1 100 KC-135A KC-135A KC-135A STRATOTANKER 1 100 1fde31

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1 100 KC-135A KC-135A KC-135A STRATOTANKER 1 100 1fde31
Trumpeter 1 700 USS YORKTOWN CV-5,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Gemini Jets 1 400 United Boeing 747-400 747 Farewell - N121UA GJUAL1741,.BigBird 1 400 JAL Japan Airlines Boeing 747-300 (BB4-2002-011) ZINC red,.Revell 6640 AIRBUS A 380 DEMONSTRATOR KIT 1 288 Modellino,.HOBBY MASTER HA5601 1 72 MIG-25P Foxbat Red 31 Russian AF Chuguyevka AB Japan,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.SUPERMARINE SWIFT FR5 F7. RESINA POLIURETANO 1 48.,.WIKING Flugzeug - E 2+ - Supermarine Spitfire IX,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.DRAGON 1 72 SCALE 50034 F A-18C HORNET USN VFA-25 FIST OF THE FLEET (U21),.Phoenix 1 400 Etihad Airbus A340-500 A6-EHD Die-cast Model Plane,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.XG058 HOBBY CRAFT 1 48 maquette avion HC1605 WWII German Night fighter Ju-88C,.Corgi Aviation 47107 Douglas DC3 Air Atlantique 1st Issue,.Rare Franklin Mint 1 24 1933 Ford Deluxe John Dillinger, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Corgi AA32603 1 72 Avro Lancaster B.1 No 44 Rhodesia Sqn RAF 1942,.Inflight 200 IF13700517P BOEING EC-137D SENTRY USAF 71-1408 PredOTYPE in 1 200,.Atlas Editions 1 1250 Scale Diecast Model Ship 7 134 133 - HMS Renown,.DINKY 358 Star Trek Enterprise Paramount 1976,.

BOMBARDIER SAVOIA MARCHETTI SM 79 SPARVIERO ITALY 1 144 SECOND WORLD WAR BOMBER,.Aeroclassics 1 400 Canadian Airlines Boeing 747-400 C-FBCA (ACCFBCA) Model Plane,.North American Airlines B-767-300ER (N765NA), 1 200 HOGAN,.GI Joe Rise of the Cobra Night Raven with Air Viper Sealed Plus Free Commander,.Aeroclassics 1 400 Jetstar Airbus A320-200 VH-JQW (ACVHJQW) Die-Cast Model Plane,.

Dinky Toys Sea King Helicopter No.724 in original box,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.HASEGAWA 1 400 L5X 2400 BOEING 777-200 ALL NIPPON AIRWAYS AIRPLANE BOXED,.Delta Air Lines 1 150 Airbus A320-200 SkyMarks SKR519 Flugzeug Modell A320,.DeAgostini WW2 Aircraft Collection Vo60 fighter 1 72 Nakajima B6N Tenzan w Trac ,Gemini Jets Select GSSKC018 Skymaster Cargo Boeing 707 B C 1 400 Scale Diecast,.Hasegawa 1 32 F-104J Starfighter 204 Sq. 20th,.

Herpa Wings 019149, Spur N 1 160 , Junkers Ju 52 3m Amicale Jean Baptiste,.INFLIGHT 200 IF7221014 Boeing 727-2J0 ADV AIR JAMAICA 6Y-JMN WITH STAND 1 200,.Star Trek MEGA XL Edition USS Enterprise 1701-D 8.5 Model with Magazine by E,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Revel Fiat G 91 R3 1 72,.

JFOX JFA330002 1 200 LUFTHANSA AIRBUS A330-343 D-AIKJ W STAND ONLY 72 PCS MADE,. We agree in part.

OXFORD AVIATION 72DR011 - 1 72 SCALE DH DRAGON RAPIDE ZK-AHS MOKAI-NAC MODEL,.HA3838 F-16D Singapore Air Force 20th Anniversary ,Hobbymaster 1 72, NEU&,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Phoenix 1 400 Boeing 777-200LR House color - N60659 ,.Mig-21R scale 1 48 263rd Independiente Reconocimiento Escuadrón,Kabul Airbase,.Indian Air Force Boeing C-17 CB-8003 Gemini Jets GMINF065 Scale 1 400,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Gemini Jets 1 400 American Airlines Boeing 737-800 N915NN 'AirCal' (GJAAL1515),.Herpa 1 500 Scale Diecast 508599 Airbus A330-200 MEA F-OMEC,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Hobby Master HA7209 Grumman F9F-5 Panther Vice Versa VF-111 USS Lake Champlain,; 1 72 Hurricane 1B - W9220, 880 NAS, Sub Lt. R.J.Cork,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Vintage plane Toy Ancien avion biplan en bois miniature - Origine inconnue,.British Airways Boeing 777-300ER 1 200 Flugzeug Modell NEU B777 Fahrwerk Gear,BOEING 787-8 ROYAL BRUNEI Airlines 1 400 Hogan Wings 5385 787 V8-DLA,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 16 Big tank series No.12 U.S. Forces M1A2 Abrams Tank Display model Tamiya,.

