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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Redline Hotwheels orange orange orange 1969 Classic 57 Bird  oc15397 235954
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Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Coca-Cola 1938 38 Ford COE Transport Semi 1 64 Scale Linmited Edition E,.CORGI 865 MAGIC ROUNDABOUT BASIL FIGURE BOXED (C276),.1 43 Schuco Opel Speedster greenmetallic 04583,.1 43 Vitesse (Portugal) Ranault estafette Gendarmerie,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Hot Wheels Ferrari F430 Spider Dream Garage 2009 153 OH5 NO ENGINE COVER ERROR,.Alter WIKING H0 Mercedes 300 SL Cabrio mit Personen - sehr schön (a53,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Asgard Figurines F1 pour Diorama 1 43 - Team Benetton P002B,.HOT WHEELS 2006 MYSTERY CAR '55 CHEVY PANEL NEW 4 5 NEW,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.CITROEN DS 21 PALLAS 1967 NOREV greyE GREY 1 43 NEW EDITIONS ATLAS,.Ambulanza Ford E-350 Wyoming Medical Center Con Antilope BUSCH 1 87 BUS41843,.5x Roco 1 87 Feuerwehr Steyr 91 Puch 4x4 Unimog pinknbauer MB 109062, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

HOT WHEELS Redline Ford J-Car HW 1960's ,.MATCHBOX FIAT 1500 MINT IN THE BOX Pre 1970 Regular Wheels Brown Top,.Hot Wheels Red Line Club Real Riders series 10 Pink Ambulance REAL RIDERS,.SKODA ROOMSTER LUDOSPACE 2007 OCEAN blueE METAL ABREX 143AB007LJ 1 43 PRAGUE,.

CITROEN DYANE La Pause ALTAYA N7 1 43,.Vintage - CHAPARRAL 2D - 1 43 Verem - France 1970,.Ixo 1 43 Scale Metal Model CLC016 - Bentley 3 Litre Red Label Speed Model 1926,.RARE ELIGOR FORD V8 1934 US MAIL POSTS POSITION PTT REF 100200 BOX 1 43 a,.bluee Tin Vintage Flower Power Camper Van With Surf Boards Model,.

Herpa 308656 MAN TGS M E6c Winterdienst orange Maßstab 1 87 NEU °,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Wiking 1 87 H0,Mercedes L409 Rettungswagen Polizei Berlin Lechtoys Sondermodell,.Provence Moulage Kit Monté Résine 1 43 - Ferrari 348 GT red,.Norev Mini Jet 1 66 - Renault 4 4L TL red,MUSCLE CARS USA 2017 RELEASE 4B SET OF 6 CARS 1 64 BY JOHNNY LIGHTNING JLMC007-B,.FIAT DOBLO CARGO 2010 NOREV 1 43 NEUVE EN BOITE,.

IXO Donkervoort D8GTO 2013 IXO-MOC152,.Herpa H0 293884 MAN TGX XXL Koffer-Sattelzug Sped. Wandt Ostfalia Hochschule,.Panhard Dyna 212 Anno di Costruzione 1957 yellow Scala 1 87 Von Norev,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Finned 1930s Cast Race Car Number 4 Unmarked Hubley Type orange,.

Ferrari La Ferrari F150 Hybrid White 1 24 Scale Die-Cast Model Sports Car,. We agree in part.

Ixo Jeep Willys 1941 1 43 Scale Box Mini Car Display Diecast Vol 238,.HERPA WINERGY MAN 1 87 TOP&OVP,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.CADILLAC V16 CABRIOLET 1931 RIO 77 1 43,.BMW M Roadster -1 18-Ancienne collection- Burago-Neuve-24 cm+porte clé collector,.FrontiArt HO-16 Mercedes AMG GT3 2015 Resinmodell in Vitrine 1 87 H0 NEU & OVP,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; RETRO VITESSE 164 Mercedes 170 V POLIZEI 1939-49 die cast Portugal MIB OVP,.1 43 IST models Moskwitch 402 1957,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Vintage Corgi Toys. 60s. 56 Four Furrowed Plough. Boxed but no instructions,; Renault Type RM2 Reinastella 1932 Dark Red 1 43 Norev 519548,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Corgi Junior J59 RANGE ROVER Mountain Rescue MIB, 1984 Made in Great Britain,.DECAL FORD SIERRA RS COSWORTH G.EVANS ULSTER R. 1989 WINNER (08), SUPERB MINT BOXED 1983 BURAGO 1961 JAGUAR E-TYPE CABRIOLET 1 18 SCALE ,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Asgard Figurines F1 pour Diorama 1 43 - Team Benetton P001B,.

