Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1971 PLYMOUTH DUSTER 340 GREEN LTD 1002 PCS 1 18 DIECAST CAR AUTOWORLD AMM1154,.Ertl 1 18 Scale Diecast - 32647 '69 AMX SS Hurst Pete's Patriot,.ALPINE CELEBRATION LE MANS A110 2016 1 18,.Vintage Minichamps Suzuki GSX-R1000 Team Alstare Suzuki Cgoldna Extra Troy Corser,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Scale model 1 18 Toyota Yaris 2008 White,.Ebbro Cirion Nismo Gt-R Lm 14 43 Scale Car,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Wonderful modelcar SAAB 99 EMS SALOON 1971 - grey metallic - 1 43 - ltd.Ed.300,.BBRC155 by BBR FERRARI 458 ITALIA 2014 43,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.GLM GLM43105901 1 43 DUESENBERG J GRABER CONgreenIBLE 1934 DARK blueE blueE,.Composite Model 1 18 Aston Martin V12 Vantage Gt3 2013 Metallic Green,.Norev 1 18 Scale diecast 182760 Aston Martin LMP1 Gulf Le Mans 2009, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
TOYOTA CELICA GT-S AUTOART PERFORMANCE 1 18 yellow 78728 COMME NEUVE §,.Burago 1 18 Ferrari 250 Gto,.Tekno 59171 DAF XF105 Spacecab - de Vries from the Netherlands,.CAT CATERPILLAR 568 LL LOG LOADER W OPERATOR 1 50 MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 85922,.
Anson 1 18 Scale Diecast A30317-W Lotus Super Seven Green Yellow Caterham 1973,.GT Spirit 1 18 Porsche 911 2.8 RSR White Red very beautiful ,.WSI 01-1705 Tranex DAF XF Super Space + Curtaineside Trailer,.Matchbox No.63B Freeway Gas Tanker Burmah rare label variation,.Mugen Honda Civic Type R Baujahr 2017 Milano red 1 18 TrueScale,.
Wonderful NEO-modelcar STUTZ DV32 MONTE CARLO SEDAN by WEYMANN 1933 - 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Schuco 1 43 VW Beetle m. Pendant bluee,.Vintage CORGI TOYS die-cast car PLYMOUTH U.S.MAIL with box.,.CORGI SCANIA 'THOMAS HERRON' KING TRAILER & CRANE. 'HEAVY HAULAGE' Ltd Edn 12804,Scale model 1 18 1982 Chevrolet Camaro - gold,.South Carolina Highway Patrol 1 27 Scale Dodge Charger Working Lights & Siren,.
WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS28X - 1933 CADILLAC V16 CONgreenIBLE VICTORIA - DARK blueE,.1 18 GT Spirit GT039 BMW M235i. 2 Series Coupe. Red,.NZG9371 50 - Camion 8x4 MERCEDES Arocs Big Space SLT color black - 1 50,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Durham Classics 1 43 Scale DC81218X - 1941 Chevrolet Coupe - bluee,.
Illustra Models 1 43 Scale Model Car 22318Q - Aston Martin DB6 - bluee,. We agree in part.
(Gok ) 1 18 Autoart Mazda Roadster Nr-A Nip,.Porsche 911 993 Ruf Turbo R Coupe red 1993-1998 ZM 110 limitiert 1 von 504 Stü..,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Signature 1 18 Scale diecast - 18107 1949 Jaguar XK 120 Racing Green,.McLaren Mercedes MP4 16 D.Coulthard 2001 Minichamps 1 18 530011804,.NEW Revell Dune Sandworm Model kit SEALED,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 43 CHEVROLET CAMARO ZL1 COCHE DE METAL A ESCALA COLECCION DIE CAST,.The goldvarg Collection 1 43 Scale No.12 - 1951 Kaiser Henry J Metallic Lt.bluee,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, ERTL 1 16 SCALE CASE MAGNUM 340 TRACTOR MODEL BN 14915,; GRUA CLASICA POLICIA AMERICANA DE METAL A ESCALA COLECCION DIE CAST,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
BMW AC SCHNITZER ACL2 2015 green 1 18 GT SPIRIT GT146 NEU,.Fire Brigade Models 1 48 Scale - POL7 Land Rover 90 Traffic Division,Western Models 1 43 Scale Model Car WP112 - 1985 Chevrolet Camaro - Unboxed,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.FAST AND THE FURIOUS 2000 HONDA S2000 SPEED SHOP ERTL 1 18 Diecast R768K,.
