Siku Super 3734 Stadtbus MAN Lion's City City City Solobus red white 1 50 2b79ce

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Siku Super 3734 Stadtbus MAN Lion's City City City Solobus red   white 1 50 2b79ce
Mazda MX-5 Roadster (red metallic) 2015 RHD,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 Rs 1969, Plastic Model Kit, Model Car 1 25 Revell,.CORGI VANGUARD VA10008 FORD SIERRA SAPPHIRE COSWORTH , ISLE OF MAN POL,.French Dinky Toys Renault Dauphine E,.Oxford Diecast 1 43 Scale Model Car LE005 - Lotus Elan - Bahama Yellow,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.MiniChamps 1 43 - AMG Mercedes C-klasse DTM 95 J.Magnusse SPECIAL,.BMW 320i ETCC Magny Cours 2003 - 1 43 - Minichamps,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Boyle Melb Wclass Tram Vintage Model Collectibles,.1 43 First Response Police Indiana State Police,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.RIETZE 69841 - H0 1 87 Bus - MB O 405 G RKH Kassel - NEU in OVP,.CRESCENT TOY COOPER BRISTOL 2 LITRE GRAN PRIX - F1 No 8 - blueE 1 43 - NICE,.Vintage PL FSO Nysa N59 Road Service Pomoc Drogowa 1 55 unknown maker 1970’s PRL, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

MINICHAMPS 1 43 Audi A2 bluee,.1 87 HERPA 120333 Mercedes-Benz Actros semitrailer Henglein PC COLLECTIBLE MODEL,.Norev Citroën 15-Six Découvrable 1951 blacke 1 43 153022,.Hot Wheels Despicable Me 3 Gru Diecast Character Car 6,.

MAISTO - 1 18 - CHEVROLET CAMARO SS RS - 31173BL,.MAISTO 38131 EXCLUSIVE EDITION MERCEDES BENZ AMG GT 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR blueE,.ESPO LARROUSSE Lc90 GP GIAPPONE 1990 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,.BURAGO TALBOT MATRA RANCHO 1 24 REF 0171 MADE IN ITALY,.BO895-0,5 x Rietze H0 1 87 Bus MB Gisler +1. FC Nürnberg + Integro ,S.G 1x,.

Mercedes Benz C 415 Citan Kastenwagen white 1 43 Neu OVP,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Norev Gti TUNERS 185100 Renault Mégane Vampire, 1 18, OVP,.Hot wheels aurimat aries wagon variacion rara mexico 1980,.1941 Plymouth coupe 1 18 new in box,Citroen 2CV SPOT orange 1981 1 43 Model Car. Vitesse,.Model Set Volkswagen T3 Camper Kit Revell 1 25 RV67344 Model,.

Ferrari 375 Parravano 1960 Red 1 43 Model TOP MODEL,.CITROEN 22 CV BERLINE DARK GREEN 152002 Norev 1 43 New in a box ,.FORD MOTOR COMPANY 100 YEARS FORD FIESTA 2002 ED. LIMIT. Minichamps ALTRO 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1 18 LOOSE ERTL CLARK GABLE 1935 DUESENBURG SSJ,.

Porsche 911 Turbo Martini 1975 White 1 43 Model PREMIUMX,. We agree in part.

2015 Hot Wheels RLC Factory Set 2008 LANCER EVOLUTION Super Treasure Hunt F6,.FERRARI 512 BB 1976-81 1 43 solido car miniature collection,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Atlas Editions 1 43 Scale Diecast 4 656 128 - AC Aceca - bluee,.Dcp first gear green 48ft tandem axle flatbed trailer new no box,.VW Volkswagen Käfer 1303 Beetle Polizei green Weiss 1962 1 18 Solido Modell Aut..,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; NAVETTE SPATIALE COLUMBIA MICHELIN 517952 1 43 NAVETTA SPAZIALE SHUTTLE NASA,..- DINKY TOYS 169 FORD 2000E CORSAIR METALLIC GREY EXCELLENT CONDITION,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Redline Hotwheels bluee 1976 American Hauler oc17462,; Ixo 1 43 Diecast Alpine-Renault A310 3rd Place '74 Tour de Corse, Elf RAC139,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

REVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST 64 INDY 500 FORD MUSTANG PACE CAR,.Greenlight 84042 1976 Ford Gran Torino Starsky & Hutch 1 24 New & Boxed,CORGI CLASSICS 30304 THAMES TRADER BOX VAN ROBSONS OF CARLISLE. See Below,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Die cast 1 43 Modellino Camper Fiat Ducato Rapido 880F 2014,.

