Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1 18 BBR FERRARI F430 METALLIC CHARCOAL GREY 1 OF 1008 , NEW , HE 180019,.AUTOart 1 18 BAC mono metallic red finished product,.Original Porsche 911 Keramik Modell 1970er Jahre sehr selten 33cm BURKART Kunst,.1960s Corgi GS3 Batmobile and Batboat Gift Set complete original Superb models,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.VERY RARE ATLAS 1604ZW “ETF” RAILWAY EXCAVATOR VINCI CONSTRUCTION 1 50 CONRAD,.MASERATI 300 1956 CMC red 1 18,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.NZG - METALLMODELL - EDER 835 - MOBILBAGGER - 1 50,.Carousel 1 Gary Bettenhausen race car Indy 500 Penske McLaren M16 B offy,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Apex Replicas BOXED holden Efijy Soprano Purple 1 43 001,.FRENCH Dinky 24A Chrysler 'New Yorker'. Lemon. Very Near-MINT Boxed. 1950's,.Liebherr LTM 1250-5.1 Mobilkran Dornseiff green red 1 50 NZG, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
O&K MH 2 BAGGER TIEFLÖFFEL WEISS NZG 1 50,.Aston Martin V12 Vantage Bathurst 1 18 81507,.LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP610-4 BIANCO ICARUS METALLIC WHITE 1 18 BY AUTOART 74602,.Hot Wheels Redline 1973 bluee Street Snorter,.
1 Rolls Royce Vintage Antique Car 24 Dream 43 Classic Concept 12 Exotic 18,.Greenlight GREEN18003 CADILLAC s&s 1966 HIGH TOP AMBULANCE RED WHITE 1 18,.Spark 1981 Lancia Beta Monte Carlo Martini Racing Le Mans 1 18SEALED BOX ,.OTTO MOBILE Mercedes 300 (C124) CE 6.0 (The Hammer) Wide Body Grey 1 18 LE 500pc,.BBR - 1 18 - FERRARI 208 GTS TURBO - 1983 - P18142A,.
Caterpillar 416B NZG 3782 Modell 1 50 OVP Baggerlader mit Hammer,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.LOTE 8 CAMIONES BOMBEROS ESPAÑA 1 43 DESCATALOGADOS,.1 18 Joblot Model Cars + 2 1 18 Trailers All Mint In Boxes ,.Modellino Ferrari 330 GT 2+2 1965 Twin headlight red BBR Models,Dinky Toys 942 Foden 14 Ton Tanker REGENT Near Mint Boxed all Original,.1 300 1 18 BBR Ferrari FF 2011 Red Maranello,.
CMC Mercedes-Benz 300SL (W 194) Panamericana, 1952 1 18 M-023,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 180 716924 - Porsche 917 20 Pink Pig LM 1971 Dirty Version,.20 cars kyosho Nissan Skyline GT-R minicar,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Hot Wheels Redline Classic Cord magenta Collectors Quality Condition,.
Autoart 76291 - 1 18 Mercedes Maybach S-Klasse S600 V12 Biturbo - Matt White,. We agree in part.
Ignition Model IG1422 1 43 Nissan Datsun Fairlady Z car S30 Red from Japan F S,.Exoto 1 18 SET OF 2 1988 Silk Cut Jaguar XJR-9 LM + Spare Le Mans Chassis,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 18 Minichamps 1970 Maserati Indy (RED) Limited Edition 1 von 999 - RARITÄT ,.Bugatti EB Veyron 16.4 Sang black - 1 18 by Auto Art,.Top Speed PAGANI ZONDA red DUBAI RED BLK 1 18 TS0098 NewLast One ,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; CASE WX 185SR Mobilbagger scale 1 87,.ABC 220 MASERATI 5000GT G.. AGNELLI - CH. N°AM103.008 - 1958,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Ferrari F40 Barchetta Spider Beurlys First Step 1992 MG MODEL 1 18 FR118033,; USA Models 1 43 1955 CADILLAC COUPE DE VILLE Red & White USA-7 RARE New,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
WELLY 1986 FORD MUSTANG SVO COUPE WHITE 1 18 w DISPLAY CASE DOUBLE SPOILER,.1 18 AB Models Toyota FT-1 Concept car in Baby bluee on Alcantara Base,Audi RS6 Variant 1 18 Quattro GmbH nagelneu daytonagrey matt,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 18 Nissan Skyline R34 Gt-R Z-Tune,.
