Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Matrix Binz MB W186 300C Kombi 1 43 MX51302-022,.1 76 ALBION Victor VT23L 70's - 99 (Resin),.Vintage Hotwheels Drag Masters drag strip Rare NOS redline lesney matchbox car,.1 18 Norev Audi A4 DTM 2009 Scheider 188331,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.INTEL 838 94 CHEVROLET CORVETTE REMOTE CONTROL - L27.0cm - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale - 403 120403 Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint 1954 light bluee,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Mercedes Limousine Carro Funebre 1910 1 43 Model RIO4383 RIO,.CORGI 13780CC 1 50 SCALE SCANIA R TOPLINE - JOHN HULSTON HAULAGE,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 18 Mazda CX-7 CX 7 Diecast Metal Car SUV Model Toy Boy Girl Gift Collection,.Mercedes Benz S-Class 450Sel 6.9 (W116) 1976 Copper Met NOREV 1 18 NV183459,.1949 Bristol 400 - Mikansue 1 43 in Box 34299, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
MATCHBOX LESNEY A TROJAN BROOKE BOND TEA VAN, GPW, EXCELLENT, BOXED TYPE B,.PARAGON 97042 97043 BMW F31 3er Touring model cars Mineral white bluee 1 18th,.AUSTIN COOPER COUNTRYMAN COMPLETE VERY NEAR MINT MINT JULEP COLOR AUSTIN MINI,.Rio RI4258 BUGATTI T 50 1933 blue black 1 43 Modellino,.
HOT WHEELS 2017 RLC EXCLUSIVE CLASSIC TV SERIES BATMOBILE 2017 HOLIDAY CAR 1 64,.WSI 03-1109 FerrOplast Thermoking Reefer Trailer - 3 Axle 1 50 Refrigerated,.Corgi Toys Whizzwheels no. 388 Mercedes Benz C111 ovp,.Lancia Stratos Light Green 1 18 Model 4522 SUN STAR,.F1 Pit Crew Figurines Jps Team Lotus 1977 Set Of 6 1 18 Tsm12Ac08 Miniature,.
K.K.SAKURA 1 43 ROLLS ROYCE N0= 7 - IN ORIGINAL BOX - NEAR MINT CONDITION,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.AUDI A4 DTM 2010 n°15 AUDI SPORT TEAM ROSBERG Katherine LEGGE 1 18,.Spark 1 43 Corvette C6R Le Mans 2006 from Japan,.Johnny Lightning JLMC004-B-Case 1 64 Muscle Cars Release 4B (12),Corgi 1 50 Scale CC11912 - ERF EC Series Step Frame Curtainside - K&P Iddon,.WIKING 623 1 MB L 3500 RÜSTWAGEN mit KRAN (TO3334),.
Auto World 1 18 60th Anniversary of 1957 Chrysler 300C Diecast Model Red AMM1110,.(Go) 1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari 458 Challenge NIP,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK34A 001 - 1954 Nash Ambassador Coupe Yellow White,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Set of 5 Gas Pump Esso DINKY TOYS 1 43 MIB Gas Station DIECAST MODEL CAR 49D,.
Diecast Car Model for T-ROC (gold) 1 18 + GIFT ,. We agree in part.
1 43 Spark Dallara LMP Judd Hours of LeMans 2004 S0155,.DINKY TOYS 515 FERRARI 250 GT - METALLIC blueE 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Diecast Car Model KIA K5 2015 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,.Cord L-29 Town car Murphy 6 Co. 1930 - GLM - 1 43 - 43108102,.True Scale 1 43 Alfa Romeo 2600 Sprint Navy bluee 430139,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; FERRARI 500 MONDIAL SPA - 1954 H. ROOSDORP 1 43 338 ARTMODEL Made in ,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 061300 - 2006 Aston Martin Launch Version - bluee,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Renault 12 Gordini - Solido 1 18 - COMPRO FUMETTI SHOP,; GAMA 2115 MERCEDES BENZ 300 TD KOMBI - GREEN METALLIC 1 26 - EXCELLENT CONDITION,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
BAM X 1 43 rally - AUDI QUATTRO GR. B Mouton Portugal 1981 rare,.MERCEDES-BENZ 420 SE (W126) POLIZEI police rare 430039390 Minichamps 1 43 New ,Burago 1 18 Bugatti EB 110 (1991) blue - 3035 - Die-Cast Modell Auto NEU in OVP,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Norev NV185137 RENAULT R.S. 01 2016 INTERCEPTOR JEAN RAGNOTTI 1 18 Modellino,.
