Fiat Abarth 750 Zagato 1958 Prova Prova Prova red Red Best 1 43 Be9484 Model Diecast b53ccb

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Fiat Abarth 750 Zagato 1958  Prova Prova Prova  red Red Best 1 43 Be9484 Model Diecast b53ccb
1 43 Biante Holden VF II Commodore V8 Supercar 1972 Bathurst Winner Retro Livery,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Bburago B18-26017 1 24 Scale Race And Play Of The Ferrari 458 Spider Sports C...,.UT Models 1 18 Scale; 1995 Ferrari 355 Berlinetta; Red; Excellent Boxed,.Eligor Renault 370 Turboleader + trailer Lambert in White on 1 43 in Box,.Structo Auto Haul Car Carrier,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Ferrari 512BB 1976 Red 9258 1 43 Best Model Made ,.1970's PLAYART FASTWHEELS Diecast BATMOBILE Model in Repro Batman Window Box [a],. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Vitesse VE29514 MORRIS COOPER RALLY MONTE CARLO n.66 Modellino,.VITESSE CITY 1 43 CV001C - VOLKSWAGEN VW BULLI VAN 1955 - RUBY RED,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 87 Herpa MB Actros Rigterink SUZI WAN Kühlkoffer Sattelzug 149457,.Corgi 10103 Premium editions. ERF V, 8 wheel dropside lorry, Ken Thomas LTD ,.Jim Henson Muppets Kermit the Frog 28 Plush Posable Toy by Nanco , Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Mercedes Benz Sprinter Animal Transporter including 1 Horse 02533 (c),.Car Miniature Porsche 959 1 43 Passionauto09,.Lamborghini Huracan LP610-4 2014 green metallic Modellauto 1 18 Welly,.Nissan GT-R 2015 45th Anniversary gold Ed. 1 43 PremiumX neu & OVP PRD516,.

Mercedes Benz Slk 2004 1 43 Minichamps 400033131 Modellino Diecast,.Franklin Mint Bugatti Type 41 Royale 1927 Replica 1 43 New Other B14PW07,.Oxford Diecast 1 43 Scale 43JUP001 - Jowett Jupiter SA - British Racing Green,.Selten Sam Toys Milano Renault Etoile Filante Record Car MIB 1 43 ,.PORSCHE 718 RS60 KERGUEN LACAZE 24h LE MANS 1960 43060653 Minichamps 1 43 New ,.

Peach State Motorsports Larry Pearson Transport 1 64 Scale DieCast,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Redline Hotwheels Purple 1969 Ford Woody,.MAN TGX Rudolph Logistik Gruppe 34225 Baunatal --70 JAHRE Rudolph Megaliner,.New World First Bus - 20044 - Dennis Dragon Duple Metsec - St John - 1 76,1965 Pontiac GTO Hurs Edition Granate 1 18 Maisto 31885,.LENNOX LIVE • 1963 VOLKSWAGEN T1 BUS DIE CAST METAL REPLICA ADULT COLLECTIBLE,.

Estanciera IKA Service 1965 1 43 Diecast sealed sold exclusive in silverina w Ma,.FERRARI 312 P Sport 1000 KM BUENOS AIRES 1971 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,.1 43 SCALE DIECAST USSR MADE MODEL CAR MOSKVICH MOSKVITCH 2141 - POLICE CAR,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Yonezawa Toys Diapet Subaru Leone in bluee on 1 40,.

Opel Kadett D 1979 Brown Minichamps 400044100 1 43 Modellino Diecast,. We agree in part.

Chrono 1 18 Lotus Elise GT1 1997 Die-Cast Car In Box,.Corgi Classics 007 Lotus Esprit In Box See Pictures Collected Only Unused,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 18 WARTBURG 353 - Limousine Sedan - 1985 _ Yellow yellow _ MCG IXO NEU OVP,.Collectors Classics 3 20636 Mercury 1954 Monterey perfect mint in box 1 43,.Maisto 1 18 Nr. 36874 Humvee Militär green in OVP (A1316),." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Hot Wheels Dropstars 124 Ferrari 360 Spider (Red) G7136 - NEW,.Jolly-model 1 43 - Maserati 200 G.P. Bean 1956 LimEd,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Maisto MI32521R FORD F-150 RAPTOR 2017 RED 1 24 Modellino,; IMAI B-1114 KIT SUBARU REX COMBI - 1 20 - VG IN BOX,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Warehouse Find Dinky Toys 271 Ford Transit Fire original box plinth UNUSED ,.Porsche 911 Speedster 1988 - 1 43 - Minichamps,Mercedes C-Klasse DTM, No.10, DTM, 1 43, Minichamps,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.GT-R 2009 1 18 Scale Diecast Car Model Die Cast Cars Models Miniature,.

