Brumm 1 43 Scale Metal Metal Metal Model - S018 PORSCHE 356 COUPE 1952 WHITE a17745

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Brumm 1 43 Scale Metal Metal Metal Model - S018 PORSCHE 356 COUPE 1952 WHITE a17745
Trax MINT diecast 8023 Bathurst Texaco FORD SIERRA COSWORTH 1987 model 1 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals WIKING 9902158 150 Jahre Berliner Feuerwehr 1 87 OVP ,.EFE MIDLAND GENERAL AEC RLH REGENT III WEYMANN BUS MODEL 34207 1 76,.Polistil 1 41 Scale Diecast CE119 - F1 Lotus 80 - Green,.WIKING PMS 189072 PMS Verkehrs-Modelle Post I 1 87 TOP&OVP,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Renault Koleos 2016 Purple 1 43 NOREV 518391,.Toyota FT-1 Concept Diecast Model Car JA98416,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Quartzo Tyrrell Ford 002 1971 1 43 François Cegreen (FRA) Monaco GP (LS),.Onyx 1 43 Scale - XFC99006 DALLARA F398 MANITOU D.TERRIEN,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Fiat 1100 Furgone Servizio Corse Pirelli 1950 Brumm 1 43 Diecast Limited 358 500,.Maxichamps 940050420 1 43 VW VOLKSWAGEN SCIROCCO 1974 GREEN METALLIC,.Corgi Toys Vintage - 235 Oldsmobile Super 88 gold Diecast Model Car, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 43 Norev Peugeot 305 SR 1977 light green metallic NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.CITROEN XSARA Break 1998 Quartz Grey metallic - 1 43 - NOREV,.Wiking 1 87 Scale 705 - Mercedes Benz O 305 G Genkbus - Red,.LIGIER HONDA JS 41 GP 1995 O. PANIS MINICHAMPS 1 43,.

Redline Hotwheels Olive 1969 McLaren M6A oc12713,.Corgi Toys 358 - Oldsmobile Super 88 – H.Q. Staff Car (slight damage).,.Austin Healey 100 Bn1 1957 Light bluee Metallic 1 43 Model OXFORD,.VINTAGE PRE WAR SET OF 4 METAL LEAD GREEN VICTORIAN STYLE LAMP POSTS,.DECAL AVIA FURGON SKODA RALLYE TEM MOTOKOV (01),.

MITSUBHISI PAJERO POLICE BRUNEI voiture miniature 1 43 collection vitesse 29328,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Vanguards 1 43 Scale H11002 - Ford Anglia & Austin Mini Rally Set,.Audi R8 V10 Plus Baujahr 2015 red 1 18 Maisto,.KRAZ 6322 EO-4421 USSR Excavator Nash Avtoprom 1 43 H743,LEAD MOTORBIKE VINTAGE LOOKS TO BE QUITE OLD,.Brumm SB 1 43 - Set of 3 models 1900,.

LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR J MODEL CAR 1 43 SCALE RED IXO 2012 SUPER SPORTS K8,.Schuco Opel Rekord E caravan NOTARZT 1 43 neuf en boite boxed MIN edn limitée,.Onyx 1 43 Scale 186B - F1 Benetton Ford B193B Test Car 1994 - J.Verstappen,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Volkswagen LT28 ADAC 1 43 Premium Classixxs 13303,.

Herpa Liebherr Radlader L 580 BTB Berlin 308854,. We agree in part.

Minichamp paul's model art bmw 507 1957 1 43 (f),.Porsche 911 996 GT3 1999 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34706,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.DECAL 1 18 FORD ESCORT RS 1800 MALCOLM WILSON LOMBARD RAC RALLY 1979 (04),.Busch 59910 Gespann Bulldog Lanz ,.CORGI 314 FERRARI BERLINETTA 250 LE MAND EXCELLENT LIGHT PLAYED WITH CONDITION,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; DECAL ROVER SD1 VITESSE TONY POND RAC RALLY 1984 DnF (09),.OLD LESNEY MATCHBOX PONY TRAILER ORIGINAL BOX,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, BO976-0,5x Wiking H0 1 87 FW Opel 0861 + 863 + 862 Drehleiter, TOP+OVP,; Atlas Editions 1 43 Scale 7 174 004 - F1 Ferrari F2008 2008 - Felipe Massa,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Transformers The Last Knight Barricade Jada 98400 1 24 Scale,.Ar973-0, 5 Schuco 1 43 04802 Vauxhall Astra V8 COUPE 2002 Timo Scheider, NIP,Chevy Diecast Car & Gas Pump 1958 Chevy Corvette White Motor Max 73109 1 18,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.ALFA ROMEO 156 greyE OLIEX BREAK 1 43 ITALIA GREY MILAN CARARAMA GREY GRIGGIO SW,.