Burago Porsche 959 Die Cast 1 24,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Corgi Toys Chevrolet Corvair in near mint all original condition,.POLISTIL 1 43 REF AE 66 VINTAGE LAND ROVER MADE IN ITALY SUPERBE EN BOITE,.GABRIEL n° 4850 Ford Model A Roadster 1927 Kit métal monté 1 20,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Hot Wheels 2009 '67 Pontiac GTO COLLECTOR EDITION NEW,; 76MB010 Oxford Diecast OO Gauge Mercedes Actros Semi Low Loader JCB,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, AWM MAN TGX 18.480 Sattelzug 75 Jahre DKV Euro Service 1 87 in PC+OVP (R1_3_27),; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Citroen Saxo s1600 Rally Portugal RAM 226 New 1 43 I XO Rally MODELS,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Dragon Armor 1 72 IJN Type 2 (KA-MI) Amphibious Tank, Ormoc, Leyte 1944,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Maisto 1 24 Ferrari ENZO Diecast Assembly KIT DIY Diecast Model Car Vehicle,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

MICHELE AND DEREK TIRE BRIGADE 2 PC FIGURINE SET 1 18 MOTORHEAD MINIATURES 768,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Dale Earnhardt limited edition NASCAR Tractor and Trailer w extras,.New Motormax - 2003 Dodge Viper SRT-10 1 24 - 73776,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Corgi 59563 Renault Curtainside & Leyland Comet Flatbed With Load-GUINNESS. 1 64,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Herpa 308847 MAN TGS M Rundmulden-Sattelzug BTB Berlin H0 1 87,.

Rietze (09) Audi Quattro Spyder,.Ford Escort Ghia RED 1980s Diecast 1 24 Scale 7in Model Made in GERMANY Boxed,.Eligor 1 43 Scale Diecast Model 1043 MERCEDES BENZ 1929 LIMOUSINE 'NURBURG' RED,.2006 Dodge Challenger Concept - Maisto - 1 18 Diecast Model Car - blueE,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.DECAL RENAULT ALPINE A310 V6 JEAN PIERRE NICOLAS R. DU VAR 1981 DnF (06),.

CLE 1 48 - Renault Estafette yellow,.Johnny Lightning 1 64 2004 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution - (3) Cars Set 7127 75 76,.TROFFORD ESCORT 1600TC 1st IRELAND 1968 - WHITE 1 43 - NEAR MINT IN BOX,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Modellauto 1 43 Schuco Opel Manta A GT E silver black,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.RARE ELIGOR CITROEN TRACTION FRONT 7CV CABRIOLET HOOD 1936 GREEN DARK IN BOX,.Corgi Toys 386 Bertone Runabout Barchetta, hell-zinkyellow (WHIZZWHEELS), 1 43,.Matchbox VW Volkswagen No Matchbox treasure hunts van Mint boxed.,.AA801-0,5x Wiking H0 Feuerwehr FW-Modelle Mercedes-Benz MB + Volkswagen VW,.1 36 MAJORETTE DIECAST TOY RANGE ROVER orange WITH CARAVAN N MINT RARE SET,.

Burago - FIAT 124 SPIDER (Red) - Die Cast Model - Scale 1 24, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1 72 German Sd. Kfz. 251 1 Hanomag - Poland, 1944,.MERCEDES BENZ E-CLASS (W212) 2009 LIGHT blueE 07322 Schuco 1 43 New in a box ,. The Partridge1 43 Revell Bugatti EB 110 black 08505,.ROCO 05393 - OAF 2D50 Autocarro “POSTE AUSTRIACHE” – 1 87,.PANHARD DYNA X COMMERCIALE EVIAN -1 43 ELIGOR,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, MINICHAMPS 1 43 PORSCHE 956K TEST SESSION PAUL RICARD 1982, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Maxichamps 940066124 Porsche 924 GT Baujahr 1981 in black 1 43 NEU,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Matchbox Superfast 57B Eccles Trailer Caravan leere originale H Box,.CASCO HELMET ROSSI MOTO GP MUGELLO 2017 1 8 MINICHAMPS,PartridgeThe Dukes of Hazzard general lee dodge charger die cast toy Johnny Lighting,.1 43 IXO GTM038 ASTON MARTIN DBR9 NURBURGRING WINNER 2005,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 87 Brekina Ikarus 66 Stadtbus Mavaut Tata HU 59553, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Superb Danbury Mint ‘Ferrari-Daytona 1968’ Pewter Car 7.6cm Length. (02038),; Solido SB 1 43 - Matra V8 F1 N°173,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, MINICHAMPS 103908 MERCEDES BENZ C DTM 2010 - TEAM AMG - SCHUMACHER - 1 43 NMIB, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, DECAL CITROEN C25D ASSISTANCE CITROEN COMPETITIONS 1988 (08), (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeFord Fiesta R5 C.Cassina Winner Rally Monza 2018 1 43 Ixo RAM658,.