PORSCHE 911 Carrera 3.2 Coupe G-Modell orange 1984 KYO5522P0 Kyosho limited 1 43,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1986 Corvette Coupe Red in Error box 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33427,.Giocher LRPP LAND ROVER POLIZIA PENITENZIARIA Modellino,.Ikarus 280.33 yellow Soviet Bus 1 43,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Mercedes 350 SEL 1974 Bundeskanzler Political Leaders 1 43 Minichamps IN BOX,; Ebro Porsche 911 Gt3 Rsr 2005 Man,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, MBE MB101a HONG KONG CITYBUS DENNIS DRAGON 855, 182 TO CITY ONE SHATIN NEW,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
1964 Chevrolet Impala SS American Muscle 1 18,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
2015 Audi R8 V10 Plus red 1 18 Maisto Exclusive 38135,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
HOT WHEELS 50169 FERRARI F2001 LAUNCH - SCHUMACHER - F1 1 18 - IN SEALED BOX,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
CHEVROLET Camaro Z-28 SS429 Baldwin Motion Coupe Muscle Car blue V8 US ERTL 1 18,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 18 Mondo Motors Alfa Romeo 159 Polizia blue - RARITÄT §,.Spark Model S0642 MAZDA 767 N.202 LM 1988 1 43 Modellino,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Minichamps Peugeot 908 HDI FAP 24h du Mans 2008 1 18 150081208 23,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Minichamps Jordan Mugen Honda 198 1999 1 18 Damon Hill (GBR) (F1NB),.
1972 RENAULT ESTAFETTE ASSISTANCE RENAULT 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY NOREV 185168,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 SCALE BMW MINI COOPER IAA 2003 G30-059,.HOT WHEELS RLC 2016 HOLIDAY CAR '64 GMC PANEL 1094 5000 W+,.1 43 Spark Cooper T60 1963 German GP M. De Araujo Cabral S5292,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.RARE Factory Wheel ERROR 2019 Hot Wheels '82 Nissan Skyline R30,.
MJ7 Matchbox - 1981 ROW 1-75 - MB46 Sauber Group C - Bisotherm - Case Lot (24),.HUMMER H-1 1 24 - Meng Model CS002,.Hubley Kiddie Toy Plastic Suto Transporter With Original Cadillac Cars And Ramp,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Original Audi A8L A8 4H Modellauto 1 18 Mythosblack Mythos black 5011708051,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Kyosyo Mini Car 436671406 champs DP 1 43 Chaparral 2F Sebring 1967 SPENCE HALL,.Ebbro 45079 IWASAKI apr GT-R SUPER GT300 2014 No.30 bluee 1 43 scale,.Mercedes-Benz Unimog U 5000 mit Plane orange silver 1 50 NZG,.LaSalle Series 50 Coupe 1940 Metallic Red 1 43 NEO 47171,.Dinky Toys 011541 Ford Fiesta perfect mint in box superb 2e,.
Toyota Land Cruiser LJ70 Metal bluee 1986 NEO43999 for VVM 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Dinky GB 344 rare Estate Car en boite d'origine. No corgi,.Minichamps Lamborghini Gallardo LP 600 1 18 151111112,. The PartridgeHeco Modeles 96 France 1 43 Aston Martin DB2 4 Coupe Handmade Resin Model Car,.KB Wings 1 72 AH-1S Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Camp Akeno from Japan,.Rio 4335 ALFA ROMEO 1750 1932 GREY 1 43,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Vintage Hong Kong TIGER TANK LAND ROVER JEEP POLICE AMBULANCE Die Cast Military, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 64 Kyosho McLaren MP4 8 1993 Ford Diecast Model Car,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Autocult SFM Smyk B30 - blue-white - 1 43,.BUGATTI 73 A CONDUITE INTÉRIEURE BIcolor white-red STL 1 43 MONTAGE USINE,PartridgeHerpa in Set 1 87 H0, in Set 6 Piece pkw-dtm Race Car Audi S2, A4 Avant, V8,.MODELLINO BMW M3 ALPINA PETER OBERNDORFER DTM 1988 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 Citroën GS Basalte año 1978 color black - red Norev Ref.181626, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Franklin Mint Precision Models Chevrolet Belair Diecast Model 1 24 Scale,; Scania LBT 141 Wolter Koops 1976 1 43 - TTR004 IXO,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Ebbro Impul Calsonic Gt-R Super, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, NEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 AUDI A4 RS2 AVANT 1994 blueE MET. ART.43360, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMINICHAMPS 1 12 HONDA RC211V VALENTINO ROSSI PRE SEASON TEST BIKE 2002 MOTO GP,.