2016 Porsche 911 Turbo S in orange by Minichamps Diecast Model,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM19A - 1968 Triumph Vitesse Top-Up - Red,.1962 Ferrari TR61 Le Mans Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Looksmart LSLM045,.MINICHAMPS SPIELWARENMESSE NURNBERG PORSCHE 911 GT3 RS SONDERMODELL POR000031,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Mercedes CLK icebluee scale1 18 Kyosho dealer edition new limited (real leather s,; FERRARI 488 Pista red Corsa LS488A SCALE 1 43 Looksmart,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, AUTOART 73642 JAGUAR XKR-S, ITALIAN RACING RED 1 18TH SCALE,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Voiture DELOREAN 3 Retour vers le Futur III en Métal au 1 18,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Dinky 164 Vauxhall Cresta Saloon. Grey Green. Boxed. Rare. Original 1950's,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Resin Car Model GT Spirit Mercedes-Benz G500 4x4 (White) 1 18 + SMALL GIFT ,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Norev 1 18 Scale 183451 - 2017 Mercedes AMG GT C Roadster - Met Yellow,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.2010 ASTON MARTIN V12 VANTAGE RED 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY AUTOART 70208,.Bentley Barnato Coupe1930 with Chrome plated parts - 1 43 Finished Metal Model,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.EBBRO 44445 1 43 HONDA RA272 1965 Monaco GP No.19 from Japan Model Car F S,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.KENNA MODELS 1 43 SCALE AUSTIN A70 HEREFORD CONgreenIBLE + ORIGINAL BOX,.
1 32 Le Mans Renault Alpine A442 No.8 Winner 24 Heures du Mans 1977 Car Model,.Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse W123 280TE AMG T-Modell silver 1975-1986 Nr 246 1 18 Ot..,.Otto Mobile 1980 Mercedes Benz AMG 280E W123 Saloon grey metallic 1 18 LE1500,.Burago Ferrari 312 T2 1 14 Boxed Rare,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Autoart Mazda RX-7 Savanna Green 1 18,.
Brand 430 Scuderia Secret Ferrari Minicar Collection 4,.CHEVROLET CAMARO Z28 black 1979 1 18,.Ferrari Portofino Cabriolet Closed 2017 Fuji White Pearl Met BBR 1 43 BBRC209C M,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Set Porsche 911 R (1967 2016) - 1 of 499 - Minichamps - 1 43 - 412066220,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.ACME A1801210 1972 PONTIAC LEMANS GTO 1 18 DIECAST RED with WHITE STRIPES,.MARK43 1 43 Honda NSX White finished product,.Crossway Models 1 43 Scale CM18 - Wolseley 8 Saloon Damaged - Connaught Green,.Resin Car Model GT Spirit Porsche RWB 930 Classic Kaki (Yellow) 1 18 + GIFT ,.Minichamps 1 43 - Lamborghini LM 002 1984 silver,.
The Munsters Barris Koach 1 18 Scale Auto World AW233, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Matchbox SF Nr.19A Lotus Racing Car helles purplemetallic top in Box,.Porsche 911 (996) GT3 R Daytona 24hrs 2002 GT Class Winner, 1 18 AutoArt 80273,. The PartridgeMercedes-Benz AMG GT R Coupe matt green 1 18 Norev,.13x JADA FAST & FURIOUS DIE CAST 1 24 & 1 32 SCALE NEW,.Solido 1 18 Scale Diecast 8051 - Citroen 2CV James Bond - For Your Eyes Only,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Bizarre 1 43 - Frazer Nash Sebring Nr.24 Le Mans 1957, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Lincoln Premiere Congreenible Open 1956 Starmist White Sunstar 1 18 SS4655 Model,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1973 Mercedes Benz Strich 8 280C Coupe W114 Moss Green 1 18 Sun Star 4586,.Hot Wheels Red Line and Others with Rally Case,PartridgeMercedes 24 100 140 PS Roadster 1926 Beige 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.AUTOart 76312 MERCEDES BENZ AMG GT S 1 18 MODEL CAR MATTE GREY,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Kyosho Rx-7 Fd3S Minicar Initial D, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK96 - 1931 Marmon Sixteen 4Dr Congreenible Sedan Purple,; Bespoke Model 1 43 1960 Ferrari 250 SWB Goodwood,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, McLAREN BMW GTR F1 Le Mans 1996 Bigaz Fina Piquet Cecotto Minichamps SP 1 18, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Casco Helmet J.vd Goorbergh 2001 1 2 Replica Model MINICHAMPS, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePorsche 911 Turbo 3.6 964 1993 Maritim bluee 1 43 Spark 012 100,.
