Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Gm Tdh 3714 Autobus Santa Monica Municipal 1955 2 Tone bluee IXO 1 43 BUS007 Mini,.Knight Rider K.A.R.R. Hot Wheels Elite 1 43 Scale BCT87 (NEW),.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 33266 Chevrolet Corvette Congreenible Red,.Welly WE18040BL VW CLASSIC BEETLE SOFT TOP 1950 PASTEL blueE 1 18 Modellino,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Peugeot 106 1 43 kit COMPLETAMENTE IN METALLO,.Hasegawa 1 24 Charge Mazda 767 B Plastic Model 20312,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Matchbox Regular Wheels No 70 Grit Speader Red Cab grey slide Superb,.Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 Tatra 815 V26 - yellow bluee,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.EBBRO 44402 1 43 Honda CR-Z Mugen Gangure From japan,.Minichamps WAP 0201430H Porsche Carrera RS 2.7 Baujahr 1973 in orange 1 43,.WSI TIP TRAILER VOLUME(KIPPER) 3 AXLE,1 50 DIECAST, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
GLM Ruf Porsche Panamera RXL Limousine in White 2012 214001 1 43 NEW Ltd Ed 450,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 436 139001 - Bentley Arnage R - Metallic bluee,.Faller Kunststoff Modellauto 1 43 Mercedes Benz 220a Ponton Rallye Monte Carlo,.1961 PONTIAC Catalina white Lightning chase JOHNNY LIGHTNING performance 2004,.
1970 Citroen Ds 19 Break Estate Bordeaux 1 18 Norev 181592,.GLAS 1300 GT Cabrio 1966 1 43 Neo scale models NEO43975,.Ford Taunus TC2 2-door Ghia gold metallic 1976-1979 NEO 45135 1 43,.MM P EBBRO 1 43 DATSUN 17 Roadstar From japan,.1962 Volkswagen Microbus Combi Type 2 T1 blue-whiteo 1 18 Yat Ming 92327,.
Mint M-Tech 1 43 Skyline Gt-R R33,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Lola T70 Riverside 1967 Spark S1138 resin 1 43,.Ebbro 45456 ZENT CERUMO RC F Super GT GT500 2016 Rd.2 Fuji No.38 1 43 scale,.MMP EBBRO 1 43 SUPER GT500 ENEOS SUSTINA SC430 2011,1 87 Herpa MAN TGA HENGLEIN FEINKOST Kühlkoffer Sattelzug 120166,.Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren (2004) Diecast Model Car 436033021,.
1981 CHEVROLET CAMARO Z 28 YENKO TURBO Z WHITE 1 18 DIECAST BY GREENLIGHT 12998,.LOT OF 5 MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 62,55,56,34,45 Mercedes Corvette BMW Unplayed With,.1 18 AUTOart - Lotus Elan S E Coupe Red - NEU in OVP - Sonderpreis,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
1 43 FORD FALCON XT GT (CRUISE blueE) Trax TR24C,.
Dinky 1 43 Scale DY028 B - 1969 Triumph Stag Green,. We agree in part.
Deltawing DWC-13 , 24H Daytona 2014 , Spark models,.Premium ClassiXXs 1 18 Opel Admiral B Caravan Rallye Service,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 18 Norev Fiat 500 Giardiniera 1962 light green NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.BBR KIT 1 43 MERCEDES C 180 AMG ZOLDER PJ 40 SONAX UNBILT BOXED,.Minichamps BMW 1600-2 1 43 Ovp,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; McLaren P1 in Matte Red Model Car in 1 43 Scale by TSM,.1956 Ford F-100 Danbury Mint 1 24 diecast,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Icons Wix Filters - 1966 FORD GT40 MARK II 7 LITRE 427 HOLMAN MOODY 24,; VINTAGE DIECAST--1961 CHEVY IMPALA SS 2 DR H.T--1 18 SCALE--11 LONG-by SUN STAR,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Copycat Kit assembled Metal 1 43 - Tractor Ferguson,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.178 MINI CLUBMAN (BRONZE VERSION ) VN MIB,CLASSICO 1 18 - 040026 FERRARI 1958 250 TESTAROSSA & ROAD FUEL PUMP,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Porsche 935 Jagermeister - Echelle 1 18 - Zolder 1977 - NOREV - 187435,.
