Schuco Schuco Schuco SH0285 VW T1b MARTINI 1 18 a82e28

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Schuco Schuco Schuco SH0285 VW T1b MARTINI 1 18 a82e28
1 18 AUTOart MASERATI MC12 GT1 Fia Championship 2010 +kostenlos1 18 Vitrine ,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals AUTOART 1 18 ALFA ROMEO 33 TT 12 '75 NURBURGRING 1000KM WINNER,.Ig 1 18 Ignition Model Rare Item Toyota Ae86 Sprinter Torino 2Dr Gtv Watanabe,.Hot Wheels Redline Era 1972 RRRumblers Original Poster Framed 24x36,.1 18 Autoart Bugatti Veyron L'Edition Centenaire Racing Green Malcolm in OVP,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18 HIGHWAY 61 1971 CUDA SUPER STREET 528 HEMI BYC CONgreenIBLE 1 OF 40 A,.Fiat Bartoletti 306 2 Alan Mann Racing 1 18 Model NOREV,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.2014 Lewis Hamilton World Champion Mercedes Petronas F1 1 18 wFlag by Minichamps,.NORSCOT CAT 1 32 STERBEN CAST BOBCAT CAT 272C SKID STEER LADER + ZUBEHÖR 55167,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.GTA Models Minimarque 1 43 Scale Model 1929 Auburn Cabin Speedster BLK MAR,.AURORA 1 43 Dennis anti - storm water guns Hong Kong special police car model,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.30m REAR TIPPING WAGON IN TRADE BOX, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Minichamps PMA Bentley 6.5 Litre bluee Train Special Gurney Nutting Salon 1 18,.ALFA ROMEO 6C 3000 CM SANESI CARINI 1953 LE MANS 1 18 TECNOMODEL TM18-48B,.Tesla Model 3 Diecast 260mm long x113mm wide x 80mm high,.1 18 Autoart Porsche 804 F1 1962 Jo Bonnier Nurburgring mit Fahrerfigur,.

CMC 1 18 - M-018 MERCEDES BENZ W165 1939 DER GROSSE SIEGER VON TRIPOLIS,.AUTOart 1 18 Lamborghini Urakan LP 610-4 metallic red new article F S from Japan,.Schuco Oldtimer Appx 15cm Long 01161 - 1911 Renault 6 CV - bluee,.HWECMC89 by HOT WHEELS ELITE Batman Batmobil vs Superman 1 18,.AUTOart 1 18 Honda NSX NC1 2016 130R White finished product model car,.

Mattel 2007 MATCHBOX Pop Up Deluxe DRAGON CASTLE Adventure Set - RARE - NIB,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Maybach S600 (2015) Diecast Model Car 76291,.Matchbox Lesney Mokpo 45a Vauxhall Victor Ultra Rare Red Variation 100%,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Model Car 100 798600 - 1979 Ford Capri Turbo GR.5 - Red,Tekno 64813 Scania R Highline, Tipping Trailer 1 50,.Extremely Rare AutoArt 1 18 BMW 3 15 PS Teile In Eile,.

Kyosho 1 18 Scale KSR18019R Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution Final Edition Met Red,.Super Rare Out Of Print Gmp 1 18 1967 Chevrolet Camaro Z28 16,.Rare Die Model Moulding Resin Peugeot 504 1 43 Heco Model Vehicle Fe',.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Vm097H Makeup Vision 143 Mazda Roadster Nd 2017 Classic Red New,.

1 18 KYOSHO 08422R FERRARI TESTAROSSA RED - RARE ,. We agree in part.

Ferrari 330Gt 2+2 Coupe Twin Headlight 1965 Copper Met BBR 1 43 BBR257C Miniatur,.Crossway Models 1 43 Scale Model Car CM01 - Rover 75 Saloon - Connaught Green,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Schuco 1 18 Scale Diecast 45 003 3600 - Porsche 934 RSR - Vaillant,.MINICHAMPS MERCEDES-BENZ C-CLASS DTM 'PAUL G. LANG - MANAGING DIRECTOR MER000021,.Ferrari 275 Gts 4 Nart Spider 1967 Personal Car Steve Mcqueen BBR 1 18 BBR1824,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Lb Works Liberty Walk Ken Mel 1 18 Ignition Model,.Pathfinder Models 1 43 Scale PFM2 - 1956 Rover 90 Grey 1 Of 600,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, JAGUAR XK-SS 1956 crème cream 1 18 AUTOart 73512 voiture miniature de collection,; Lexus Lc500 Coupe 2016 White Pearl Met AUTOART 1 18 AA78872 Model,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Pompa Calcestruzzo Lv18-00900 Cifa K47h Betonpumpe 1 50 Model NZG,.BMW ART CAR 1 18 Frank Stella 3.0 CSL MINICHAMPS,James Bond Aston Martin DB5 1 8 EAGLEMOSS collectable model,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Exoto 1966 Corvette Grand Sport Roadster RLG18033,.