1 72 CF-104 Starfighter CAF No.421 Sqn, CFB Baden-Sollingen, Germany,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.INFLIGHT 200 IFDC8630918 1 200 THAI AIRWAYS INTERNATIONAL DC-8-63 HS-TGZ W STAND,.Messerschmitt Bf 109 E3 ( 1 48 Tamiya ),.Special Hobby Piaggio P 108 1 72 Sealed Decals Regia Aereonautica Sigillato,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, UNITED B737-800(S) N14237 GJUAL1796 1 400,; New JALUX 1 500 B737-400 Jinbei jet BJE3022 finished model JPN Japan new .,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Albatros D. V - Germany 1917 - 1 72 Job Lot and More,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Boeing 747-200 Olympic SX-OAC ,Inflight 200,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Revell 1 24 Shelby Mustang Gt 350 H,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

JC Wings 1 200 EVA Air Airbus A330-300 B-16333 Hello Kitty - Sanrio (XX2155),

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Aviation 72 AV7227003 1 72 Short Tucano RAF Flying School ZF141,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Gemini Aces North American P-51B Mustang Ferocious Frankie Bottisham GAUSA2005,.Gemini Jets ALASKA Q400 REG N438QX 1 400 GJASA1760,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Herpa 556040-001 British Airways Airbus A380,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.INFLIGHT 200 APA REPUBLICA DOMINICANA AIRLINES L-1011-50 IF0110411B MIB,.

CORGI 1 72 AA99127 WORLD WAR 2 BLITZ HEINKEL HE 111H3 MESSERSCHMITT SPITFIRE,.AeroClassics 1 400 Viasa Venezuela Douglas DC-10-30 YV-134C Rare 1980’s colors,.Airplane Model F8F Bearcat Secret 1 144,.Japanese WW2 Diecast Fighter Aircraft Airplane Model 1 72 Mitsubishi Ki46 USED,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Dragon Wings 1 400 Qantas Boeing 747-400 VH-OEB OneWorld (55573) Model Plane,.

IF722009 - Inflight - Boeing 727-200 - Braniff International - 1 200,.J-10 JET FIGHTER AIRCRAFT MODEL KIT 1 60 SCALE,.HOBBY MASTER 1 72 HA5205 Grumman F-14AM 160347, IRIAF, 2014 MIB,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 72 World War II US Army P-51B Mustang Fighter Model,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Gemini Jets FEDEX Airbus A300-600F REG N683FE 1 200 G2FDX750,.Asiana Airlines - Airbus A330-300 - 1 200 - Hogan Wings Modell NA330,.Corgi Aviation AA32513 - Ju 87R-2 Stuka, Collectors Club 2007 Captive Eagle 11,.INFLIGHT 200 IF7070112A 1 200 707-300 PIA CARGO AP-AXG,.1 400 Phoenix A380 ANA JA383A,.

GJ 400 scale diecast model Delta Boeing 757-232 Commercial Airliner, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Aeroclassics 1 400 Qantaslink Airbus A320-200 VH-VQS (ACVHVQS) Qantas Die-Cast,.AH-64D Longbow Apache Elicottero Helicopter Plastic Kit 1 48 Model 2748 ITALERI,. The PartridgeRaf SE5A Aircraft Plastic Kit 1 24 Model MERIT MODEL,.ITALERI 1 72 KIT AEREO CANT Z 506 AIRONE CON DECALS 6 VERSIONI ART 1360,.Oxford Diecast 1 72 Scale 72DR003 - D.H.89 Dragon Rapide G-AGJG,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Metal Model Airplane Aircraft 1 Military Fighter US Vintage AirForce 32 USAF 48, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Herpa Wings 1 200 Airbus A 321 Condor 557689,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Wingnut Wings 1 32 Fokker E.IV Progetto Modello Monoplano Aeroplano,.1 48 P-51B C Mustang - Signature Version Kitten, Col. Charles McGee,Partridge1 200 C-17 (CC-177) Globemaster III Transport Aircraft Model US Air Force,.Rs Models 1 72 Velocità Envoy con Ghepardo Motore,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, HOBBY MASTER HA7850 1 48 Spitfire Vb RF-D 303 Polish Sqdn RAF S Ldr. Jan Zumbach, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Herpa Wings 1 200 Antonov AN-24B Lot Polish Airlines SP-LTZ 556699,; A-6e Intruder Fighter 1 48 Plastic Model Kit HOBBY BOSS,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Swiss A330-300 (HB-JHA) 1 200, JFox MODELS , (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, US T-38C Talon II Fighter Plastic Kit 1 48 Model TRUMPETER, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeAirbus A340 600 2001 Lufthansa DieCast Scale Model 1 500 France Germany UK Spain,.