Provence Moulage 1 43 Scale Resin K952 - 1995 Alfa Romeo GTV Spyder,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Lion Car Daf 2000 Hendrix bulkwagen in near mint all orignal condition,.Reve Collection R70183 Lotus 99T Japan GP Ayrton Senna 43,.Solido GAM 1 1 43 FORD ESCORT Model Car MIB`75 RARE,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 43 Matrix-Scale-Models Citroen Bijou groen Light Green 1960,; BUGATTI 57S 1936 90 Brumm blue 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1999 NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R (R34) MILLENNIUM JADE 1 18 MODEL BY GREENLIGHT 19033,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Ford Mustang 350 GT 1965 - 1 18 Jouef Evolution - no BBR CMC Kyosho Spark,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1 43 CORGI TOYS- MERCEDES 300 SL ROADSTER- SPUTAFUOCO,MEBETOYS - made in ENGLAND,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

BMW M1 Street bluee 1978 430025024 1 43 Minichamps,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Ford Sierra Cosworth 1 43 Auriol Ocelli,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Karmann Ghia Coupe,1 24, silver, Paul’s Model Art Classic Line,.Citroen C4 Cactus 2014, olive brown, NOREV 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Ford Mondeo Saloon 1997 Red Minichamps 430086301 1 43 Model,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.MAISTO 1 18 SCALE 2007 LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO SUPERLEGERRO MODEL BN 31149MOR,.

1 76 DENNIS ARROW SLF SOUTHEND TRANSPORT E29807,.DINKY TOYS MINI MORRIS TRAVELLER 1 43,.Burago Signature Series 1 18 Scale Diecast Model 18-16903 Ferrari 458 Speciale,.DIE CAST COLLECTIBLE 1961 Chrysler Imperial Crown WHITE 1 18,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Alfa Romeo Giulietta Polizia 50 Ann.Autostrada Del Sole 1 43 RIO1964-1 Model,.

Schuco 1 43 450256800 VW Brezelkäfer Sommer '51 weinred NEU OVP,.Matchbox RW 55B Ford Fairlane Police Car bluemetallic,.Corgi Junior No 45 Starsky & Hutch Ford Torino - (UNOPENED Original 1976),.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, (G) dinky SAAB 96 - 156,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Corgi Toys 336 Toyota James Bond original lapel badge in mint condition 1,.Siku 1070 BMW 735 iL - 2081-13,.Bentley Continental Supersport Congreenible ISR 2010 White 1 18 11035W BBURAGO,.Minichamps Opel V8 Coupé DTM 2004 1 43 Taxi Race Taxi ,.PHILLIPS 66 FORD FUEL TANKER FIRST GEAR,.

Hot Wheels Leo Mattel India Ford Escort in bluee with box, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Porsche 911 RSR 2.8 SOLIDO - SO 1801108 - Echelle 1 18 NEWS NOVEMBRE 2018,. BMW 328 Roadster Mille Miglia Sieger winner 1938, Fane James ; 1 43 ,. The PartridgeOpel Rekord C coupe 1966 bluee met Minichamps 430046120 MIB 1 43 kadett VERY RARE,.Minichamps 1 43 - Lamborghini 400 GT 2+2 orange,.Porsche 911 Gt3 1999 bluee Metallic Minichamps 430068009 1 43 Modellino,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car WAP 020 097 14 - Porsche 911 GT3 Cup, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.SPARK 1 43 - SCMG05 MG-LOLA EX 257 LE MANS 2002 REID HUGHES KAYNE,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Schuco 1 43 450345500 Borgward B2500 Messerschmitt-Ser siehe Foto m.O (WM2567),.Minichamps 436139991 1 43 BENTLEY CONTINENTAL SC 1996 RED METALLIC LIMITED EDITI,PartridgeIXO PALMA 1 43 Lamborghini Countach Safety Car 1983 Monaco GP 1 Japan new.,.MONTEVERDI HAI 450SS AUTO PILEN 1 43 MADE IN SPAIN ULTRA RARE,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, RIO 1 43 MADE IN ITALY AUTO DIE CAST FIAT 128 1969 DUE PORTE white ART. 4205, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Mercedes Benz 300 SL W 198 Gullwing 1954-57 Red Red 1 43,; Schuco 450143700 piccolo Porsche No. 1 Weihnachten 2018,Neu in OVP,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Schuco 450333800 VW T2a Westfalia-Pritsche + 2 Seifenkisten 1 43 NEU in OVP , (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Ford Escort Twin Cam , weiss, MINICHAMPS 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1988 88 Ford Mustang 5.0 Fox Body Collectible 1 64 Scale Diecast Diorama Model,.