BMC Car Transporter & 3 X Mini Cooper..1 76 Oxford Diecast,.VINTAGE HOT WHEELS 1977 gold spiral and gold chrome gleamed patrol police, Clarke's negligent act.1982 Hot Wheels VW SUNAGON Van Camper; telescoping top MINT,.Motorhome Citroën CX Penthouse Tissier 1980 1 43 New & Box diecast model camper,.Lote de 3 camiones 1 43,.

Brekina H0 LIAZ 706 PP-Sattelzug Wernesgreener,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, PONTIAC NASCAR 1998 INTERSTATE BATTERIES SMALL SOLDIERS REVELL,Busch 51509 - 1 87 H0 IFA G5 Pritsche mit Kranaufbau und Grenzpfahl - NVA -Neu,. In Noska,DINKY TOYS 481 BEDFORD 10CWT VAN OVALTINE 1 43 - RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION,.Herpa oder AWM DAF Gardineplanen Sattelzug Egger Bier Austria (A) 1 87,.Schuco Krupp Autotransporter - Piccolo,.Dinky 1 43 Scale Diecast Model DY5-C 1950 FORD V8 PILOT FAWN, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 87 Rietze MB Citaro 15 Stadtverkehr Friedrichshafen 73441,.BV108-0,5Märklin H0 AC 1898 Oldtimer-Set Lieferwagen Post etc. NEUW; OVP,.Atlas Serie CC 7107 SNCF1952 Tram 1 87 Diecast Model,.Vanguards VA06308 - Morris Marina 1300 - Limeflower - A+ A+,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Jada 1 24 Johnny's Honda S2000 - The Fast & Furious Diecast Car,MZZ (1 160) – 3-teiliges Nutzfahrzeug-Set, Metall-Modelle,.Solido 1 18 8080 New Mini - 2001, green mit whiteem Dach,.NISSAN PRINCE SKYLINE RACING 43 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY KYOSHO 03233b,.HONDA RA272 de 1965 NEUVE SOUS EMBOITAGE,.Hanomag L28 Pritsche Plane 02921 Schuco 1 43 New in a box ,.Nissan Datsun 240 Z Graphyland 1 43,.Britbus 1 76 Scale - R906 First Capital Olympian Citybus Route. 91,. The parties Norev Toyota Celica XX (1978) 1 43,.

Maisto Mercedes-Benz CLK-DTM 2001 1 18 Uwe Alzen (GER) (MBC),.Corgi 313 GRAHAM HILL FORD CORTINA,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Matchbox Collectibles DYG03-M Studebaker golden Hawk 99% Mint model in box,; 1 50 Log Transporter - Die-Cast Vehicle - Siku 2714, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