Highway 61 '09 PLYMOUTH PRIMMS CUDA AAR Hemi 6.1 Concept 1 18 NEW F S,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Corgi Heavy Haulage No 17902 Scammell Contractor Sunter Bros VNMB,.MOTORART 13798 CASE 1021F FRONT LOADING SHOVEL 1 50 SCALE (DEALER BOX),.Joal 263 1 50 Liebherr Radlader 564 B4139,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 148 - 1937 Rover P-2 6 Light - Grey,; Super Rare 1 43 BBR Ferrari F1-2022 GP San Mariono 2002 Winner Schumacher BG233,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, LOT 32525 Norscot CAT 988H Wheel Loader Radlader Die-Cast-Modell 1 64 NEU OVP,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
BBR Ferrari LaFerrari OPEN Matt white a 1 18 P1867OPENMAW Limited 16pcs.,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
EXOTO 1 18 PORSCHE 934 RSR STANDOX LAGUNA SECA SKY comme neuve,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Auto Art Gateway AA81343 MC LAREN 12C GT3 AZZURRO ARANCIONE 1 18 Modellino,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Exoto XS 1 18 '58 Ferrari Dino 246 F1 Enzo, Mike & The Paparazzi Diorama,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Fiat 642 N65r Transporter Door Car 2 Axles - 1 43 Gila Models (Elite Models),.( GOK ) 1 18 AUTOart Pagani Zonda Revolucion WHITE NEU OVP,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.AUTOart LP700-4 Pink Lamborghini Aventador 1 18 Scale AlloyModel Japan F S J9150,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Tamiya 1 6 Motorcycle Series No.01 Honda Dream CB 750 FOUR Plastic Model 16001,.
GMTS - goldEN OLDIES LINIE 50 8301 Berna 5VM mit schwerem Tieflader 1 50,.KYOSHO Ferrari F40 1 10 Radio control Model kit Unused Vintage Rare From JAPAN,.BBR Ferrari 488 GTE 2015 Ferrari Red 88pcs 1 18 P18122New SOLD OUT AT BBR ,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 530 133639 McLaren GTR Team Bigazzi Le Mans 1996,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Danbury Mint 1939 FORD DELUXE COUPE LE (of 5000)- NMIB TITLE- EXTREMELY RARE ,.
1967 Ford V 8 Race Car 1 Vintage Racer GP 24 F 40 Indy 500 GT 18 Sport Midget 12,.Kibri 16100 Spur H0, ROBEL Bullok-Gleiskraftwagen 54.22 NEU + OVP,.2009 1 18 Scale 1 18 Minichamps Bugatti Veyron Top Gear Limited Edition 601 Rare,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 AB Models McLaren 650 S LB Performance Liberty walk Matte orange,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Ampersand indy cars 1984 March 84C AJ Foyt JR Gilmore Indianapolis 500 Model,.Vintage Dinky Toys MIB Morris Oxford Saloon No. 159,.Extremely Rare 1996 MATCHBOX BASE NHL Zamboni Ice Makers New Mint in Mint Box,.8789 Kyosho 1 18 Lancia Delta HF Integrale Evoluzione Evo ll White W Mint,.Faenza 43 Models 1 43 1953 Ferrari 166 MM Dolomiti Giovanni Bracco,.
Model_kits LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR LP750-4 SV METALLIC orange 1 18 SCALE 74557 SB, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Schuco Nautico Elektro Luxus Yacht 5551 sehr selten F2,.Volkswagen VW T1 Feuerwehr Berlin 1 18 Model SCHUCO,. The PartridgePORSCHE 911 RS 2.7 SET W COMPUTER MOUSE & USB & PAD LIMITED OVP,.1 8 Scale Pocher ‘70s Original Vintage Version K70 Model Kit, Fiat 130hp “Grand,.1 18 AB Models Ferrari 365 GT4 BB from 1977 LeMans Alcantara Base,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Minichamps-2010-BMW-M3-GT2-26-24h-Nurburgring-Werner-Muller-Priaulx . 1 18 limit, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Buddy L Boat Hauler Spring Suspension Very Nice Original,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.RARE VW IROC SCIROCCO R 2.0T 2009 VIPER GREEN CONCEPT 1 43 NOREV (DEALER MODEL),.VW T1 Wedding Bus (1962) Diecast Model Car H5085,PartridgeDinkum Classics 1 43 Perkins Hansford Holden VP Commodore 1993 Bathurst Winner,.Kyosho 1 18 Gtb 328 Ferrari,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, O&K D 23.2 Muldenkipper von NZG 301 in 1 50, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, AUTOart 1 18 ASTON MARTIN VANQUISH S,; Danbury Mint James Bond Aston Martin DB5 goldfinger Spy Car 1 24 + Display Case,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Honda S800 OTAKI 1 12e, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 18 KYOSHO 08181R FERRARI 308GTB 1976 RED NEW, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeRevell Audi TT Roadster 1 18 - Extremely rare,.