GREENLIGHT HOT PURSUIT 1965 FORD GALAXIE INDIANA STATE POLICE NEW ,.EDDIE STOBART HEAVY HAULAGE CORGI SCANIA 6x2 TRACTOR UNIT, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 Citroen DS 21 Rally Monte Carlo 1966 P.Toivonen Ixo Altaya Neuf Boite,.Siku Super 3935 Mercedes-Benz Actros LKW mit Windkraftanlage 1 50,.FERRARI 166 COUPE ALBERTO ASCARI ART MODEL ART AB9954 1 43,.

1 18 Solido Citroen Acadiane Michelin S1800406,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Man F2000 Chrome Tank Sattelaufliefer 1994-2007 Yellow 1 43 Jmv,ERTL 1 18 1970 PONTIAC TRANS AM,. In Noska,American Muscle 1 18 Chevrolet Bel Air 1955 ertl,.MATCHBOX SUPERFAST No.18 HONDARORA 'RARE' CHROME FORKS MIB,.Soviet car Russobalt c24-40,1 43 scale,made in ussr,.1 18 MOTORMAX - 1969 Pontiac GTO Judge white - RARITÄT neu OVP , necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.VW Volkswagen Transporter T1 ASG Transport Spedition - Vitesse 1 43 Box 34415,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 - BENTLEY MULSANNE 2010 - 436 139900,.MINICHAMPS - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 GT2 RS - 2018 - 410067226,.Luftfederventil für Anhänger,Luftfederung Trailer LKW p.f. Wabco 4640060020,. Id., p 923.

Jada 1 24 Scale Metal Car 99068 JDM Tuners -2002 Honda NSX Type R Japan Spec Red,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 2001 Honda S2000 Congreenible F20C VTEC blue 1 18 Maisto 31879,FORD TAUNUS TURNIER 1970 orange 71 MINICHAMPS 400081311 1 43 EDITION LIMITEE,.Porsche 917L Hippie n°3 Martini 24h Le Mans 1970 sc. 1 43 Minichamps (400706103),.Vintage Tonka T-9 Mighty Tonka Bulldozer 70’s,.20805 Scania R730 4-Achser mit Abrollmulde, hohe Bordwand, red, EMEK 1 25, NEU&,.Original Mercedes-Benz Model Car V Class Navy bluee, Norev, 1 43,.MATCHBOX SUPERFAST PONTIAC FIREBIRD, CHAMPAGNE gold, EXCELLENT, BOXED,.Sd.Kfz.6 2 3.7cm FlaK36 auf Fz.5t (Early Late) BRONCO 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,. The parties 1 55 Siku Car With Trailer & Sportscar - 155 Porsche 2544 Scale,.