Vanguards 1 43 Scale Model Car VA10405 - Hillman Avenger Avon & Somerset Police,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.REVELL Borgward Isabella Coupe 2000 km durch Deutschland , 1 18, mint,.Canon moyen Allemand sFH 18 15 cm - KIT EXTRATECH 1 72 N° EXM7231,.Ixo 1 43 - Ferrari F430 Challenge 2005,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, MORESTONE FODEN 8 WHEEL PETROL TANKER - ESSO - RED L13.6cm - GOOD CONDITION,; Herpa 184724 Renault AE 500 Siloz Geßlein Transporter OVP,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, MAISTO CHEVY FLEETMASTER 1948 sans boite 1 18,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Welly 1 32 Super Hauler Freightliner Columbia Container 32621W-BL bluee,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

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This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

JADA 98294 - 1 24 SCALE DOMS CHEVROLET FLEETLINE FAST AND FURIOUS 8 MOVIE CAR,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Hachette HC16 1 43 Scale Bus AEC Regal III Harington 1950 UK Soudley Valley,.Phänomen Granit 25 DUNLOP-Reifen 010640 Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 Limitiert 1000pcs,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.VEREM Ford MkIV Sebring 1967, 1 43, mb (OVP),. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.VANGUARDS 1 43 VA35000 FORD CLASSIC 109E GREEN WHITE,.

Atlas 1 43 Scale Die-cast metal model - Koenigsegg Agera metallic grey,.FERRARI 512BB HEURES DU MANS 1981 POZZI IXO 1 43,.1 18 1 18 REVELL AUDI TT CABRIO PROMOZIONALE AUDI - MB,.Schuco 1 43 Opel GT orange 450256700,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Matchbox Lesney No.16b Super Atlantic Trailer (RARE TAN GREY PLASTIC WHEELS),.

Subaru BRZ Coupe grey AB 2012 004586 Kit Bausatz 1 24 Aoshima Modell Auto mit ..,.ELITE HOTWHEELS FERRARI FXX DARK blueE WITH WHITE STRIPE 1 43 MODEL,.ALFA ROMEO SPIDER FULDA 2003 MINICHAMPS 1 43,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, GEMINI JETS 1 400 - GJPDM575 BOEING 767-200 ER PIEDMONT N614P,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Jaguar Xj220 1992-94 Car Miniature 1 43 Collection,.Herpa 936118 MAN TGS M Koffer LKW 3-achs Leonhard Weiss 1 87 NEU ,.Spark SDC004 Porsche 911 Turbo Baujahr 1975 in black 1 43 NEU,.Winross Those Great Freightliners Features the 50's and 60's 48' cargo,.Classic '62 Shasta Airflyte Camper Travel Trailer Christmas Ornament Vacation RV,.

Mercedes Herpa 1 43 MB CLK Scale Model Car Diecast Original Box, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.PEUGEOT 203 DECOUVRABLE CONgreenIBLE 1954 RED Bordeaux NOREV 1 43 blister BNIB,.WSI 1 87 CAMION MAN TGX TRACTX4 + SEMI-REMORQUE EXTENSIBLE H.N. KRANE ,. The Partridge1 87 Scale Diecast Caterpillar 627G Wheeled Scraper 85134 Vehicles Model Toy,.Britains 9539 Disk Mower & 9589 Vicon KM321 Grass Mower,.Matchbox Superfast No 29 Racing Mini In Original Box - Vintage 1970s,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Atlas Editions 1 43 Scale Model Bus HC17 - Isobloc 648DP, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.ASC 1 100 Scale Diecast Model 111 - Japanese Bus,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1941 WILLYS GASSER 1 18 SCALE ROAD SIGNATURE DELUXE COLLECTION by Yat Ming NIB,.BO541-0,5x Wiking H0 1 87 Drehleiter Opel Blitz FW Feuerwehr, sehr gut,PartridgeVintage Original Diecast Corgi 318 Open Top Jaguar XJS Boxed - Rare Find ,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 1997 MCLAREN MERCEDES MP4-12 DAVID COULTHARD RACE 530974310,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, KeylessOption Keyless Entry Car Remote Control Key Fob Replacement for, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CORGI TOYS 380 ALFA ROMEO PININ FARINA P33 NEUF EN BOITE D'ORIGINE très bon état,; FORD FIESTA RS WRC RALLYE MONTE CARLO 2012 H. SOLBERG IXO RAM495 1 43,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Matchbox Lesney No.27e Lamborghini Countach In Type J Box (VERY RARE BROWN BASE), (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse W124 300 E Limousine green 1984-1997 1 43 Ixo Modell Aut.., (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSolido 1 43 Scale Metal Model - SO87 CITREON LAMASILAINE 4409 'SAMARITAINE',.