bluee Box BBOX 1 400 UPS United Parcel Service Airbus A300-600F N126UP,.1 72 C-27J 1 72 SPARTAN, Clarke's negligent act.CORGI AVIATION 1 48 SCALE MODEL BILLY BISHOP SE5,.Corgi AA33420 Westland Sea King 2011 Flown By Prince William LIMITED EDITION,.UNITED B747-400 1 100 2009 LIVERY,.

Rs Models 1 72 Dornier Do 17e,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Hobbymaster 1 72 Scale Diecast HA1427 Douglas A-4 Skyhawk MIG-17 Killer 1967,Phoenix 1 400 Capital Airlines Airbus A330-200 B-8221 (PH11314) Model Plane,. In Noska,Herpa Wings 1 200 Airbus A400M Royal Malaysian Air Force 557764,.Russian Mig-31 Foxhound Kit HOBBY BOSS KIT 1 48 HB81753 Model,.1 200 Pan American Airways Douglas DC-4 N88886, Clipper Mandarin , 1950s,.Wiking Flugzeug 1 200 England E 2+ Spitfire 9 green-grey 40er Jahre, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Japan Land And Navy Aircraft Encyclopedia Airplane Body only No pedestal,.NEW 1 400 AEROCLASSICS CONTINENTAL AIRLINES DOUGLAS DC-6 N90960 Model ACN90960,.Plastic Model Airplane Lindbark 1 48 Curtis Jenny,.MODELLISMO TRUMPETER KIT MODELLINO AEREO FW200 C-4 CONDOR 1 72,. Id., p 923.

Hobbyboss 1 35 Sovietico Ss-23 Spider Tactical Ballistico Missile,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Airfix AX5129 HAWKER HURRICANE Mk.I TROPICAL KIT 1 48 Modellino,1 500 Herpa Wing 504447 Air New Zealand Boeing 767-300 Lord of the Rings Aragorn,.Gemini Jets Airplane Model Air Do,.Dragon Wings Royal Australian Air Force A330 Aerial Tanker Diecast Model 1 400,.JFOX JFA330003 1 200 SWISS AIRBUS A330-300 HB-JHA WITH STAND,.A-6E Tram Intruder Hobby Boss Kit 1 48 HB81710 Model,.Corgi AA31507 Pioneers of Aviation Bristol Britannia SRS.314 Canadian Pacific,.Panavia Tornado GR.4 ZA461, RAF No.15 squadron, lossiemouth, special centenary,. The parties B-24 D Liberator WWII World War II Christmas Ornament Airplane USAF Hare Power,.