Koenig Specials 512 BBI Turbo (1983) 1 18 GT Spirit GT165,.Durham 1 43 Scale DUR 26 - 1939 Ford Panel Van Illinois Disaster Relief 1990, Clarke's negligent act.Excalibur Pheaton Iii Series Cabriolet Open 1977 White NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO47195 Mo,.Shelby Cobra 427 S C, Roadster, bluemetallic, 18, Kyosho,.1 18 OTTO Peugeot 106 Rallye Gr.N Loeb 1997 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.
JAPAN 1 18 Mitsubishi Pajero Green,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Tesla 1 18 Scale Die-Cast Model S P100D - Red Model Car Broken Mirror,2006 Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano Aluminio 1 18 Hot Wheels Elite N2066,. In Noska,Matchbox RW44A Rolls Royce bluemetallic greye Plastikräder top in B Box,.Vintage Hubley Ford Sedan Hubley Hot Rod & Station Wagon made In Lancaster PA,.61pc Hot Wheels Fright Bike Race & Win Series Die Cast Chopper 2001 Mattel NOC,.Lamborghini Huracan Lp610-4 Spider Aftermarket 2015 LOOKSMART 1 43 LS470C, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.RARE DCP - FLOYD BLINSKY SHRINER'S HOSPITALS Peterbilt 379 Reefer,.Matchbox Superfast Ford Group 6 Old Lesney -Origanal Box No -45A,.Minichamps Audi Quattro Winner Rally San Remo 1981 Mouton Pons 18 LE300,.PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RS 2.7 1973 AUTOART 1 18 AA78054,. Id., p 923.
Plymouth Duster 349 1971 Green 1 18 - AMM1154 AUTOWORLD,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, ACME 1 18 1968 SHELBY GT350 SPECIAL COLOR WT 4017 RELEASE 4 A1801808 1 OF 462,Rare modele résine predotype PEUGEOT 504 1 43 Heco modeles véhicule FE,.(V) Corgi RENAULT 16 - 260,.1957 HUMBER HAWK ESTATE Brooklyn green 1 43,. GILCO TOYS 1951 BOXED TRAFFIC SIGN SET No.1 BEAUTIFULLY COLOURED MINIATURES,.Schuco Unimog U401 with boar Green 1 18 450014700,.2002 Jeep Liberty Burgundy Matchbox 1 18 50th Years Edition HTF,.Sun Star Mercedes-Benz Strich 8 ( 8 ) 280C Coupé 1 18 Metallic Green (JS),. The parties 1 43 Scale Resin Model. 1944 Citroen Traction cut in half horse drawn.,.
SunStar 1 18 Lancia Stratos HF 1977 Safari Rally 3rd place Diecast Model 4564,.ACME 1 18 1970 CHEVROLET 454 LS6 CHEVELLE LIMITED EDITION 1 OF 618 PIECES,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Alfa Romeo 1900E Fiat 110 TV Taxi Piazza S. Pietro Roma + 3 Figure 1 43 Model,; ALFA ROMEO GIULIA SUPER SW FAMILIARE AMBULANCE - CROCE ROSSA - RARE TOYS, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Audi R8 LMS Edoardo Mortara Winner Audi R8 LMS Cup 2016,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 2017 Porsche 911 GT3 Guards in Red Diecast LTD ED 299 in 1 18 Scale Minichamps,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)NEO MODELS Mercedes Benz 28 95 1922 Red Wooden opt 1 43 46171,.QSP Model Collection Terberg N-1000 1 50 Hiddink BV Winterswijk ,.MINICHAMPS SPIELWARENMESSE NURNBERG PORSCHE 918 SPYDER SONDERMODELL 413062136,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,MATCHBOX KING K-11 SIZE FORDSON TRACTOR AND FARM TRAILER,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK29 003 - 1953 Kaiser Manhattan Taxi Cab 1 Of 502,.GT-Spirit GT209 AUDI TT RS Roadster Baujahr 2016 sepangbluemetallic 1 18,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale - LDM23A 1962 Ford Consul Mk2 Congreenible - Red,.Dinky 36g Taxi with Driver, Post War, 1936-1946 Original,.Corgi CC15812 Mercedes Actros Curtainside McGawn Bros. Ltd Ed. No. 407 of 800,. The ScottsdaleEbbro Sgt300 2012 44750 Subaru Brz Rd Sport,NEO 1 43 Scale Resin NEO44995 - Dodge 600 Congreenible - Red,.Norev 2018 Mercedes Benz Sprinter Delivery Van bluee Grey 1 18 Scale New Release ,. Id.,GT Spirit GT737 Porsche 911 RWB 993 redana purplet 1 18 limited 1 1500,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Opel