1 43 DetailCars 235 MB 320 SL Coupe,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Two Model Scale Cars,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Herpa 309424 - MAN TGS Pressmüllwagen in red Wertz Aachen 1 87 Neuheit ,.Panhard Dyna 212 Année de Construction 1957 yellow Échelle 1 87 de Norev,.BNIB OO GAUGE OXFORD DIECAST 1 76 76KOM002 STOBART RAIL EXCAVATOR,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,9 CAR LOT 1997 PROWLER BASEBALL MATCHBOX NEW YORK YANKEES DODGERS INDIANS ANGELS,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Porsche 968 Cabriolet 1991-1995 veilchenblue metallic Minichamps 1 43,.Conrad SB 1 43 - VW Passat Variant Break,.LLEDO VINTAGE ROLLS ROYCE CAR COLLECTION - ON WOODEN PLINTH - LIMTED EDITION,.RENAULT 12 GORDINI Les Amoureux ALTAYA N7 1 43,.Corgi AN45904 - Van Hool T9 Caelloi Motors - Limited Edition 1 76 Scale,. The ScottsdaleTonka Titans Car Carrier Transporter,Brumm BMBR013 FIAT 500 RUBY 1 43,.MAISTO 1957 CHEVROLET CORVETTE MAISTO DIE CAST CAR 1 18 SCALE,. Id.,Rietze Bus Setra S 319 NF OVF Franken 1 87,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Magnaformers Cars Cruisers 32 Pieces,; 2019 JADA DC COMICS 1 24 METALS® DIE-CAST CAT WOMAN™ & 1959 CHEVY COUPE DEVILLE,IXO Barkas B1000 Police Czech Republic 1 43 IST049,.1 32 DIECAST MERCEDES BENZ Corgi 2500 TD AMBULANSCE NICE CONDITION,. The ScottsdaleFormula 1 Car Collection - Riccardo Patrese - 1979 ARROWS A1B - 1 43 Scale Model,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Ford Escort Ghia Schabak RH20010 model 1 24 scale die cast boxed West Germany,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Vanguards Triumph Dolomite Sprint Works Rally Car VA53001 1 43 Scale,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 Scale Model Land Rover Series 2a 3 Lightweight British Army Military Police,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Kovap Retro Mercedes-Benz Takelauto Blik met frictie-motor (JS),; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Volkswagen Beetle Bug 67 1 32 Scale KT.5057.DM Set of 4,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 3 LOT Hot Wheels Larry's Garage Dairy Delivery Midnight Auto Parts Realriders, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, DECAL KIT 1 24 FERRARI 308 GTB BJORN WALDEGARD RALLY SANREMO 1983 (08), (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Corgi 1.50 SCALE SCANIA 530 TRACTOR CAB Penton's Haulage of Shrewsbury NOT BOXED,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeCORGI CC12876 40 FT SHIPPING CONTAINER UBC BULK 1 50 MINT UK FREEPOST,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Greenlight 1 64 Racing Hitch Tow 2015 Ford F150 2012 Shelby GT500 Pennzoil GREEN,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1997 Chrysler Atlantic Web Car,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.SEAT 128 3P NOREV 740085 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Brumm R123 Ferrari 156 HP 200 Rennwagen Baujahr 1961, 1 43 , OVP, B319,MOTOR MAX 1 18 PAGANI HUAYRA 79160RD,.Auto World Chase Ultra Red 1975 Pontiac Firebird T A Vintage Muscle,.Herpa 746151 ATF Dingo mit FLW 100, dekoriert 1 87,. The HuygheHot Wheels 2008 Modern Classics Series '67 Shelby GT-500 bluee w OH5SPs,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheBrekina 37613 Hanomag-Hentschel F55 Schöller , Car Model 1 87 (H0),.

HOT WHEELS PORSCHE P-917 1969,.2000 Hot Wheels 1950 Merc Woodie Teal New In Box 1 18 Scale,.

Lledo, land 3 speed record cars, mint and boxed,.Citroen DS Le Dandy Coupé Henri Chapron Corgi Toys 1 43 jouet miniature ancien,. Nonetheless, on the facts of BUGATTI EB 110 RED MINICHAMPS 430 102112,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeVanguards 1 43 - Saab 96 Beige,.Ferrari 488 GTB - Inspited by the 312 P1 - (1972) scala 1 24 Le Grandi Ferrari,.

For example, in Partridge,Siku Plastik Anhänger Trailer Plane Spriegel für Opel Blitz Vintage old,. In Jorgensen, supra,BRITBUS AS2-01 AEC SWIFT 33' LONDON COUNTRY ROUTE 418, 1 76,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Herpa 307772 Man TGS M 6x6 Winterdienstfahrzeug Kommunal, Model 1 87 (H0),. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Pferdetransporter mit Zubehör, Siku Super 1 50, Art.1942 , Neuheit 2014, OVP,. That is the same situation in this case.2001 Mattel Hot Wheel Kart Maniax Stunt Pit Race Course,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Herpa 306546 - H0 MB Actros Gigaspace Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug AZ Kempen - NEU,. Detroit Edison, supra.

1 50 Man Lion's City Bus - Die-Cast Vehicle - Siku 3734,.Mitsubishi Fuso Canter camion caisson Canter avec boîte (très abîmée), 1 43,,.Bub 08500 BMW 3.5 CSL BMW MOTORSPORT WHITE,.

1978 Dinky Toys 5” GALACTIC WAR CHARIOT Die cast (No 361) VINTAGE Space 1999 TV,.