1 43 Ixo Büssing Senator Hamburg HHV Bus 57,.MATCHBOX K-3 BEDFORD GRAIN TRANSPORTER KELLOGG's - WHITE 1 50 - GOOD IN BOX,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Hot wheels treasure hunt 2019 69 chevelle and sting rod,; MAJORETTE Approx 1 18 (1 21 Scale) - 4411 SHELBY COBRA (1964) RACING, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Fly A653 Ferrari 365 GTB 4 Daytona Nuevo 1 32 Slot Car 1972 Le Mans Andruet Lena,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Agatsuma Diapet Diamond pet DK-5108 1 43 scale Large Auto Carrier Car import JP,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)ALFA ROMEO 2000 SPYDER DUETTO - 1 43 BUILT (da kit Provence Moulage),.Corgi Toys Number 100, Dropside Trailer and Original Box.,.57 Chevy Hot Wheels Redline Premium Resto- Spoiler Conversion Red,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,IXO 1 43 CAMION SCANIA 141 1956 CITERNE,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.RARE Lotus Esprit S1 The Bond Collection Minichamps 135220 1 43,.869P Herpa Scania R 09 Sattelzug Stelzl 17 Nr.928670 in OVP,.IDF MERKAVA Mk.IV HOBBY BOSS 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,.CORGI 50'S TWO TONE CAR & FIGURE CHASSIS ART COLLECTION 1500 LIMITED EDITION TOY,.Vitesse 1 43 Scale 36230 - 1959 Chevrolet Impala Open Conv - Harbor bluee,. The ScottsdaleBrumm BM0376-01 FIAT NUOVA 500 AMERICA 1958 APERTA CELESTE 1 43 UPD Modellino,Matchbox Lesney 25 Volkswagen Beetle GPW in perfect mint condition,.Intercars 1 43 Scale Vintage Diecast - NC1C Mercedes Benz 280 S bluee,. Id.,Minichamps Panasonic Toyota Racing F1 Presentation 1 43 Cristiano da Matta,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 2001 BMW X5 blue Metalizado 1 18 Motor Max 73105,; SPARK SB073 AUDI R8 LMS Ultra n°3 3ème 24H SPA 2014 500 pcs 1.43,Classic Carlectables 18302 2007 BRITEK MOTORSPORT BF Falcon - Alan Gurr,.1 87 Herpa Renault AE Linea directa Neumeister 036795,. The ScottsdaleChevrolet Nova 1963 gold metallic, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 1 43 - Porsche 934 - Eberhard Sindel - 300 km Nürburgring - EGT 1976,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Maisto 1 18 Harley Davidson Collectibles (Series 5) 3 Bike Set NIB,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 AUTOart No Reserve DeLorean Gullwing Coupe,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Dodge 600 Congreenible red met 1984 NEO 44995 1 43,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale Model Car B11KE17 - 1950 Ford Woody Wagon - Green,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1975 Hot Wheels 12 Car Collector's Case (1), (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Heco Models Kit Assembled 1 43 - Lamborghini Diablo Yellow, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Corgi Toys 265 Superman Supermobile In Excellent Condition In Working Order,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeFERRARI 500 F2 SWITZERLAND GP 1953 ASCARI ELITE T6275 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Ixo model FER006 FERRARI 512 BB LM N.71 PIONEER 1 43 Modellino,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheAoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 The Best Car GT Series No.01-SP AWS210 Crown Hybrid R,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Magirus Deutz Mercur Tlf 16 Volunteer Fire Brigade Pfaffenhofen 1 43 Nip B2 Μ,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,MERCEDES BENZ 500 SEC W126 AMG SPA 1989 AUTOart black 1 43,BBURAGO - 1 18 - FERRARI 488 GTB - THE GREEN JEWEL - 2016 - 76101,.RIETZE 67720 BVG MAN Lions City DL 100 plott and print Maßstab 1 87 - OVP,.ERTL 1968 CHEVROLET CORVETTE C3 Coupe 50th Anniv Canary Yellow 1 18 Diecast Car,. The HuygheMinichamps Porsche 996 911 Targa 1 43 Dealer Item,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMinichamps Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 3.0 Kelleners Heyer Wollek 1 43 Vitrine,.

Minicar Plus n° 01 007 Peugeot 404 1973 1 43 neuf en boite boxed,.MAISTO 1 18 SCALE MERCEDES-BENZ GLK-CLASS MODEL BN 36200R,.

HOT WHEELS 2009 FASTER THAN EVER 2008 LANCER EVOLUTION 10 FACTORY SEALED,.Corgi 22706 Bedford TK Guinness Box Lorry Ltd Edition No. 0002 of 5700,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Neo Lancia Flaminia 3C Coupe Speciale White 1 43 46995,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeRed Friction Toy Car Occupied Japan Pressed metal,.Toyota TF104 J.Trulli 2004 400040216 1 43 Minichamps,.

For example, in Partridge,Fiat 501 Sport 1919-1926 green 1 43 Rio Rio4266 Model Diecast,. In Jorgensen, supra,Bh42-0, 5 x Praline Revell H0 1 87 Car Midget + MB + Cadillac+Chevy etc. ,,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Hot Wheels LDC92548PU DODGE CgoldNET 1970 PURPLE 1 18 Modellino,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,AV178-0, 5 x Wiking H0 Mercedes MB 280-282 etc. Barg + Thermo Comfort , VG,. That is the same situation in this case.Lot 41 Loose Diecast Toy Cars Hot Wheels Tonka Matchbox and Masto,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.PORSCHE 914 6 SONAUTO CLASS WINNERS LM 1970 400706540 Minichamps 1 43 New OVP,. Detroit Edison, supra.

1 18 BBURAGO DIE CAST MODEL -WILLIAMS FW14 - EXTREMELY RARE - NEW NIB 6108,.Norscot 55209 Cat D9t Bulldozer with Ripper 1 87,.[First43 1 43] Toyota Celsior 2001 White F43-063,.

Matchbox Yesteryear Model A van OTOOS in cream Limited Edition 300 tampo code 3,.