Igra 98010008 Container SET 3 St. 40 ft. Hanjin, MSC, Caru H0 1 87,.First43 1 43 DAIHATSU Copen 2004 Yellow F43-065, Clarke's negligent act.E.F.E 20456 BRISTOL VR III 'FIRST EASTERN NATIONAL' ROUTE 70 BRAINTREE W997,.Russian Made Small Scale diecast - TNK Model Tank - Green,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 085100 - 1976 Ford Fiesta - Metallic gold,.

Mitsubishi Colt 1978 Red, Model Car 1 43 Minichamps,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, TRIPLE 9 COLLECTION RANGE ROVER SPORT 2014 LTD. ED. OF 600 PIECES - 1 43 SCALE,Minichamps VW T2 Bus THW Berlin-Kreuzberg 1 43 OVP,. In Noska,1 87 Brekina MB O 305 Graffiti 50730,.Ixo 1 43 Scale GTM058 CHRYSLER VIPER GTS-R WINNER 24H SPA 2002,. VINTAGE 1948 - 1954 DINKY TOYS NO 25V BEDFORD REFUSE WAGON LOT 1 ,.Whitebox BMW 2002 ti 1968 Red 1 43 MIB Ltd Ed, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.LLEDO CODE 3 FORD MODEL T VAN - DALES TOFFEE SHOP - GRASSINGTON - VERY RARE,.CITROEN TUB AMBULANCE ALTAYA 1 43,.ERTL 1 32 SCALE CASE RB565 PREMIUM ROUND BALER FIND EXTRA ROUND BN 44108,.1 76 LEYLAND OLYMPIAN SOVEREIGN BUSES E29634,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, CORGI TOYS BEDFORD TRACTOR UNIT WAMERU SUB-DISTRICT k37,Norev 150011 - 1961 Citroen 2CV 4x4 Sahara Panama yellow 1 43,.Mondo Motors 63128 - Porsche , Modell ferngesteuert Porsche 611 GT3 RS R C,.Brekina Starline 58302 Elettrico Auto Pacchetto Persil Ho Nuovo,.Atlas Editions 1 43 Scale 20219C - F1 Lotus 72D G.Britain GP 1972 Fittipaldi,.DINKY TOYS Atlas 24ZT Taxi Versailles Simca livret + certificat Neuf\blister,.Vitesse L035 Peugeot 106 Roland Garros 1993 1 43 in replacement cabinet OVP MIB,.MS 25 GDR camion citerne friction en tôle tintoy 23 cm version rare,. The parties 1 87 Brekina MAN 10.212 BayWa Kraftfutter Sattelzug 97807,.

Corgi Classics 27701 Brewery Collection, Seddon Atkinson Horse Transport Set,.Vitesse Models 1 43 Scale 113 - Chevrolet Corvette Cabriolet Hard Top - Green,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 43 Solido 1980`s Renault 5 Maxi Turbo Red,; Corgi Classics Shell and BP Leyland Elliptical Tanker 24203 Limited Edition, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