Mercedes-Benz 500SL 1989 Maisto 1 18 Special Edition BOXED, CAR IS IN MINT COND.,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Rietze Gelenkbus MB O 305 G Mülheimer Verkehrsgesellschaft 74509,.HWET6286 by HOT WHEELS ELITE FERRARI 412 T2 J. ALESI EUROPE GP 1995 43,.Crane for ZIL 4906 bluee Bird DiP models 1 43 500201,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 32 Oz Legends - HT Monaro GTS 350 - orange,; 1 100 Peterbilt Pabst bluee Ribbon Matchbox CCY06-M,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Majorette Mercedes 190 e set of 2 with orange interior and rare red interior,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

EBBRO 44250 1 43 Honda S800 Racing Nuerburgring white,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Herpa 911580 MAN TGS XL Hz Heavy Cargo Company International speditionho NEW,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Mini bluee + Haynes History Book (Corgi 1 43 CC03001),

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

1 87 Herpa Scania R Topl. Aerop Ga-KSZ Gschwend 921824,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 87 Herpa MB Actros BigSpace Ratiopharm Koffer-SZ 306782,.SOLIDO 1 18em FORD V8 PNEUS DUNLOP état neuf, boite jamais ougreene,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.IXO Models Ford Mustang Ljungfeld Sager Rall 1 43 PRD309,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Volkswagen VW Kafer Beetle 1955 Cream 1 18 Model 12029CR BBURAGO,.

AUDI SPORT UK R8 HEURES LE MANS 2003 BIELA MCCARTHY SALO IXO LMM051 1 43,.Revell Rarität BMW Isetta 250 die Knutschkugel in blue, 1 18, W002,.Ferrari F50 1995 - 1 18 - Bburago,.HOT WHEELS 100% 4 CAR SET RUMBLE ROAD,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Soviet Bus metal Vintage toy car 1 43 Raf-977 Latvia Soviet USSR Novoexport,.

Renault Laguna, 1 43, Norev,.1 64 DCP WHITE 53' WABASH DRY VAN TRAILER,.Herpa,304894 MB Actros Streamspace 2.3 Jumbokühlkoffer-Sattelzug Edeka ,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Dinky by Meccano No159 Morris Oxford Saloon,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Minichamps Sauber Petronas C18 1999 1 43 Jean Alesi (FRA) (RG),.Audi A8 2004 silver, Modellauto 1 18 Motormax,.Volkswagen VW Kafer Beetle 1955 Cream 1 18 Model BBURAGO,.Piccolo Set Vivat Viaduct with Pin Number 0119 1000,.1 18 Maisto Smart ForTwo 1+1 red+yellow NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

FORD MUSTANG GT BULLITT 1968 unrestored Steve McQueen 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Vintage Hot Wheels Car Lot Of 8 1980's Malaysia-Mercedes, Rolls Royce, Firebird,.NISSAN ENDLESS ADVAN Z SUPER GT 2005 EBBRO 702 1 43,. The PartridgeEMW 327 Cabriolet Cars & Co Ist Modells 1 43 DDR Modellauto Neuwertig 157,.Minichamps Volkswagen T3 Doka-Pritsche 1983 TH 1 43 400055290,.Corgi Heritage 74202 Limited Edition - Citroen Type 55 Avec Semi - Calberson.,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, BK18-0, 5 x Wiking H0 1 87 Model MB 267 Cook +143+834+066 , Nip, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Ghostbusters ECTO 1 99731 Hollywood Rides 1 24 Scale Diecast Car JADA,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.HONDA 1300 COUPE 9 1970 1 43 FIRST 43 (gold),.Minichamps 1964 Renault 8 Gordini Yellow 1 43,PartridgeNEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 - LLOYD LT 500 600 - EXCELLENT CONDITION-32 31,.TRAX 8011F HOLDEN EH Wagon Compassion White,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, AUDI RS4 B7 blue MINICHAMPS 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Soviet Russian HEALTH CARE car MOSKVICH MOSKVITCH 412 diecast model 1 43 USSR,; Provence Moulage 1 43 Scale Resin Kit - K984 Mercedes Benz w196 f1 1955,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, PRL Ruch Estetyka PL PLASTIC Porsche 356 very good cond. RARE 1 65 red 1970's, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Ford Mondeo V8 STAR 2003 vitaphone Bartels 43 Schuco, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 43 Rio () Alfa Romeo giulietta berlina 1955,.