AUTOart Citroen C4 WRC Winner Rallye Monte Carlo 2007 Loeb Elena 1 18 Art 80738,.1 18 Norev Porsche 911 E targa 1969 orange Nr. 187633 OVP, Clarke's negligent act.Start Scale Models SSM1266 - GAZ Tanklöschfahrzeuge AC-30(53) red-white 1 43,.Brekina 1 87 Büssing LS 11 Sattelzug Pritsche Plane SHELL Very Rare OVP,.Renault R23 F. Alonso scale 1 18 Hotwheels NEW ,.
MGA 1600 - Tekno 824 Denmark 36518,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Art Model AM0325 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA 1957 red SCURO 1 43,RARE Neoplean Megashuttle Bus Replica,. In Noska,HOT WHEELS NEET STREETER Regular Collection Die-Cast Yellow MOC LEO INDIA 1975,.Autoart Citroen C4 WRC Winner Rallye Monte Carlo 2007 Loeb Elena 1 18 Art 80738,.EBBRO 44905 RACING COSTIN NATHAN London racing car show 1969 blueE Resin F S,.Dinky Toys 155 Ford Anglia.Turquoise.Superb Original Very Near Mint & Boxed Cond, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Majorette RACING WRC RALLY Car Diecast Car Set On Card,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3375 Dodge Viper GTS Coupe 1997 White bluee,.BATMAN BATMOBILE 2 FACE CHASSIS ART 1500 MADE LTD CORGI MODEL CAR DC MINT ,.Jada 1965 Ford Mustang 1 24 scale used 2006 HE edition release 2 tone exterior,. Id., p 923.
NOREV - 1 18 - ALPINE - RENAULT A110 1600S - 1971 - 185300,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Ebbro 45293 RUNUP Group & DOES GT-R SUPER GT300 2015 Rd.1 Okayama No.360,Spark Model S1554 RENAULT ALPINE A442 N.8 23th LM 1977 P.DEPAILLER-J.LAFFITE 1 4,.Metal Models Appx 5cm Long Aeroplane No5 - Heinkel He.70 Blitz Lufthansa,.Porsche 914 4 1969 1973 red Minichamps 430065665 MIB 1 43 911 959 968 MEGA RARE,.Brabus 600 Auf Basis Mercedes Amg C 63 S 2015 MINICHAMPS 1 43 437036102,.VW Space up - 1 43 scale - Looksmart,.Citroen 2CV James Bond 007 Norev,.Code 3 FDNY SQUAD 41 E ONE Kitbash,. The parties Norev 183569 Mercedes-Benz 280 SE 1969 - Ivory,.
KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - FERRARI 365 CALIFORNIA - 1966 - 180051R,.PROVENCE MOULAGE 1 43 Peugeot 205 CTI Kit Résine,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 - 92078 1967 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE - YELLOW,; 2015 Mazda MX-5 Congreenible whiteo Metalizado 1 18 Triple-9 1800194, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast 31839 Ferrari 550 Maranello - Red,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, MARK43 Mini Car PM4307BK 1 43 Toyota Supra 3000 Twin cam24 2way twin turbo RZ,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast 75803 - MAN Curtainside - Gallacher's,.Trattore Lamborghini Spark 190 T4I C Shift 2014 1 32 Weise WEIS1035 Model,.MINICHAMPS Porsche 908 02 Spyder Mitter Schutz Targa Florio 1969 437692266,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,TrueScale TSM144329 1 43 McLaren P1 - XP2R, 2013's Fatest Car at Nurburgring,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Bentley SIII Continental Park Ward Pewter FHC 63 - 65 NEO44160 1 43,.Mercury Dino Sport Scala1 43,.Kyosho Original 1 43 Lexus White LX570 KS03674Q,.Lincoln Continental 53A Congreenible 1961 Bordeaux Neoscale 1 43 NEO47050,.Todd Kelly 2000 Holden Young Lions HYL Holden VT Commodore V8 Supercar 1 18,. The ScottsdaleBrooklin 1 43 Scale BRK31 005A - 1953 Pontiac Sedan Delivery Gulf orange,Esval 1 43 Cisitalia DF85 coupe by Fissore 1961 Red EMEU43042A,.Corgi Chrysler Ghia L64 - Sage Green - A B,. Id.,1 18 UT Models Mercedes Benz C-Klasse Tabac - Bernd Schneider DTM 1994 OVP,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Minichamps McLaren MP4-12C GT3 Street red 