MASERATI SHAMAL 1989 1995 RED WHITEBOX WBS046 1 43 red red red LHD MODEL,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, SIKU 2309 RAM 1500 US Police 1 50 Diecast Model Toy,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 43 MINICHAMPS JAMES BOND COLLECTION 007 JAGUAR XKR ROADSTAR DIE ANOTHER DAY,.HOTWHEELS CARS-PENATS -BATMOBIL-THE JETSONS- LOT 8.,.KamA3 1 50 scale appx 53212 Russian made fuel tanker lorry KamAZ + case diecast,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 061302 Audi R8 New England GP 2006 1st McNish Capello,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Scale model 1 43 BMW 2er Coupe - white,.Citroen C1 black 1. Generation 2005-2013 1 43 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohn..,.Brekina 58807 Magirus D LF 16 TS BF München , Auto Modell 1 87 (H0),.Ford Edge red 2. Generation Ab 2015 1 43 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne indiv..,.Norev 472450 1 43 PEUGEOT 204 BREAK 1969 ANTIQUE GREEN,. The ScottsdaleMazda MX5 NA 1989-1998 yellow Cabrio 85-4432 Bausatz Kit 1 25 1 24 Revell Monogr..,DODGE Challenger T A green black Muscle Car V8 1970 IXO Premium X 1 43,.Ford Sierra Cosworth (1988) - Gendarmerie by MINICHAMPS,. Id.,1 43 Minichamps VW Käfer 1200 Export Sinalco red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Matchbox SF No.07D Rompin Rabitt white without brown side strip,; NEW Burago Porsche GT3 Strasse 1 18 Scale gold Collection Model 3357 F SHIP,Corgi OOC 1 76 Scale diecast OM40601 Leyland PS1 ECW Southdown Motor services,.BH745-0,5Wiking H0 1 87 Müllwagen Magirus 3500; 1 Tonne; 670 1 unverglast,. The ScottsdaleLaurin & Klement Combi Body Van 1 43 143ABH902LK3,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, HOTWHEELS ELITE - FERRARI 458 IITALIA - 1 43 SCALE MODEL CAR - REF P9953,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Universal Hobbies 1 43 Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Le Mans 1975,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, APEX 1 43 NISSAN Skyline GT-R Group A Racing Red AR109 Diecast Limited Edition,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Onyx 1 43 Scale Model Car 168 - Ferrari F 93 A - Jean Alesi,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Onyx 1 43 Scale Diecast Model 199 - Pacific Ilmor PR 01- Bertrand Gachot,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Kyosho Toyota GT86 Coupe in Crystal White Pearl 2016 03895CW 1 43 NEW, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, IXO ALTAYA CAMIONS D AUTREFOIS - TATRA T-148 BENNE - TCHECOSLOVAQUIE 1969 - 1 43, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, CORGI 464 COMMER POLICE VAN,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMUSCLE CARS USA 2018 RELEASE 4, SET B OF 6 CARS 1 64 JOHNNY LIGHTNING JLMC016 B,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, AUDI QUATTRO COUPE blue VITESSE 1 43,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheHerpa HO Gauge 1 87 Scale 141772 - Kassbohrer Setra - White,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 87 Herpa Scania R 2013 HL Multipli Arcese (I) Planen-SZ 304061,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Lamborghini 4000GT Flying Star II Diecast Model Car WHI507,TAMIYA 1 24 KIT IN PLASTICA AUTO FERRARI F40 100 PARTI ART 24295,.Vw Kafer Beetle 1955 Cream 1 18 Burago BU12029CR Model,.1 87 Herpa MAN F8 HAZELAAR HOLLAND Pritschen SZ,. The HuygheYonezawa Diapet Shovel Tractor Dp 2 Die-Cast Made In Japan,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheDECAL 1 18 TALBOT SUNBEAM LOTUS HENRI TOIVONEN ACROPOLIS RALLY 1981 (04),.


WELLY 1 32 W B SUPER HAULER FREIGHTLINER COLUMBIA CONTAINER 32621W-RD,.1973 Vintage Matchbox By Lesley Super Fast Monteverdi Hai Mint In Box,. Nonetheless, on the facts of LLEDO VANGUARDS VA11000 MORRIS MINOR VAN die cast model AA PATROL SERVICE 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 43 VW Volkswagen T4 Caravelle 8-Sitzer dunkelblue Schabak Modellauto,.K454-0,3x Brekina HO 4014 MB Konsum, 4801 Pepsi, 4506 MAN Südmilch, NEUW+OVP,.

For example, in Partridge,1 43 Spark Mercedes-Benz 320 Cabriolet D B6 604 0589,. In Jorgensen, supra,DECAL PEUGEOT 504 injection J.GUICHET TOUR DE CORSE 1970 16th (01),. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Citroen 2CV AZU 1959 Wegenwacht 1 43 - 151413 NOREV,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Maisto BMW M6 1 18 red metallic,. That is the same situation in this case.Maisto 1 18 Aston Martin Db7 Vantage,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Brumm Models 1 43 Scale R184 - 1928 Bentley Speed Six HP 160 Bernato - Green,. Detroit Edison, supra.


Siku 3814 MB-Reisebus Stadtrundfahrt aus 2000 - 2002 in OVP,.