Ana 1 200 Mrj90 Flight Tester Military Airplane,.ICM Hs 126A-1 WWIIGerman Reconnaissance plane Modellino da Costruire,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Antique Wyandotte Pressed Steel Toy Airplane Vintage 1930's all original,; 1 32 CORGI AVIATION HAWKER SEA HURRICANE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Oxford models Twin Beech FT996-811-HF 728 Squadron RNAS Hal Far Malta 1948,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Vintage Antique Plastic Toy Airplane Martin B-26 Marauder Hubley 1946 RARE,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Siku Plastik 1 250 Siku Flugzeug F5a De Havilland Comet 4 BOAC OVP,.Herpa Wings 1 500 Boeing 747-400 Air India VT-EVA 531849 Modellairport500,.WLTK Soviet Air Forces Tupolev Tu-95 Heavy Bomber 1 144 Diecast Model,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Corgi 1 72 AA37610 Westland Wessex HC.2 XV721 H RAF 72 Sqn SEE DESCRIPTION ,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Tamiya MITSUBISHI A6M5 ZERO FIGHTER ZEKE Scatola di Montaggio,.Plaaf J-10s Viggoldus Dragon Fighter 1 48 Plastic Model Kit TRUMPETER,.Aviation72 1 72 Fairey Gannet AS.Mk 4 RNFAA XG831 NAS Culdpink AV72-52003,.Marushin 1 48 Shiden kai Normal Local Area Fighter Semifinished Model Japan,.Franklin Mint Mig-17 Fresco 1 48 B11E762 Bulgarian Camo,. The ScottsdaleDragon Wings A340-300 Virgin Atlantic Military Airplane,AA38306 Dr.I Triplane 1 48 Model Friedrich 'Fritz' Kempf 213 17,.Lufthansa A380 D-AIMA Gemini Jets 1 400 GJDLH653 Rare Sold Out,. Id.,Space 1999 Vintage Gerry Andersons Die-Cast Green Eagle Transporter Dinky Toy,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, AV7253002 1 72 DH SEA VIXEN TARGET TUG XS587 RAE LLANBEDR 1984 WITH STAND,; Usaaf B-29 Old Blatter Kit ACADEMY 1 72 ACD12517 Model,JCW-72-F15-006 F-15J Eagle 1 72 Model JASDF 201st Hikotai,.Hobby Master 0193 MiG-21 BIS 1st Fighter Sqn Croatian Air Force 1 72 Scale Model,. The ScottsdaleNICE LARGE VINTAGE KATZ TOYS BIG BOY MONOPLANE PLANE,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, MODELLISMO TRUMPETR KIT MONTAGGIO AEREO J-7C J-7D FIGHTER 1 48,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Asiana Airlines Airbus A321-200 1 200 Hogan Wings Modell 0588 Flugzeug A321,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Atlas edition,THE DEFEAT OF GERMANY.HAWKER TEMPEST & MESSERSCHMITT. SCALE 1 72,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 200 US Air Force C-17 Global Overlord c17 transport aircraft Fighter Model,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Corgi AA36805 Westland Lysander Mk.II No.13 Sqn RAF 1939. MINT CONDITION,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 350 Pan American World Airways, Yankee Clipper , Boeing Clipper 1938, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, JC Wings 1 400 Comac C919 B-001C Bare Metal Engine 4103, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 400 A330-300 VH-QPJ Qantas,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeHerpa Wings 1 200 Bombardier CS300 AirBaltic YL-CSB 558457-001,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 400 A310-300 OE-LAA Austrian Airlines,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDelta Boeing 777-200LR N703DN Gemini Jets G2DAL513 Scale 1 200,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.CORGI AVIATION 48603 1 144 Bristol Britannia Monarch Airlines G-AOVH,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,DRAGON WINGS 1 400 PREMIERE COLLECTION AIRBUS A380 CORPORATE ROLL OUT VERSION,HA1037 CF-104 Starfighter 1 72 Model RCAF No.421 Sqn,.Gemini Jets 1 200 Scale Interjet Airbus A320-200(S) XA-FUA G2AIJ551,.Japanese WW2 Diecast Fighter Aircraft Airplane Model 1 72 Nakajima C6N1 Saiun,. The HuygheXN136 HASEGAWA 1 48 maquette avion 09164 JT104-2200 Swiss Air Force Bf109E-3,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSchuco 3557621 AIRBUS A320 LTU H.BSC BERLIN 1 500,.

Herpa 1 500 Alaska Airbus A321neo 531894,.Corgi AA28005 Messerschmitt Bf 109E-4 Wilhelm Balthasar 1. JG.1 France 1 72 1940,.

AVIATION200 Trans International TIA McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 N102TV 1 200,.Vintage Dinky toys 702 D.H. Airliner BOAC with box,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Aeroclassics 1 400 Ansett NT Fokker F-28 VH-FKF (ACVHFKF) Die-Cast Model Plane,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeINFLIGHT 200 IF742SUD1017 1 200 KLM B747-200 ANTHONY H. G. FOKKER PH-BUN W STD,.Varig Log MD-11F PR-LGE JC Wings LH2VRG124 LH2124 Scale 1 200,.

For example, in Partridge,Dragon 400 IBERWORLD A330-200,. In Jorgensen, supra,Atlas Editions 1 32 Scale Diecast 7 517 002 - 1947 Hanomag R 40,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Rare Japan Airlines B777-300 One World Paint Jet 1 400 Model,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Herpa HP611152 AIRBUS A380 EMIRATES PARIS ST.GERMAING 1 250 Modellino,. That is the same situation in this case.Dragon Wings 55203 Airbus Industrie A300-608ST Beluga Premiere Collection 1 400,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.SCOTT NELLES Vega Dreamin' Bronze,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Skymarks Delta Boeing 777-200lr 1 200 On Wood Stand W Gear SKR5009,.Herpa 511469 American Airlines Boeing 737-800 1 500 Scale Diecast Mint 1999,.1 400 Air Force One USAF B747-81 38000 Gemini Diecast Display Model,.

Seattle Model Aircraft (SMA) 1 400 ANA Boeing 737-200 JA8454 (SMA040104),.