2012,; NEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 Saab 90 1985 Light bluee NEO43674,Corgi AN13009 Dennis Simon Snorkel - Bedfordshire County FRS 1 50 NIB RARE ,.CORGI 1 50 SCALE COLLECTION HERITAGE 72901 SIMCA CARGO SIMCA PIECES DETACHEES,. The Scottsdale1 43 Gaz Volga USSR new with box,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1932 Ford Hot Rod GREASE movie blueE 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33119,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Corgi 1 50 Scale CC13212 - DAF XF Space Cab Curtainside - Grimer's Transport,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, GUITOY DELAHAYE Made In Spain,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, McLAREN 570 GT (McLaren orange) 1 43 MINICHAMPS 537154521,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, FREIGHTLINER CASCADIA W 53' WABASH TRAILER FLEETMASTER 1 64 DIECAST BY DCP 34234,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Dinky Toys 139 Ford Consul Cortina - Boxed, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Matrix MX42105-031 Volkswagen Rometsch Lawrence Cabriolet 1959, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Spark 1 43 Scale S3352 - Mini John Cooper Works WRC Monte Carlo 2012,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeKAMAZ 54115 Russian Tractor Unit 1 43 PAO KamAZ 101661,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Corgi Toys 208 Jaguar 2.4 Litre saloon made in Gt Britain 1 43 scale EXC-NM,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheCORGI 'JAMES BOND' ASTON MARTIN DB5 96655 Re-Issue,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Lamborghini Diablo 1 43 Diecast Minicar,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,TrueScale Miniatures 1 43 Jaguar F-TYPE SVR AWD caldera red finished product,Minichamps Bentley Arnage T 143 Scale Car,.Porsche 928 BB Targa White 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.NOREV 1 18 1970 Citroen Dyane 6 Erable Beige Diecast Model Car Beige (181620),. The HuygheSPARK PORSCHE 908 3 LE MANS 1976 1 43,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSpark Model S2726 DELAHAYE 145 N.2 40th LM 1938 G.COMOTTI-A-DIVO 1 43 Modellino,.
Solido 1 18 Scale Diecast - 8132 Chevrolet Bel Air Panamericaine,.DINKY TOYS . 153 - ASTON MARTIN DB6,.
GREENLIGHT 1 18 Ford Gran Torino Coupè 1976 Starsky & Hutch Art. 19017,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3013 Mercedes Benz 300SL 1954 Dark Red,. Nonetheless, on the facts of CORGI 1 50 CC13402 ERF ECT CUTAINSIDE - TORRIDGE TRANSPORT LTD,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgePORSCHE PANAMERA SPORT TURISMO GTS 2018 LIGHT GREY MINICHAMPS WAP 020 764 0J,.1 43 Norev Saviem S105M 1969 bordeaux 530040,.
For example, in Partridge,NEO Cadillac S&S Superior Ambulance Red 195 1 43 45262,. In Jorgensen, supra,PORSCHE 917K n°31 - 6H WATKINS GLEN 1970 Elford Hulme 1 18,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Toyota Land Cruiser Fj40 Soft-Top 1967 Red Ivory TRIPLE9 1 18 T9-1800153 Miniatu,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Extremely rare 1984 Corgi Juniors B110 Aston Martin DB6 in Beige Rare Colour,. That is the same situation in this case.1 18 ERTL 10 Years - 1971 Ford TORINO COBRA maroon - Rarität Neu OVP,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.BRITBUS DONALD CRAGGS BUS SET,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Dinky Toys 289 Routemaster Bus ESSO Safety Grip Tyres 99% mint in box,.Del Prado Delprado Minicar 1 43 Triumph Trs,.1 43 NOREV ASTON MARTIN DBRS9 2009 TEAM HEXIS AMR, 1000 LIMITED ED 2 CAR SET,.
CLIMAX LOTUS FORMULA 1 IN METAL. CORGI TOYS. ESC 1 43. REF 155.,.