Top Marques 1 18 Scale TMPD-03C Peugeot 405 Turbo Paris Dakar Winner 1989,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.VINTAGE ITALIAN METAL CAR TOY FIAT 131 MIRAFIORI 1975 ITALY MADE POLISTIL SEE ,.Autoart 1 18 2010 Maserati MC12, FIA GT1 Championship, Heger Mueller,.1 6 BMW R75 POLICE BIG SCALE TAMIYA NEW KIT IN NEW BOX,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Matchbox Super Kings K-3 Mod Tractor Darkgreen kompletter,originaler Topzustand,; 1 18 Autoart Ford Mustang Mach I Japanese Police Car Lm.ed Rarity,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Corgi Toys no. 440 Ford Consul Cortina Super Estate Car ovp ,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Sunstar 1 24 Scale Diecast - 2911 Routemaster RM1983 ALD 983B 50Th London gold,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Autoart 1 18 Bmw 2002 Scale Car,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Bugatti T35 Germany 1 18 CMC M-100 B-005,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Ford Mustang Gt Steve Mcqueen Film Bullitt (1968) grey Scuro 1 12 Gt-Spirit,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Chrysler Norseman 1956 Minichamps 1 18 107143320 Model,.Exoto 1989 Cabin Nissan R90V + Chassis Set 1 18 BND19038,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.DIECAST MASTERS - CAT 390F L HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR - GUN METAL FINISH 1 50 SCALE,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 24 MBI 1925 FORD MODEL T DIE CAST MODEL,.

1 18 AUTOART Lamborghini Countach 25th Anniversary red +kostenlose1 18 Vitrine,.NZG 1 50 SCALE WEYCOR AW300 COMPACTER - 8001,.Tri-ang Spot on Touring Caravan,.Lexus Lc500H Structural bluee 1 43,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.AUTOart Lamborghini Lp750-4 SV 2015 Grey 1 18 74554,.

Maserati Quattroporte Detroit 2013 BBR 1 18 P1861D,.Rare Out Edition Exoto 1 18 1968 Lotus Ford 49 16 Siffert,.Exoto Porsche type 910 SCALA 1 18 MTB00062FLP,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Lamborghini Aventador S Roadster White Red orange Green bluee - Ltd 49 pc MR 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Bruder Toys Cat Vibratory Soil Compactor with levelling Blade 02451 NEW,.1 18 MR Collection Lamborghini Aventador Miura Homage orange Leather Base,.Ignition Model 1 12 Nissan Fairlady Z S30 Brown Finished Product New,.Ma Collection Résine 1 43 - pinkNGART Supertraction berline gouvernementale 1940,.1 18 EXOTO Porsche 910 Crystal Rainbow red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

Bruder Pro Series JLG 2505 Telescopic Loader 1 16, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.TEK69391 - DAF 6x4 Euro 6 XF Porteur avec Remorque 2 essieux VEENPLANT - 1 50,.Autoart Mazda MX 5 Coupe Roadster 1 18 DEEP PURPLE DEALER NEW IN DEALER BOX,. The PartridgeMINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 TURBO 1977 ARANCIO METALLIZZATO MODELLINO,.AUTOart NISSAN Fairlady Z S30 Wangan Midnight Devil Z 77451 1 18 Scale Model Car,.EBBRO EIDOLON 1 43 JIMGAINER DIXCEL DUNLOP 458 SUPER GT300 2011,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1 1970s Mustang GT Ford Sport Race Car 24 Vintage 18 Carousel Pewter 40 Model 12, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Ferrari 212 Inter Vignale Coupe 1951 Ch0135E Dark Metal blue BBR 1 43 BBR190B,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Ferrari 488 Challenge 2016 red Scuderia Red LOOKSMART 1 18 LS18-RC10C,.Makeup VISION 1 43 Porsche 930 turbo 1988 metallic dark green gold wheel finis,PartridgeBBR Serie gold BG26 1 43 Ferrari 412 T1 Brazil Grand Prix Gerhard Berger,.PORSCHE 356 A IVORY BBRC1820E SCALE 1 18 LIMITED EDITION 48 Pc.,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Mercedes Amg Gt 2014 Red 1 12 Premium Classixxs PREM40025, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Demag H 55 Kettenbagger von NZG 273 1 50,; WESTERN MODELS PredOTYPE - MERCEDES 300SL - CREAM,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, BBR 2017 Ferrari Portofino Closed Roof red CorsaLE 50pcs 1 18LONG SOLD OUT , (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Minichamps - Porsche 911 RS Rennwagen 1 43 Handmuster PreProduction - ansehen , (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeFrontiArt FA014-122 Mercedes Benz SLR McLaren Bj. 2003 Dark Green 1 18 TOP,.

