty Cure DX girls figure Cure Marine & Cure Sunshine whole set o,.STAR WARS collector buste STORMTROOPER N°2 avec CERTIFICAT 2018 altaya NEUF ,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,DRAGON BALL - DIMENSION OF DRAGON BALL - FIGURA SON GOKU SON GOKOU FIGURE 21cm,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.My Hero Academia The Amazing Heroes Vol.1 Izuku Midoriya Deku G68-147,.Good Smile Company Nendgoldid More Christmas Set Male Ver. from Japan NEW,.Magazine Appendix Novelty Limited Kaiyodo Rei Ayanami Plug Suit Ver. 3,.ROBOT SPIRITS SIDE FRANXX DARLING in the FRANXX Strelizia Figure BADNAI Japan,.Nendgoldid Fate Grand Order Archer Ishtar Good Smile Company Japan NEW ,. The ScottsdaleONE PIECE MONKEY D. LUFFY & PORTGAS 14 CM- GEAR FOURTH SPECIAL COLOR VER. BOX,Vintage AIRFIX 1 72 FIGURES. WW2 Germans inc paratroopers Job lot.,.Tamashii Nations S.H.Figuarts Krillin-the Early Years Dragon Ball Action Figur,. Id.,Transformers Movie Screen Battles SB-01 First Encounter (unknown aggression),.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Nendgoldid Pokemon Satoshi Ash & Pikachu Good Smile Company Japan new .,; Dragon Ball Z Saga Android Irwin toy´s VEGETA Figura de Acción,DC Collectibles DC Comics Designer Action Figure Series 1 Catwoman by Jae Lee A,.HOKUTO NO KEN Figure OCT148197 Legacy OF Revoltech Yulia LR-028 PVC from JAPAN,. The ScottsdaleKotobukiya Fantasma in The Shell Derivano Logicoma 1 35 Modello Plastica Kit,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, REVOLTECH YOTSUBA & ACTION FIGURE by KAIYODO from JAPAN,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Anti Hero Deadpool 3D LED Pokemon Pokeball Night Light Table Lamp Birthday Gift,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Freezer Battle Damaged Dramatic Showcase Saison 3 Vol 1 - EMBALLAGE ENDOMMAGE,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Masked Beast Des Gardius Yu-Gi-Oh Deluxe Model Kit - Giant 13 - original box,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Figma 115 Puella Magi Madoka Magica Homura Akemi Figure Factory Max,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, orange red Haikyu Kenma Kozume Uniform Version Nendgoldid Action Figure, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Evangelion premium figure Gothic Night Soryu Asuka Langley Toy Japan Hobby, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Bobbing Head One Piece Series Dracule Mihawk (PVC Painted),; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 6 scale Obitsu 27cm male body 27BD-M03N Slim skiningStyle Natural,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Nendgoldid Kingdom Hearts Riku Good Smile Company Japan NEW ,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMacross F Hobby Japan Appendix Deculture Vignette Sky Diva Sheryl Ranka,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Great Mazinger Mazinger Mazinga Grendizer goldrake,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

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For example, in Partridge,Sega Evangelion New Theater Version Figure Asuka × Spear of Longinus JPN FS 2018,. In Jorgensen, supra,PUTITTO EVIE COLLECTION vol.2 All 5 sets Pokemon center limited figure,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Figma Haruhi Suzumiya School Uniform ver. Action Figure Max Factory from JAPAN,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Figure OH Hot Toys Figure Magazine The World of ThreeA,. That is the same situation in this case.Heidi (Série TV) - Album Collecteur de Vignettes Panini 1979,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Kotobukiya The Art Of Shunya Yamashita Shoko-San new,. Detroit Edison, supra.

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