1 32 Claas Jaguar 960 Forage Harvester - Die-Cast Vehicle - Siku 4058,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.DIAPET T-22 ISUZU TRAILER TRANSPORTER 1 55 VINTAGE 80,s N M BOX RARE SALE ,.PORSCHE GT3 KLM VAN DE DRIFT CARRERA CUP 2015 SPARK SA081 1 43,.MAISTO 1 18 36896 BMW Z8 blueE,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, RIO RI4335 ALFA ROMEO 1750 1932 GREY 1 43,; NOREV MERCEDES BENZ 450 SEL 1976 INCA orange 1 18 183459,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Renault 16 1969 Beige Grey Metallic 1 18 - 185133 NOREV,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1954 Jaguar D-Type,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Norev 183451 Mercedes-AMG GT C Roadster 2017 - Yellow metallic,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Ferrari 250 Gt California 1962 Green Metallic 1 43 Model 0364 ART-MODEL,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Spark WAX02020055 - Porsche 911 Carrera GTS Bj. 2017 in grey-red 1 43 NEU,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 2004 - BMW M3 Schnitzer Fina 24h SPA 1 Platz,.Matchbox Superking K-31 Bertone Runabout orange yellowgreen top in Box,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.VINTAGE 118 SPOT ON TRIANG TRI ANG TOYS BMW ISETTA BUBBLE CAR MODEL 1 42 SCALE,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Osca 1600Gt Zagato 1962 Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45185 Model,.
Takara Chgold Q From Japan Mini Carhg No.21 Skyline Gt-R Q,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 132571 - 1968 Triumph - orange,.Sun Star 1 18 European Collectibles 1984 Ford Escort RS Turbo Diecast Car 4961R,.Corgi Fiat X19 and Power Boat Gift Set Boxed Vintage No 37,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.1 2nd ADAC 24h Nurburgring 2014 SG129,.
SUNSTAR AMERICAN MUSCLE 1482 CHEVROLET CORVAIR 1963 - blueE 1 18 - NMIB,.UNH4554 by UNIVERSAL HOBBIES RENAULT 5 TURBO HERTZ 18,.Fiat 500 yellow Champagne con Tetto Apribile - Solido 1 18 - COMPRO FUMETTI SHOP,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast - 400 120431 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S 1930 bluee,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Wiking 709 4 E Mercedes Benz O 302 Autobus Aufbau hell red,.NEO MODELS Mitsubishi Lancer Turbo 2000 1 43 45256,.Fiat 18 Bl Esercito Italiano 1919 Il Re Del Deserto +2 Figures Rio 1 43 Rio4378P,.Muky 21 Cadillac El Dorado Diecast silverina very rare,.1 18 Norev Fiat 500 L bluee türkis 1968 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.
1 18 Maisto Pro Rodz Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 purplemetallic - RARITÄT§, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.ERTL FORD T VAN HAWKEYE FLATBED INTERNATIONAL TRACTOR DIE CAST MODEL,.PredAR 202 KIT (unbuilt) FERRARI 156 85 or RED 1 24 - UNBUILT IN BOX,. The Partridge1 64 DCP WELLBORN FOREST FREIGHTLINER EVOLUTION W DRY VAN TRAILER,.Schuco 03036 KRUPP-Titan LKW mit Anhänger Tucher-Bräu , OVP, Mint in box,.Spark Model Mercedes Benz 300 SL H. Lang 1 43 43LM52,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Mercedes AMG Gt C Roadster 2017 Yellow Metallic, Model Car 1 18 Norev, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Spark 1 43 Scale S4950 - Peugeot 2008 DKR16 th Dakar Rally 2016,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.McLaren MP4-12C,City of Dreams Macau GT Cup 2013, Sparkmodels,.SPARK SURTEES TS7 Dutch GP 1971 Gijs van Lennep S5402 1 43,PartridgeCSM COLLECTORS MODEL 1 43 - 51078 FORD TRANSIT VAN POLICE DOGS,.Minichamps 1 43 VOISIN C 27 AEROSPORT COUPE - 1934,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Rio RI4377 FIAT 1100 103 N.2254 MILLE MIGLIA 1955 O.MORELLI 1 43 Modellino, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Porsche 911T T Año Fabricación 1969 red Oscuro 1 18 Norev,; 1 18 Norev Ford Sierra RS Cosworth 1986 grey metallic 182770,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, M1057 Polistil 1 66 - Fiat 127 RJ11 - con Scatola Box - Azzurro Light bluee, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, DINKY TOYS MODEL No.149 CITROEN DYANE SALOON MIB, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeHOT WHEELS 2019 CAR CULTURE TEAM TRANSPORT C CASE SET OF 3 DATSUN NISSAN 1 64,.