Kadett E 2.0 GSI BBS RS Tuningfelgen .1 18 NTuning,; Casco Agv Valentino Rossi Valencia 2005 World Champion Motogp 2005 1 2 Replica,MERCEDES BENZ 300 SL W198 RED 1955,.Witty Wings - 1 72 F-14 VF-14 RENEGADES CAMEL SMOKERS 10 90 - WTW-72009008,. The ScottsdaleRoadace Replica (Great Britain) White Lotus Elan Plaster 1 100 NIB,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1961 Corvette RED w White coves 1 18 Auto World 991,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; DINKY TOYS MECCANO BOXED DIECAST HUDSON COMMODORE SEDAN HIGHLINE No.171 1954-56,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Best Model 1 43 Ferrari 312 P Spy Prova 1969 Red,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PATHFINDER LANCESTER LD10 1951 - GREY 1 43 RARE - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 13 9,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Matchbox Corgi Job Lot,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale - LDM31X 1947 Bristol 400 - Kensington bluee, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, DINKY TOYS BEDFORD REFUSE WAGON, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, MAGIRUS DEUTZ MERKUR 150 TLF 16 Minichamps red 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeLansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM66 - 1935-36 Triumph Gloria Vitesse - Grey,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, MARKLIN HO SUPERBE COFFRET TROIS WAGONS VOYAGEURS OLDTIMER neuf boite,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheWSI Collectibles DAF XF105 SSC 8x4 Nooteboom Euro 4 Productnr 9051 Nieuw,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1960 GILCO TRAFFIC SIGN 10 PC SET W ORIGINAL BOX; EXC w GOOD BOX INSERT,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1963 Ford Galaxie 500 blueE SunStar 1466,Porsche 911 997 II Gt2 Rs 2011 White With gold Wheels 1 18 Model MINICHAMPS,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 Scale Diecast- M1200 FERRARI 599 GTB FIORANO - DARK METALLIC RED,.Model Car Group 1 18 Scale Diecast - MGC18086 Citroen CX Break Red,. The HuygheLamborghini Veneno Roadster Spider 2013 Bianco Monocerus Looksmart 1 43 LS429F M,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheCorgi 1 36 Scale Model Car & Book Set 53775 - 1959-1989 Mini,.
1970 Plymouth Trans Am AAR 'Cuda - 'Street Version' - 1 18 scale LE,.Kit OM55 Unic Assistenza Ferrari Ch. Pozzi Le Mans 1978 - Tron Models kit 1 43,.
Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 129 - Riley Kestrel - Grey,.Anson 1 18 Renault Maxi Megane bluee Exhibited,. Nonetheless, on the facts of BMW 328i 2.8 sedan Replica Toy Collector Dealer UT Promo Model Red,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeGutbrod Superior Coupe, bluee, 1 43, BoS Models,.Looksmart 1 43 Lamborghini 5-95 by Zagato in Met. orange Matt LS438A,.
For example, in Partridge,Hotwheels 1 18 F40 Ferrari,. In Jorgensen, supra,Rais Nissan Cima Hybrid Y51 14 43 Scale Car,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 43 RAI'S H7430903 Mitsubishi Pajero 2009 Piot Police car Japan,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,PORSCHE 911 Carrera RSR 2.8 Breitbau weiss white 1973 Resin GT Spirit N 18,. That is the same situation in this case.1 18 Ertl Fast & Furious 4 1970 Chevy Chevelle Ss Grey,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.2004 Hot Wheels Complete Regular Treasure Hunt Set Incl. RR Chrome Morris Wagon,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Red Line 1 43 Scale RL137 Ferrari F430 GT Scuderia Ecosse Le Mans 2007,.AMR 1 43 - Ferrari Testarossa yellow,.Schuco 1 18 BMW 850i Cabriolet red 450006800 NEU OVP,.
1 18 Otto GT Spirit Mercedes Benz ( W201) 190E Brabus 3.6S Limited to 2500 OT674,.