KYOSHO SAMURAI 1 18 Nissan GT-R (orange) Japan New F S,.Ignition model 1 18 Mazda Savanna (S124A) White IG0704 From Japan F S, Clarke's negligent act.FIAT 690 N1 Portaruspe 4 Assi -1 43 CB Modelli ( Gila Modelli - Elite Models ).,.Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 73203 Honda S2000 LHD White,.1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Huracan LB Performance Bianco Monocerus Liberty Walk,.
1 18 ASTON MARTIN VANQUISH 2015 Die Cast Model gold,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, WSI13-1005 - SCANIA R143 - 1 50,JOAL 360 Mercedes Actros Artic with Box Air Cargo Trailer 1 50th Scale New Boxed,. In Noska,AJ784 CORGI TOYS GIFT SET 3 BATMAN ET BATMOBILE + BATBOAT BON ETAT,.1 18 AUTOart - 1964 Porsche 911 red - KULT - RARITÄT ,.Ferrari 275 GTB4 Met Nocciola 1 18 - CARS1815 BBR,.Vintage Chevrolet G10 Van 1974, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 12 Prem.classixx Mini Knigthsbridge Mk6 Sienne,.Tecnomodel TMD1869A LANCIA AURELIA B20 N.26 4th CARR.MEXICO PANAM.1952 MAGLIOLI-,.Hanomag 70 E Radlader von Conrad 2425 1 50,.1 18 Autoart Jaguar E-Type Roadster Series I 3.8 - Series 1 - Green,. Id., p 923.
Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 013B - 1935 Dodge Van CTCS 1982 1 Of 250 Beige,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, WSI07-1013 - SCANIA R 143 Porteur 3 Essieux avec remorque 2 Essieux DANEXIL PAD,BBR. 1 43. Audi A4 1995. Camp Superturismo. REF BG75 NEW Diecast Model,.Mclaren Mp4-12C Gt3 Street 2013 Autoart 1 18 AA81343,.CONQUEST MODELS 1 43 Nr 2 - 1960 CHEVROLET IMPALA CONgreenIBLE - ROMAN RED,.O&K RH 6 PMS Kettenbagger von NZG 334 1 50,.1 18 Lamborghini Murcielago Liberty Walk LB Performance Pink Carbon BBR or MR,.Modellino Bentley Continental GT V8 S grey Scuro Satinato BBR Models,.100066020 MINICHAMPS 1 18 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RS F MODEL NEW IN BOX,. The parties Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM3 - 1952 Bristol 401 1 Of 600 Metallic Green,.