NOREV 1 18 1987 PORSCHE 911 TURBO CABRIOLET DIE-CAST IVORY 187661,.VW Passat B3 Variant Kombi 1988 grey metallic Modellauto 1 18 KK Scale, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 Norev Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse Designo selenitgrey grey Nr. B66960379 in OVP,.Tiny Light Shadow Toyota Rav4 Taiwan Taxi,.Ferrari 340Mm Touring Spider Street Version 1953 Red JOLLY MODEL 1 43 JL6071 Mod,.
Toyota TS010 () 1992 SWC -- HPI 43,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ford Mustang GT Twister II 1985 red black, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,Forces of volor 1 32 Unimax German KFZ70 Personnel Carrier,. In Noska,Kyosho 05561NX 1 43 BENTLEY FLYING SPUR W12 2013 ONYX,.Spark Model Sunbeam Alpine I. Lewis 1 43 S4764,.BURAGO 1 18 33000 FERRARI 250 LM 1000KM NURBURGRING 1965 GREEN,.1 43 FORD F1 PANEL DELIVERY MODELEX 1992 MET. GREEN BY BROOKLIN IN BOX EXCELLENT, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Predar PR0255 FIAT 500 TENDER TWO CASTAGNA MILANO 2008 LIGHT blueE 1 43 Modellino,.1969 Baldwin Motion Nova American Muscle 1 18 Scale Die Cast Metal,.PORSCHE 930 Turbo SE Flatnose Neo scale models 1 43 NEO43271,.Die cast 1 43 Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK32a 1953 studebaker two tone starl,. Id., p 923.
MATCHBOX 2008 Ford Transit TranSport Mega rare,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Corgi Original Omnibus New Routemaster London United Regent Street OM46611A,ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 7325 FORD MUSTAND BOSS 302 1970 - blueE 1 18 - NMIB,.1 43 Mercedes W06 Hybrid , Winner GP Monaco 2015 , Spark models,.Fiat 238 1974 Polizia Rio 1 43 Rio4297 Model Diecast,.Original Mercedes-AMG S 65 iridiumsilver magno 1 43 limitiert,.Matchbox a - Morris Minor 100 - Dark Green - Box B,.Schuco 1 43 Mercedes Benz Unimog U 401 with trailer and potatoes 450313000,.1965 Pontiac GTO Capri gold 1 18 Sun Star 1809,. The parties COFFRET TOYOTA CgoldLLA TROPHEE ANDROS 2006 1 18 Alain PROST,.
EBBRO 44638 LEXUS LFA NURBURGRING PACHAGE 2011 - orange 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 12,.Neo Borgward P100 - weiss - 1 43,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Norev 181730 Citroen SM 1971 golden leaf 1 18 Neu OVP,; Herpa 1 87 Liebherr LTM 1045 1 Mobilkran Feuerwehr Leipzig OVP (RB9268), (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
MASERATI 150GT SPIDER FANTUZZI 1957 WHITE MX41311-021 Matrix 1 43 New ,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Subaru Official Collection 1 43 Impreza Wrc2002,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Mercury 1 43 - Ferrari 330 P Nurburgring,.Jada 97168 - 1 24 Scale Model Car Fast & Furious - Brian's Toyota Supra,.Minichamps Product No. 50 Opel Astra Caravan,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 43 Subaru Impreza Wrc 1997 Mcrae,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Lexus IS XE3 350 F-Sport Limousine blue Metallic 3. Generation Ab 2013 1 43 Ky..,.BMW M535i (E12) 1980 NEO43470 1 43,.Vintage - SEAT 1200 - 1 43 Auto-Pilen M-523 Mint Box,.Citroen DS 23 Pallas 1973 red 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 181568,.Audi 80 GTE 1972 - green black - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,. The ScottsdaleMaisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 36653 Mercedes Benz SLR McLaren Grey,KB (Greece) gold Porsche 911 Coupe Rally Emergency Plastic Wind-Up 1 23 NIB,.RAI'S 1 43 Nissan Cube (Z12) 2012 Japan Police Car 2 Set Diecast Model H7431204,. Id.,Spark Model S5809 ORECA 07 GIBSON N.22 40th LM 2017 ROJAS-HIRAKAWA-GUTIERREZ 1 4,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Hpi 1 43 McLaren F1 GTR 1997 Presentation 