Rietze 75503 - H0 1 87 Bus - MB Ecitaro Hamburger Hha Enlisting Boxed,.Ford Escort Cosworth Green Met MINICHAMPS 1 43 O Scale Diecast Model Display Car, Clarke's negligent act.Shinsei Mini Power 1 80 - Mitsubishi Fuso T911 Snorkel Fire Engine,.1 43 Schuco Porsche 908 Le Mans 1968 J.Siffert NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.NOREV 511226 Renault 12 TL Year 1972 light bluee 1 43 suberb detail,.

Maxichamps 940069301 1 43 PORSCHE 911 TURBO (996) 1999 blueE METALLIC,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Matchbox Models Of Yesteryear 1958 Y9A FOWLER SHOWMAN'S ENGINE XLNT- NEAR MINT,Bburago Mercedes-Benz 300 SL 1 18 Red (JS) Box 2,. In Noska,- - TOY CAR COLLECTIBLES,.1 87 Herpa MB Atego Koffer-LKW Leonhard Weiss 929141,.VW Käfer Brezelkäfer black grey, Modellauto 1 43 Schuco,.Hot Wheels Red Line Club RLC Real Riders Series 10 64 GMC Panel of 4000, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.MOTOR MAX BMW Z8 ROADSTER DIE CAST CAR 1 18 SCALE MOTORMAX NO. 73106,.2004 HW Classics Series 1 18 25 Pontiac Firebird Funnycar 6 Car Set in 6 colors,.RENAULT RODEO 4 Yellow NOREV 1 43 Ref 510953,.1 43 Best Model Ferrari 275 GTB C Car from 1969 24 H of LeMans,. Id., p 923.

Mercedes 300 Sl W198 Gullwing 1954 Dark bluee Model Car 1 43 Schuco,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Fiat Nuova 500 Abarth 2010 Red MotorMax 1 18 MTM79168R Model,Corgi VA50000 MGA Open Top Dove Grey Ltd Edition No. 0002 of 4000,.N256-0,5Wiking H0 Modelle (8 St) Radlader, Dampfwalze, MAN LKW, 2x 657, ,.Norev SB 1 43 - Alpine Renault A110 1300 Rallye Monte Carlo,.3 x SIKU VW Käfer 1303 ♦ 2 x Cabrio Cabriolet white bzw blue ♦ 1 x geschlossen,.Modellauto 1 18 Porsche 911 (997) GT3 RS green black Welly,.Minichamps FORD PUMA ST COUPE PUMA CUP 1996 1 43 in PC und OVP (R2_4_77),.1 50 Joal (Spain) Vibratory compactor CB534,. The parties Sky Marks SK4461 TRATTORE MAN Modellino,.