AUTOART 1 18 - 73500 JAGUAR C-TYPE ROAD VERSION BRITISH RACING GREEN,.Minichamps 1996 Bentley Continental T Red Metallic LE of 999 1 18 Scale New ,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, USA Models 1 43 1954 CHEVY BEL AIR FOUR DOOR Brown & Tan USA-5 RARE New,; Opel Gt j Junior Yellow 1 12 Model PREMIUM CLASSIXXS, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Lamborghini Avendator S 2017 blue Autoart 1 18 NEU OVP,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ferrari FF (2011) scala 1 18 Hot Wheels serie Super Elite. Very Rare ,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)DCP Supercar, 1965 Plymouth, AWB California Flash 18 scale diecast mod. car,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 180 862951 BMW M1 Procar ADAC 1000Km 1986,.AUTOart Toyota 2000GT White Wire Spoke Wheel ver. 1 18 Model Car,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 18 MR Collection Lamborghini Huracan Liberty Walk LB Performance Baby bluee V2,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.CORGI SAMPLE AHRENS FOX PISTON PUMPER FAME HOSE COMPANY PA US52607 1 50 SCALE,.Mini-Champs 1 43 Mclaren Mp 4 A. Senamarubgold Specification,.JOAL 224 CAT 591 SIDE BOOM POSA TUBI SCALA 1 50,.Ebbro Reito Mola Gt-R 1 18 Scale Car,.Auto Art 1 18 Toyota 2000GT SCCA red No.33,. The ScottsdaleConrad Nzg orange Tanker 1.50 Scale Emptying Tube Canal Master Tanker Oil Rare,CMC M-036 Mercedes Benz 1954 Renntransporter Boxed 1 18 Diecast,.1974 Dodge Monaco bluees Bredhers mt. Prospect blueesmobile 1 18 ERTL 33855,. Id.,Bentley Continental Gt Speed Congreenible 2013 Red Minichamps 1 18 107139330 Mode,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Wills Finecast 1 24 Scale Metal Model Car - Lotus Racing Car - Grey Yellow,; Makeup Em380B Nissan Gt-R 2017 1 43 Scale Car,AUTOART 1 18 PAGANI HUAYRA METALLIC RED 78268 LIMITED EDITION,.WMCE 1957 PONTIAC BONNEVILLE CONV. WMCE 13,. The Scottsdalered Ferrari 643 1 8 scale WRX Model Kit Special Limited Rare,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, BBRP1873E by BBR pagani huayra Japan 2013 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; EIDOLON 1 43 GT 40 Gulf Racing Le Mans 24 h 1967 Winner No. 6,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 The Kennedy Car Scale,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MERCEDES BRABUS 600 FOR GT S 2016 red 1 18 MINICHAMPS 107032521 NEU,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Exoto 1966 Chaparral 2E Jim Hall Laguna Seca Can-Am 1 18th scale,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Corgi toys Gift set 38 'Monte Carlo' Very Near Mint Boxed, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Ferrari F50 Spider 1995 Con Vetrina With Showcase LOOKSMART 1 18 LS18FC05SB Mini, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, ATLAS MERCEDES 3-ACHS AK 130.1 CONRAD 1 50 OVP,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMARKLIN 8022 - BMW 507 Red - NMint box,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Dinky Toys 431 Guy Warrior 4-Ton Lorry. Ultra Rare Colour,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMake Up LB008A LB WORKS GT-R Type 1.5 Special Edition 2017 Limited Edition JDM,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.AUTOart TOYOTA SUPRA 05 SUPER GT CHAMPION ZENT Model Car 1 18,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,All Original DINKY TOYS France 1435 Citroen Ds Presidentielle Mint + Box,TOGI 8 65 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA GT SPRINT - GREEN 1 23 RARE - GOOD CONDITION,.DCP HWY 61 Supercar,1964 Dodge 330, HEMI ,Mr. Norm's,1 18 scale model car.,.H0 HAG 148 Re 4 4 SEZ Zweisimmen 177 1 87 AC Digital Märklin C90 Wechselstrom,. The HuygheRacing Ford 1966 GT GT40 Vintage Sport Race Car Exotic Rare 1 18 Carousel Yellow,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAutographed Auto World Dukes Hazzard 1975 Dodge Monaco 1 18 Diecast Model Police,.
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Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge2018 Hot Wheels 50th Anniversary RLC HWC Mainline Factory Sealed Set 488 of 1000,.Alfa Romeo 2600 Sz (Sprint Zagato) 1965 Lim.Pcs 70 1 18 Tecnomodel TMD1813D Mini,.
For example, in Partridge,Porsche 911r 1 18 Spark Neu Ovp Dealeredition silver green WAP 021 146 0H,. In Jorgensen, supra,Mattel Red Line Minica G&S Set Hot Wheels Goukin Very rare Mini Var Vintage Item,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Looksmart 2014 Lamborghini 5-95 by Zagato orange Met w Titane Wheels 1 18 New,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,AUTOart 1 18 Toyota Sprinter Trueno AE86 (Initial D) in white with picture box.,. That is the same situation in this case.Minichamps BMW M3 Calder WTC 1987 Ravaglia Pirro 1 18New-NOW SOLD OUT ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.DINKY TOYS 518A RENAULT 4L Renault Minicar no box very rare toys from japan 0C,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Haisutori Hi-Story 1 43 Nissan 180Sx 1996 Type X White From Japan,.1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Aventador LP 700-4 orange Argos Leather Base LS384A,.MIN117150055 SCUDERIA Tgold red RENAULT STR10 C. SAINZ JR. F1 2015 1 18,.
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