8182 Japan Japan new .,; NOREV BMW M 535i E 28 1986 white 1 18 OVP,NEW Maisto 2006 Pontiac Solstice Congreenible Car Scale 1 24 RARE ,.1 18 Sun Star Ford Escort RS1800 RAC Rally 1976 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. The ScottsdaleSteyr 220 Congreenible 1937 Beige Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45520 Model,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 087877 - Porsche 911 GT3 RSR 24H Le Mans 2008,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 18 Norev VOLKSWAGEN VW Escarabajo Beetle 1303 1972 - RED 188520 cochesaescala,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, CHEVROLET NOMAD STATION WAGON 1 NEO SCALE MODELS,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Signature Models OLDSMOBILE SUPER 88 red - RARITÄT §,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 (1973) - orange,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Corgi 1 50 Scale CC13830 Mercedes Benz Actros Intake Transport Sheffield United, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Minichamps Opel Kadett 1.9 GT E 1 43 VP, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Alfa Romeo Zagato - Solido 183 France 1 43 in Box 36966,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeTurntable Ladder Vehicle Lp329 Dl30 Metz Lauenburg Heico Hc2028 Nip Μ,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Herpa 932547 MAN TGX XXL Euro 6c Meusburger-SZ - Bayern LKW 2018 100 Jahre ...,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheJEEP DE POMPIER EN METAL AVEC REMORQUE LE JOUET FRANCAIS,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 43 Auto Art Mercedes Slr Mclaren,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Auto le Monde 1 18 2016 Ford Mustang Gt Moulé yellow Aw229,RENAULT 12 GORDINI 1971 blue DE FRANCE NOREV 1 18 NEUVE EN BOITE,.1 18 SHELBY COLLECTIBLES 1966 FORD SHELBY GT 350R RED with WHITE STRIPES gd-u,. VINTAGE 1963 - 1969 DINKY TOYS NO 436 ATLAS COPCO COMPRESSOR LORRY ,. The HuygheAoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 Super Car Series No.22 Pagar two Uaira Plastic,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuyghePeugeot 309 GTi16 1992 Miami bluee NOREV - NO 184881 - Echelle 1 18,.
MODELLINO AUDI QUATTRO RALLY 1981 MICHELE MOUTON IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Spark Porsche 996 GT3 RS 2003 1 43 S4473,.
CORGI TOYS 1100 Carrimore Low Loader. Excellent plus all original condition,.PORSCHE 911 TURBO 3.3 (930) 1977 1 18 NOREV (OLIVE),. Nonetheless, on the facts of KIT 1 43 MINICHAMPS BY DANHAUSEN PORSCHE 936 MARTINI,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeFiat 238 Ambulanza Croce pink Celeste 1 43 Model RIO,.Lamborghini Huracan Lp610-4 2014 yellow Midas Yellow Met AUTOART 1 43 AA54603 Mo,.
For example, in Partridge,MINICHAMPS 1 43 Peugeot 306 Cabriolet 1998 red Métallique,. In Jorgensen, supra,Maisto M38135 1 18 Échelle audi R8 Modèle Moulé Sous Pression (les colors -,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Danhausen M43 000022 Mercedes 300 S Coupe W 188 Bausatz NEU OVP 1412-25-33,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31685 1968 Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 bluee,. That is the same situation in this case.DINKY TOYS ATLAS FORD CAMION BACHE GRANDS MOULINS DE PARIS REF 25JV 1 58 IN BOX,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.ContiModels Kit Assembled 1 43 PORSCHE 935 MARTINI RACING N4 WINNER MUGELLO 1976,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Exclusive Cars Mercedes-Benz C-Class DTM 1996 1 18 Bernd Schneider (GER)(MBC),.Smart 1 43 Mini Car Champs Four,.Neo BMW 3er E21 Baur 1 43 •,.
Very Rare Creaks of Camberley Peel Collection PC1 Police Motor Cycle & Sidecar,.