Car 1 43 MINICHAMPS 431028310 BMW 323i (E46) TOURING 1999 MET GREEN NEW BOX,.Schuco Piccolo 702 Mercedes 2.5 Western Germany,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, GEORGIA Mercedes-Benz Die Cast Open Car Full set (Set of 8) SL SLK SLR SLS AMG,; Vitesse VE36277 FORD FAIRLANE OPEN CONgreenIBLE 1956 MANDARIN orange COLONIAL WHI, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Majorette 1 60 Nr. 266 Renault 18 Limousine Taxi yellow TOP Fach H3,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ertl Collectibles 1 64 Die-Cast Freightliner Cab Trailer CFI,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)BUCCIALI Tav 16 1932 Ancienne Western Models,.ASTON MARTIN AMR One n°009 Le Mans 2011,.FERRARI FXX, red SCUDERIA, COCHE DE COLECCION ESCALA 1 43 (HOTWHEELS ELITE N560,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Board game Bus-E ,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Used Action Collectables Castrol GTX John Force 2002 Hauler 1 64,.CITROEN TUBE TYPE H MIROITIER VITRIER ARLES grey IXO 1 43 ALTAYA GARD BLISTER,.HS VK Modelle MAN Metro Bus 14261 Feuerwehr Pforzheim PF-2325,.. ALTAYA IXO MERCEDES BENZ N1300 INVESTIGACION ATESTADOS GUARDIA CIVIL MINTBOXED,.Set 12x VOLKSWAGEN COCCINELLE 1967 1 64,. The Scottsdale1 18 MOTORMAX FIRE DEPT 2001 FORD CROWN VICTORIA RED,Spot On by Norev 1 42 MG MGA Green, Boxed, Outstanding,.Jada 1 36 Scale 97345 - Brian's Toyota Supra - Fast & Furious,. Id.,Hot Wheels Bone Shaker Lot of 11,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Premium ClassiXXs - VW BUS T2a Kastenwagen - Persil - 11266 - 1 43 - NEU,; Corgi Eddie Stobart Express Road Haulage; Lorry and Trailer Boxed (59516),Winross Die Cast Axles And Tires For Semi Or Trailer,.OPEL KADETT GTE MEQUEPE VILAR WINNER GR1 PORTUGAL 1977 TROF 43,. The ScottsdaleDCT - Mammoet Red Trench Box All Metal 1 50th 1 48th Made In the USA.,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, IXO 1 43 - Mercedes-Benz 300 SL 2nd Le Mans 1952 - T. Helfrich MIB,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Triumph Spitfire Mk 3 Saffron 1970 RHD Corgi Vanguards NEW Edition 1 43 rd.Scale,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Miniatur Renault 15 TL der 1979 red Norev - No 511504 - Skala 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Fiat 500F Babbazza Natale Autostop 2017 1 43 Model S1735 BRUMM,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Hot Wheels Ferrari Racer 456M,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 43 Minichamps BMW 7er 7-Series E65 Toledo bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Af325-0, 5 X Brekina H0 Bus 6101 Mercedes MB AFAG + Büssing Gaffel Kölsch 2X, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Rare Mattel Hot Wheels Redline 1969 THE DEMON Hong Kong,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeDODGE WC54 ARMÉE AMERICAINE 1942 SERIE LIMITÉE 1000PCS 1 43 WHITEBOX,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, CORGI HERITAGE PEUGEOT D3A green POSTE POSTES PTT 1 43 box,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheAudi TT Roadster 1999 - 1 43 - Minichamps,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.2017 Chevrolet Camaro FIFTY 1 18 Model Car Maisto - Charcoal w orange Stripes,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Herpa 308038 MAN TGX XXL 6x4 Euro 5 Semitieflader-Sattelzug DB Schenker 1 87 H0,1 87 Busch MB Unimog U430 Straßenmeisterei + Astschere 50922,. VA00518 - Vanguards Triumph Herald 1200 - RHD - Police - 1 43,.FERRARI FXX-K RED SIGNATURE SERIES 1 43 DIECAST MODEL BY BBURAGO 36906,. The HuygheUniversal Hobbies Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport 1964 1 43 2006,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMINICHAMPS Scale 1 43 VW Touareg 2002 bluee Used,.

1 43 Best Model Ferrari 290 MM car Buenos Aires,. Lamborghini URUS yellow Bburago 1 18 Model Car 11042Y Yellow Burago,.

1 43 Ixo Delahaye 163 Pompiers Feuerwehr 96,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale F1 Model Figure 318 980015 Johnny Herbert Sauber Petronas,. Nonetheless, on the facts of CHEVROLET CORSA GLS (1997) - silverINA Unforgettable Cars rare diecast 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeFIRST GEAR DIECAST 1937 CHEVROLET SEDAN STREET ROD, CARQUEST, 1 25 SCALE, LOT B,.A.S.S WIKING ALTER MERCEDES MB 300 SL COUPE red 1962 GK 230 3B CS 387 2B 1.W TOP,.

For example, in Partridge,HERPA WINGS 1 500 SCALE CZECH AIRBUS A310-300 MODEL BN 518086,. In Jorgensen, supra,Jeep Wllys Ika silverinien Air Force,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Case 850 D Crawler by NZG 176 1 35,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,FORD SIERRA RS500 TEXACO LUDWIG 1988 IXO FORD RACING EDITION 1 43,. That is the same situation in this case.DAYS GONE by LLEDO 5 Classic ST KEW DAIRY Models in Farmhouse box from Estate,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Brumm BM0050 FIAT 500 B 1946 FURGONCINO grey 1 43 Modellino,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Porsche 911 Carrera GTS (racing yellow),.MINICHAMPS Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 Street 20 1 43 410113200,.Loxx miniaturwelten Berlin Rietze neoplan cityliner bus ovp neuwertig 1 87 LI2 ,.

Goggomobil 1 18 revell 1997,.