'7327 NKK 43-bota Typ Polar ,.Alfa Romeo 4C Competition Red 1 1 18 70186, Clarke's negligent act.70248 Aston Martin Vanquish 2015 Bronze, 1 18 Autoart,.Caterpillar 416B NZG 378 Modell 1 50 OVP Baggerlader mit Hammer,.BBR FERRARI F430 Spider 1 18 Red,.

Mini Champs 1 43 Red Bull Scuderia Tgold red Honda STR 13 Pierre Guthrie 2018,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 24 Danbury Mint Ruby Red 1993 Corvette Coupe 40th Anniversary Limited Edition,PORSCHE 911 (997) GT3 RS orange 1 12 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY AUTOART 12117,. In Noska,Rare Mist 1 18 Mercedes-Benz 500K 1936,.Mclaren Senna 2018 Kyanos BBR 1 18 P18149E Model,.MG MODEL MG18.47A - FERRARI 212 E European Hill Climb Champ. 1969 - Cesana Sestr,.Nissan X-Trail. Set of 4 Alloy wheels and All Terrain Tyres, used VGC, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Ignition model 1 18 TAKEFUJI Porsche 962C 1989 Le Mans 24H IG1205 Red NEW,.1 18 Top Marques Lycan Hyper Sports,.AUTOart NISSAN Fairlady Z S30 Wangan Midnight Devil Z 77451 1 18 Scale Model Car,.1936 Duesenberg SJN Supercharged Congreenible Coupe bluee 1 18 Minichamps 10715033,. Id., p 923.

GP F Indy 500 1 Ford V8 Race Car 1960s Vintage Sport Racer Midget Sprint Formula,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, CASADIO REVIVAL Très rare ALFA ROMEO P3 1932 6 Roues Ferrari,Minichamps Mclaren F16Tr 1 18 Scale Car,.Kenna Models 1 43 Scale KC5918A - Austin Hereford A70 - Cream 1 Of 600,.300 Limitiert NZG 672 02 Vögele Super 800 Strassenfertiger,ooms ,Wirtgen Group,.WESTERN MODELS PredOTYPE - MERCEDES W125,.RARE MERCEDES SL 500 R231 ROADSTER SEPANG BROWN 1 43 NOREV (DEALER MODEL),.RARE Mercedes 0 303 9R Ewobus Fire Hand Made Vector Models 1 43,.1 18 Autoart TOYOTA SPRINTER TRUENO (AE86) NEW ANIMATION FILM INITIAL D LEGEND 1,. The parties NZG - METALLMODELL - CATERPILLAR CAT 12 G - MOTORGRADER - 1 50 - (8.BM-5),.

1 18 Minichamps Porsche 356 B 1600 Gs Carrera Gtl Abarth Solitude 1962 L.E1,.Super Rare Out Of Print Exoto 1 18 1987 Sauber Mercedes C9 61 Kouros,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Le Mans 1923-2010 Photo collection All cars participating in each year,; Pagani Huayra Roadster 2017 Mica Red BBR 1 18 P18148C, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]


Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Kyosho Nissan Skyline GT-R V-SPEC II BNR34 Bay-side bluee 1 43 K04011BL Limited,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Exoto + Model Plus 1949 Ferrari Barchetta Spa Winner 1 14 EBC0401B,.Matchbox Superfast No 62 Renault 17 TL Maltese Cross Wheels VNMIB MEGA RARE,.Kyosho 1 18 Scale diecast - 08216B Nissan Fairlady Z432 Tokyo Police 1970,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Russian soviet Zis 110 B + figurine Stalin USSR Paudi Models 1 43 Limit 108 pcs,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Lamborghini Huracan Performante 2017 Yellow 1 18 - 79155 AUTOART,.MRFE04F by MR COLLECTION MODELS ferrari FF 1 18,.'17 Audi RS 6 AVANT Super Treasure Hunt,.Ignition 1 18 Toyota Sprinter Trueno 3Dr. GT Apex (AE86) wit IG0536,.WSI02-1024 - Grue mobile LIEBHERR LTM 1350-6.1 6 essieux - 1 50,. The ScottsdaleWYANDOTTE EARLY BIRD MILK WAGON & HORSE SUNSHINE DAIRY(MIB)99%COMP. WITH MILK,AUTOWORLD - 1 18 diecast - CHRISTINE - 1958 Plymouth Fury DAY TIME Clear Windows,.1958 Ferrari 250 GT Coupe Red Tan 1 18,. Id.,1 64 Maisto Special Edition Red Ambulance Tinted Windows Very Rare-Early 90s-80s,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Super Rare Out Of Print Exoto 1 18 1963 Chevy Corvette Gs Roadster 65,; ABC 105 MASERATI ELDORADO 500 MIGLIA INDIANAPOLIS 1959,NZG. Case W20C Loader. 1 35 scale. 214.,.LEGO 666 Mercedes 190 SL 87 Mursten,. The ScottsdaleEidolon 1 43 Lamborghini Huracan Gt3 2015 Pearl Yellow Em339d Ing,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Autoart PORSCHE 917 TEST Version VERY RARE Conversion 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Bugatti Type 57SC Corsica Roadster 1938 - 1 18 - Minichamps,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Make Up FE013A EIDOLON 1 43 McLaren Honda MP4 4 Japan GP '88 World Champion,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mint 1 43 Mini Champs Bmw M235I Toysoul 2015 Car Toy,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Ferrari 330 LMB RHD S N 4725 SA 1 43 - CAR57C BBR,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Hotwheels Ferrari Elite ENZO RED NIB 1 18 Mattel RARE HTF HW J2919, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, ABC190B ASTON MARTIN DB2 4 SPIDER TOURING 1966( LIGHT blueE), (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, NZG Sattelzug 1 43 No 313 Überkinger,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeAUTOart 1 18 Honda NSX Type R '92 (Indy Yellow Pearl) finished product model car,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Exoto 43 1965 Shelby American Cobra Team Transporter Le Mans EXO00017B,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMinichamps 1 12 Scale Diecast 125 716603 Porsche 917K Winner Sebring 12H 1971,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Looksmart LS1808DV FERRARI 512 S N.30 ACCID.24 H DAYTONA 1970 MANFREDINI-MORETTI,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Exoto XS 1 18 1961 Ferrari Dino 156 65 Long Nose Phil Hill GPC97200,GMP 12801 1 12 1964 SHELBY COBRA DAN GURNEY & JERRY GRANT TARGA,.Pagani Huayra BC Special Version W Case,.Corgi 339 1967 Monte-Carlo B.M.C. Mini Cooper 'S'. Boxed. Original 1960's,. The HuygheVintage Gerry Andersons Captain Scarlet And The Mysterons Spectrum Patrol,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheConrad No 2888 Cat IT 28 Intergrated Tool carrier VNMB,.

Terex 2566 C Muldenkipper von Conrad 2762 1 50 OVP,.Abingdon Classics 1 43 Scale MR9 - 1931 MG C Type - Powder bluee,.

KYOSHO ORIGINAL KSR18506BL 1 18 Lamborghini Miura P 400 S bluee F S from Japan,.ABC 274 FERRARI 375 MM BERLINETTA COMPETIZIONE ch,0358AM 1953 FRANCO CORNACC,. Nonetheless, on the facts of AUTOart 1 18 Gumpert Apollo S metallic orange model car,.


For example, in Partridge,125066115 MINICHAMPS 1 12 Porsche 911 Turbo 1977 Strawberry red,. In Jorgensen, supra,VINTAGE RUSSIAN ZAZ 968A ZAPgoldZHETS 968 A USSR CCCP EARLY SOVIET S.1 43 CAR TIN,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Lamborghini Huracan Performant Spyder by MR Collection,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Pagani Huayra, metallic-grey, 1 18, AUTOart,. That is the same situation in this case.1 18 Autoart McLaren MP4-12C Metallic Red,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Super Rare Out Edition Exoto 1 18 1976 Porsche 934 Rsr Turbo Standox,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Corgi Toys 396 Datsun 240Z US Rally 99% mint in box VERY SCARCE IN blueE RARE,.Exclusive 1 12 BBR Car Model Ferrari LaFerrari 2013 Flash Pink (EMS Shipping),.1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Aventador J Geneva Motor 2012 grey Telesto Lim 15,.

MR Collection Models () Red Porsche 911 Turbo S 1992 Resin 1 43 NIB,.